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No. 1. CHARLEMAGNE, though unable to write his own name, pro- 
moted schools, arts, civilization, and was the most powerful and enter- 
prising monarch of his day. 

No. 2. JAMES BOSWELL, the celebrated biographer of Dr. Samuel 
Johnson. He resembled Johnson as a fly does an elephant, while his self- 
assurance and impudence have rarely been equalled. 

No. 3. CINGHALESE, a gentleman from the mountains of Ceylon. 
No. 4. JOHN LOCKE, a distinguished philosopher. 

No. 5. TASMANIAN, an aboriginee of Tasmania. His head does not, 
while his face does, manifest his cruel and cannibal habits. 

No. 6. LOUD BYRON, a poet of marvellous genius. 

No. 7. CASSIOS, a famous Roman general, described in Shakespeare's 
"Julius Caesar." 

No. 8. REV. ROWLAND HILL, an English clergyman. 

No. 9. LAVATER, an eloquent Swiss preacher, poet, and physiognomist. 

No. 10. PAUL I., Emperor of Russia, as his feeble face indicates, he 
was one of the weakest rulers in Europe. 



NATURE'S /,;,, fj . (| 










Complete in One Uolumc 


' In Mystic Characters, our Features bear the Motto of our Souls." SIB THOMAS BROWNE. 




129 EAST 28xn STREET. 

Entered according to act of Congress In the year 1872 by J. Slmms, M.D., In the 
office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, U. 8. A. 

Entered according to act of Parliament In the year 1872 by J. Simms, M.D., In 
Stationers' Hall, London, England. 



W~ I 



THE work here given to the public in the fruit of nearly 
twenty years' observation and study, in the course of 
which the discoveries have been made which are herein 
revealed and formed into a new system of Physiognomy, 
strictly in accordance with the anatomical structure of 
the human body. While I am convinced cf the vast 
importance of the study of Physiognomy, I am further 
persuaded that if these principles were fully understood 
and practised, the consequence would be, not only a regene- 
ration of the human beings now living in the world, but 
the generation of others far superior to those who now 
inhabit the earth, and many of whom have come upon it 
as unwelcome guests. Vice, easily detected, would hide 
its head, and gradually disappear; while the human race 
would become refined and ennobled, mentally, morally, 
and physically, by a true understanding of that which 
improves it on the one hand, and deteriorates it on the 
other. The love which I bear towards my species, my 
intense desire to see the human race what it ought to be, 
and is capable of becoming, has prompted me to give this 
publicity to these discoveries in Physiognomy. They 



include the mental, moral, and volitive dispositions of 
mankind, as manifested in the human form and counten- 
ance, together with the signs and principles of each 
faculty; and they are illustrated by two hundred and fifty 

It has been necessary to coin a number of new words 
to designate newly discovered faculties, seeing that the 
English language contained no single terms to express 
them. To Americans it is necessary also to explain that 
the work having been printed and stereotyped in Britain, 
the old style of spelling used in that country has necessarily 
been employed. 


THE large sale of the present work, which has been before the public since 
1874, has encouraged me to issue a new edition to meet the demand. 

It need scarcely be told that the physiogmonical system of Lavater, taking 
cognizance only of the facial developments and the head, is quite exploded ; 
and that phrenology, founded on the structure of the cranium according to 
Lavater' s ideas has proved fallacious. It is my undoubted claim that the 
system which I have elaborated is the only one now extant that finds any favor 
among scientific men; proceeding as it does, on the principle that the soul, 
pervading the human frame throughout, manifests itself in the face, hands, 
neck, cars, hair, voice, all parts and every habitual movement. These I have 
been observing and comparing during thirty years of travel in Europe, Asia, 
Africa, America, Great Britain, and Australasia, where I have successfully 
laboured as a lecturer and examiner of character. Many of the results are em- 
bodied in the present work ; but I have in preparation another to contain sev- 
eral new discoveries, which, however, cannot be ready for publication for two 
or more years. I am also preparing a resume of some recent discoveries respect- 
ing the human skull and its connection with the brain and the mental powers, 
the design being to correct the fallacies which have been taught by men ignorant 
of anatomy and guided by partial observations to some lucky guesses amid 
numerous mistakes. 



The term Physiognomy Earliest Conditions of the Science Its Progress- 
Greek Philosophers Roman Authors Middle Ages Authors of the 
16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries La vater Act against Physiognomists 
in George the Second's Reign Surnames taken from Physiognomical 
Peculiarities Interest Attaching to the Science Every Variation of 
Bodily Form or Colour corresponds to some Mental Characteristic 
The Variety contributes to Unity Causes of Physiological Phenomena 
Development in an Infant Effects of Various Tempers on Feature 
Physiognomy, a sure and cheap Science, slightly understood by all, 
thoroughly to few Its Benefits Importance to the Merchant -The 
Clever Shopman instinctively a Physiognomist how it leads him to 
act towards various customers Hairdressers Anecdote of a Clever 
Shopman Universal Application of the Science Evil Results from 
Ignoring it The Pleasure it Affords The Moral Results of its Culti- 
vation, . . 3-38 


Question of Human Responsibility Ancient Classification Author's Clas- 
sification and Nomenclature: Abdominal Form; Thoracic; Muscular 
and Fibrous ; Osseous or Bony; Brain and Nerve Possibility of Change 
from one to the other, 39-44 


The Facts of Nature Obvious, but the Reasons Obscure Earliest Geolo- 
gical Animals Abdominal so were the Earliest Men Characteristics of 
the Abdominal Form Its Disadvantages Anecdote Food Indisposes 
to Mental Activity How to Cultivate the Abdominal Tendency, or 
Repress it, . 45-53 


The Thorax, What Signs of the Thoracic -Mountainous Regions Favour- 
able to it, and why Its Advantages and Disadvantages, . 54-59 


Not Dependent on Size All Art is an Imitation of Nature Two Sets of 
Muscles Exercise th# Great Developer Dr. Windship Pure Air 


Needful -Eminent Men who were Muscular Legitimate Rest Need- 
ful Examples of Life begun in Poverty Modern Aversion to Labour 
Old English Runners Gymnastics among the Ancitmts Causes of 
Muscular Degeneracy Signs of Muscular Force, . . . 60-74 


Bony Structure gives Firmness Causes; Food, Exercise Honesty allied to 
the Bony, Examples Signs of this Build Same holds good in Animals 
Structure Hereditary Early Culture of Bone Men of Genius who 
combined the Bony and Brain Forms, 75-82 


Its Relation to the Others Signs Dr. Spraker Changed Appearance of a 
Boy through Study Brain Form Exhausting Is Restored by Sleep 
and Physical Labour Injured by Stimulants or Accidents Astley 
Cooper's Anecdote Brain Injured by Overfeeding Authors of the 
18th Century Abstemious from Poverty Overworking the Brain 
Hugh Miller Children Overtasked by Teachers, . . . 83-95 


Demolitiousness and Concealativeness in Nature Not Localized Tendency 
to Ascribe Locality to Faculties Ancient Modern So with Deity 
Meaning of the term Faculty Human Faculties are not Localized, but 
their Signs are, 96-102 

Matter and Mind Distinct Mind gives Greatness to Matter No Certain 
Number of Mental Faculties - Higher Faculties are Products of Cultiva- 
tion Prayer Christianity Music Language Faculties Propagate 
Are not alike in All Newton, Columbus, Davy, Stepheuson New 
Faculties may be Discovered in Future Times, . . . 103-109 



A Faculty, What? Variety in Strength rather than Number Every Faculty 
Two-fold Five Classes Dependent on Bodily Structure : The Selfish 
Will ; the Active and Courageous ; the Opposing ; the Stedfast ; the 
Opinionative Mental Faculties derive Support from Corresponding 
Bodily Materials Appetite Imitation A Man can Perform Nothing 
but from Elements in Himself Square, Round, Coloured, &c. Limit 
to the Cultivation of Faculties, . . . . . . 110-122 


Underlying Principles Indications of A cqnieaciveness Causes, . 123-125 


Mouth the Principal Seat, 12fl 

Its Use Cause and Operation Signs, ...... 127 

Signs How Produced, . 128 

Signs Cause, 129 

Signs Necessary Bodily Conditions, 130 

Signs Reason 131 


Signs Examples It Returns Good as well as Evil Requires the Muscular 

as well as Abdominal Nature of Fluids to be Reflective, . 132, 133 



Signs How Developed 134 

Signs Developed from the Thorax, and manifested in the Nose, . 135 

Signs Origin Twofold Growth Upward and Outward, . . 136 

Signs Reaching Powers of the Nose, how increased Telescope, . 137 

Signs Combative Animals 138 

Sign A Bow-shaped Nose, 139 

Signs, 139 


Signs Crow a good Example Owl the contrary- How the Mental Watch- 
fulness Works the Outward Sign, 140 


blgns Greyhound, Pike, Sloth Long-shaped Animals Swift, and vie* 

versa, . 141 


Skjns Wedge-shaped Pace and Protruding Nose indicative of a Prying 
Disposition, 142 

Coarse, Strong, Well-defined Features Napoleon the Great, . 142 


Disposition to Draw the Head Backwards and Upwards Beau Brummel 
Immanuel Kant, 143-143 




The Heavenly Bodies Circular in their Forms and Motions - Good Judges of 
Time round-faced, . . . . . . . . 146 

Signs Lion Giraffe and Rabbit An English Pugilist A Professor of 

Belles Lettres, 147, 148 

Signs, 149 


Signs How Developed, 150 


How Manifested, 151 


Signs Locative Habits, how produced, 151 


Round, Outstanding Ear Roundness of Musical Sounds, . 152, 153 


Signs Flexor or Closing Muscles, 164 


Signs Franklin, , > . , . 155 


Signs The Curved Principle Inherent, 156 


Signs Earthy Construction, 157 


Signs -How Res ol ting, ........ 158 



Signs George IIL How Developed, 159 

Signs And the Principles of its Manifestation, .... 160 

Signs How Originating and Demonstrated, .... 161 

Signs Hog Hottentot Napoleon I. Distinguished from Voluntative- 

ness, 162 


Signs Belongs to a Low Nature, 163 


Signs, 164 


Signs Colour-blind People Eeason, 164, 165 

Signs Strength Necessary Carnivorous Animals Broad Make, 166, 167 


Signs Produced by Frequent Exercise -- Abundance of the Vital 
Fluids, . 168 


Signs Dependent on the Size, &c., of the Organs, . . 169, 170 


Signs How Produced, 171 


Signs -A Transference of Vital Energy, 172 

Signs Sensitive to External Influences, 173 

Signs How Developed, 173 


Appears in Permanent Wrinkles, where, 174, 175 

. Signs Chiefly in the Mouth, 176 

Signs In the Eyes and Eyebrows, 177, 178 

Signs In ths Eye, Forehead, and Carriage of the Head, . 179 

Signs -In the Neck -Napoleon 1 180,181 


Signs In the Jaw and General Configuration, .... l'<2, 183 

Signs In the Chin, 184 



Signs In the Eye and Nose-Tip, 185 


Shewn in Squareness of Face - Complexion Suited for Iron- Working, 186 


General Signs, 187 


Signs, 188 

Signs In the Forehead, Nose, and Length of Face, . . . 189 

Signs In the Features, 190 

Signs In the Eyebrows Darwin, 191 

Chief Sign In the Jaw, 192-194 


Signs In the Squareness of Structure, 195 


Signs In the Eyebrows How Produced, 196 


Signs In the Gait and Eyes, 197 


Signs -Chiefly in the Nose Squat-Build Selfish, ... 197 


Signs In the Frontal Bone and Nose Why, .... 198,199 


Signs In the Forehead and Eyes, 200 


Siiewn in Coarse Features Why, 201, 202 

Signs In the Lower Forehead and Eyebrows, .... 203 



Shewn in the Jaw, 204 


Combination of Two Faculties and their Signs Duke of Wellington, S05 



Shewn in the Forehead, 206 

Signs Submissive and Unsubmissive Animals, .... 207, 208 



Signs -In Harmonious Structure, 209 


Evinced in the Dreamy Eye and Forward Bend, .... 210 


Signs, 211 


Chief Sign In the Forehead, 212 


Evinced chiefly by the Length of Neck, 213 


Shewn in a Pear-Shaped Face 214 


Evinced by the Shape of Face and General Organization, . . 215 


General Appearance - How Produced, 216 


Sign In the Nose Reason, 217 


Sign In the Nose Elephant, 218 


Faculty Explained How Developed in the Body, . . .219, 220 

General Signs, 221 


Signs - In the Forehead and Eyes, 222 



Full Forehead aiid Pyriform Face, 223 


Evinced in the Uare, Rabbit, Hog, 224 


Signs in the Eye, and Position of the Head, 225 


Whence Arising How Evinced, 226, 227 


Memory of Facts How Shewn in the Forehead Remarkable Examples of 
Memory What Impairs Memory Instances Directions for Improving 

it Danger of Over-taxing, 228, 234 

How Evinced in the Eyes Signs of Imprudence in the Nose and 

Mouth, 234 

Disposition to Believe The Sensational Department analogous to this 

Faculty 235 


Medium Construction Necessary to this Faculty, .... 230 


Evinced in the Position of the Head, 2? 

Numerous SignsQualities Necessary for this Faculty, . . 238, 23t 




Developed in a Slim and Pliable Structure Inconsistent with the Pre- 
dominance of Bone or Nerve, . . , . . . 240,241 

Shewn in Certain Curves about the Mouth, 242 



The Indication in the Man Himself exhibiting a Harmonious Combination 
of Material, 243 


General Conditions, 244, 245 


Incompatible with a Low Flat Nose Requires a Well-balanced 
Structure, 246, 247 


European American Many Races Early Giants Physical Causes of 
Diminished Stature and Improved Mind, .... 248-261 


Unchangeable Colour found with Incapability of Improvement Darkness 
and Barbarism Synonymous The Darkest Races the Oldest, 262-269 

No Spontaneous Generation Signs of this Capacity, . . . 270-275 


Clothing Food Lessons : Obedience, Love, Observation, Politeness, 
Gentleness, Patience, Commingling of Sexes, Trade, Perseverance, 

Vices, 276-294 

Lower Animals Signs of Quick Temper and Slow Revenge Of good 
Digestion Of weak Kidneys Of base or Platonic Love Significance 

of Eyes, . . 295-301 


The Milk Sucked in Infancy Food of English, French, and Scotch produc- 
ing Distinctive Character, 302-309 

Smooth and Rough Faces Lines Incident to each of the Five Structures, 

as Abdominal, &c. 310-315 


The Atmosphere Physical Man most Perfect in Western Asia Degenera- 
tion as He Recedes from this Centre Structure of Continents How 
Influencing Civilization Local Causes Affecting Mind Swamps and 
Low Lands Hilly Regions Favourable, .... 316-333 


Responsibility Hereditary Good and Evil never wholly Eradicated 
Children, unlike their Parents, are the least Susceptible of Culture 
Examples of Inherited Talent And Physical Conformation, . 334-338 

Variety of Face Changing with the Ages of the World And the Individual 

Emineut Men most Distinguishable, 339-344 

Definition Idiots and Lunatics Enthusiasts and Preachers, . 345-350 

How Recognized by the Physiognomist Examples : Lincoln, Webster, 

351 356 



Roundness of Vegetable and Animal Lines Influence of Large Towns- 
Dispositions of Curly-Lined Animals Children and Negroes Students 
Mechanics -British Statesmen And American, . . 357-303 


Principles Tall and Short Men Different Kinds of Step. WALK OR GAIT 
The Natural : Toddling, Striding, Lurching, Sweeping, Firm, Shuffling, 
In-toed, Splay-footed, Plunging, Fatuous Artificial : Military, Clerical, 
Legal, Medical, Mechanical, Tradesman, .... 364-387 


Modes of Different Nations Hand shaking Varieties, . . 388-395 


Only Human -- Not necessarily Vulgar Varieties, . . . 396-399 

Described Various Colours Indicative of Temper Texture Quantity 

Baldness, 400-408 


Cause of Not Found in the Large Boned Character of Dimpled 

People, 409-413 


Origin of the Word Miser General Configuration Niggards sometimes 

Reputed Liberal Examples Wrinkles, .... 414-423 


Parental Influences Unbalanced Minds, how indicated Examples How 
to Cultivate Harmony Music, 424-433 


Sex of Soul Masculine Women Uterine Influences Attraction of Mascu- 
line for Feminine Natures, 434-439 

Hardness in Minerals and Trees Broad and Massive Structure in Animals 

And Men, 440-445 


Arabia the Anti-industrial Centre Industrious Nations Signs of Indus- 
trious Disposition Modern Aversion to Labour Physical Training 
among the Ancients Modern Physical Education, . . 446-455 

Smooth Faces Boy and Man Rogue's Photographs, . . 456-460 

Hardness Bony Structures The Camel and Ass Lincoln, Westou, Jsick- 

son, Wellington, 461 4U-1 


British Association Signs of Longevity, and Causes Long-lived Animals 
and Men Term of Seventy Yeara, 465-47 J 



Few Persons Perfectly Formed Causes One-sided Theology and Politics- 
Mammon -Worship, . . . . . . . . 474-481 

Animals which Vary in Colour are Capable of Improvement - So Vegetables 

The Apple The Dog, Horse, Ox 482-484 

Plan for Speed is Length For Strength is Breadth Examples of Men 

Animals, 485-489 

Principles of Proportion in Animals and Trees Windship and 

Weston, 490-494 


Definition of Penetrate Part of Speech Perception of Character Sharp- 
ness of Features denote Astuteness of Intellect Crow Greyhound 

Sharp Noses, Eye-bones, Chins, ' 495-496 


Ravages of Disease Its Causes aud Reasons Signs of Cor sumption, 
Dyspepsia, Scrofula, liver Disease, Chronic Rheumatism, Kidney 
Disease, Love Sickness Anecdote Private Diseases Medical Practi- 
tioners, 497-504 

Beautiful Human Forms Various Disfigurements, their motives Heads 
how Disfigured Noses Ear-rings and Nose-rings Mouths Teeth 
Tongues Hands and Feet Nails Tight-lacing Lorig Feet Pointed 
Shoes Stocks and Collars Hair Tattooing Widow's Disfigurement 
Face-patching Freckles and Pimples Tobacco and Alcohol Tea and 

Coffee-drinking, 505-536 

Rules for Discerning Intelligence The Pointer and the Bear The Hog, 
Opossum, Rhinoceros, compared with the Ox Human Intelligence 

how Evinced, 537-539 


Only a Few Predominent Men Shakespeare Napoleon Outward Marks 
Examples Children not Originators, but Imitators Monkeys and 
Sheep Politics and Religion produce few Originators, many Followers, 

why? Despotic Governments, 540-545 


Savages Averse to all Labour Machinery vermts Hand Labour- Mental 
Labour Exhausting Slow Development of some Minds A European 
House and a Pyramid contrasted Mental Industry in Races Signs 

of it, 546-550 


Every Faculty has its Object and Enjoyment in it Mental Faculties may 
be Used to Excess In Moderation, Intellectual Pleasures are Superior, 
Lasting, and Cheap Physical Signs, 551-55* 



Some Born to Govern -Signs of Leading Men Men Distinguished fo! 
Vigorous Writing, 564-556 


Importance of Character Reading to Employers Wavering Characters - 
Rousseau and Hume Scotch and English Gladstone Anecdote ol 
Scotch Decision Principles underlying Decision Demosthenes- 
Caesar Napoleon I. Franklin Lincoln Wellington French and 
Germans Physical Signs Causes Strong Bone Influence of Food 
Jackson a Thief Decision, not Dependent on Bulk Mechanics 
seldom Thieves Dr. Pritchard Dr. Beecher John Locke Work, 
the Foundation of Noble Character, 557-667 


Humility towards God, Wise Towards Men, indicates Want of True Dignity 

Few People Love to be Humble to All Many Bow to some One 

Master Sign in the Carriage of the Head Moderate Humility gives 

Engaging Manners Affectation of Humility, . . . 668-571 


Nature Teems with Life First Men were Coarse and Dark Whiter Races 
Produced when the Earth became Cooler Still Superior may Yet 
Come Forth First Men had Little Mind Affliction Refines Mind 
Butterfly Human Species might be Improved by More Careful 
Breeding Signs of a Large Soul Future Life will be a Development of 

Mind and Soul, 572-577 


Dependent on Parentage Influence of Consanguinity on Offspring 
Harmony rather than Beauty, Desirable Importance of Suitable Mating 
How to Ensure it - Fair-haired People should Marry Black-haired 
a Large Mouth, a Small One, &c. We cannot Destroy any Faculty, 
but Restrain or Cultivate By Food, Study, Self-control, and Well- 
directed Love, 678-5S6 

Symmetry and Proportion contrasted Beauty in Sentiment and Love 
Edmund Burke's Analysis of -Beauty in Form and Colour Sign - 

Manner of Culture, 687-^91 


The Father of Sir Robert Peel Culture of Sir Robert Advantages of 
Sign Success somewhat Dependent upon Attention, . . 592-5J4 

Falsity of Ideas based on Fashion All Life tends to Reproduction Si^bt 
more likely to Deceive than Reason -Examples Nothing in Nature 
is Annihilated Change is the Law of Nature The Desire of Future 
Life an Evidence that there will be Oiie Use of us here as BricKS in a 
Building Will be similarly Wanted for a Future Life, , . 595 C(i3 




Tbc Abdominal Form Large The Claimant for the Tichborne 

Estate, ........ 46 

The Abdominal Form Small Wallace of Kelly, ... 46 

The Thoracic Form Large William III., .... 66 

Small, ...... 66 

The Muscular Form Large S. Judas Thadetts, ... 61 

,, Small Princess Anne, ... 6- 

The Osseous or Bony Form Large Lowrie Coulter, . . 76 

Small-G. W. M. Nutt, ... 77 

The Brain and Nerve Form Large John Price, ... 83 

Dr. Spraker, ... 84 

Small -George III., ... 84 

Large Rv. S. H.Tyng, . . 85 

,, ,, Small -Thomas Cribb, . . 86 

Welsh Woman, ....... 124 

Mrs. Bachus, ....... 124 

A Fort Rupert Indian, . . . . . . 126 

Horace Greeley, . . . . . . . 126 

George Morland, . . . . . . . 127 

Nicholas Coj lernicus, ...... 127 

Robert Gregson, ....... 129 

Nana Narian, ....... 129 

Samuel R. Ward, .130 

David Duncan, a Hermit of Michigta, . . . . 130 

David Hume, ....... 131 

Gustavus III., ....... 131 

Thomas Becon, . . . . . . . 135 

Thomas Molineanz, . . . . 135 

Lavater, ........ 137 

Chinese Woman, . . . . . . 137 

Owl, 140 

Crow, ........ 140 

Beau Brummel, a' noted Fop of England, .... 144 

Immanuel Kant, . . . . . . . 144 

Bach, ........ 146 

An Indian of Callam By, . 146 

John Broughton, 148 

Joseph Justus Scalliger, . . , . 148 



A Lion, ' . 148 

A Giraffe, 148 

A Squirrel, ........ 150 

J. H. Newman, D.D., ...... 152 

Tamberlik 152 

The Unmusical Ear, ...... 153 

The Ear of Adeline Patti, ...... 153 

Mr. E. F. Simms, ....... 155 

Miss Stuart, ........ 155 

Miss Harriet C. Hosmer, . . . . . . 156 

Jim, a I 'in to Indian, . . . . . . 156 

Commodore Vanderbilt, . . . 157 

A Squanderer, ..... . 157 

Mrs. Margaret Fuller Osoli, ... 158 

Brigham Young, ....... 158 

A Chinese Woman, . . . . . . . 159 

George III., ........ 159 

Thomas C. Haliburton (Sam Slick), .... 161 

Charles I., 161 

Napoleon I., . . . . . . . . 162 

The Eye of Mrs. Margaret F. Osoli, ..... 163 

The Eye of Brighara Young, . . . . . 163 

The Head of a Hog, . ...... 163 

The Head of a Turtle-Dove (Turtur Auritus), ... 163 
William Ross, employed in Chambers's Publishing House in 

Edinburgh, ....... 165 

Antonio Allegri, or Corregio, ..... 165 

B. Gosse, Esq., ....... 166 

John R, Webster, . . . . . . . 166 

The Head of a Hare, ...... 167 

The Head of a Tiger, ...... 167 

A Loving Italian Mother, ...... 168 

John B. Gough, ....... 170 

Deaf and Dumb Girl of Illinois ..... 170 

A Parrot, ........ 170 

Marchioness of Hertford, . . . . . . 171 

Henry VIII., ...... 171 

An Irish woman of Edinburgh, ..... 174 

Mary F. Scott Siddons, . . . . . . 174 

CJyrus W. Field, 175 

A Selfish Cat, ....... 175 

An Irish Peasant, ....... 176 

Parepa Rosa, ....... 176 

A Duck, 177 

A Canary, ........ 177 

A Digger, an Indian of California, . . . . . 178 

The Chetah, or Hunting Leopard, . . . . . 179 

Thomas Pair, ....... 180 


P Gl 

A Chimpanzee, taken from life, in the Zoological Garden* of London, 181 

An Ostrich, ........ 181 

An Asiatic Elephant, ...... 181 

Jacob Strawn, an extensive farmer and cattle dealer of Illinois, . 182 

Mr. T. Glover, a Dry Goods merchant of Quebec, . . . 183 

Thomas Cook and Wife (Avarice), ..... 184 

Linnaeus, ........ 185 

A Chinese Woman, ....... 185 

James Watt, ........ 186 

P. T. Barnum, ....... 186 

Edwin Booth, ....... 188 

A Disorderly Flat-head Indian, ..... 188 

Edward V., 189 

An Old Cardinal, ....... 189 

Peter Cooper, ....... 190 

An Australian Man, ...... 190 

Montesquieu, ........ 191 

Louis W. Jackson, ....... 191 

Charles Darwin, ....... 192 

Persistenacity very Large, ...... 193 

Johnny, Persistenacity very Small, ..... 193 

A Prairie Wolf, or Coyote, ...... 193 

A Bull-dog, 193 

John Tetzel, the dishonest face, . . . . . 194 

Andrew Jackson, the honest face, ..... 194 

Lizzie Smith, a pickpocket, . . . . . . 195 

William Tyndale, a martyr, ..... 195 

Lord George Lyttleton, who was unable to learn the common 

rules of Arithmetic, ...... 196 

Thos. Allen, the first Mathematician of his day, . . . 196 

Mr. Holcraft, of California Suggestiveness Large, . . 198 

J. B. Porta, the Inventor of the Camera Obscura and Physiognomist, 199 

Hev. J. G. Lavater, Poet and Physiognomist, . . . 199 

Mrs. Lydia H. Sigourney, ...... 200 

Catharine II., ....... 200 

Prof. S. F. B. Morse, 201 

Geo. IV., 202 

J. Q. A. Ward, Sculptor, ...... 203 

Charles XIL, of Sweden, ...... 204 

Ristori, Actress, ....... 204 

The Head of a Hunting Horse, ..... 205 

The Head of an Ass, ...... 205 

A Chinese Girl, ....... 205 

The Duke of Wellington, 205 

Thomas D' Urfey, an impractical English Poet, ... 206 

C. M. Wieland, a practical Poet of Germany, . . . 206 

Ambrose Pare, a distinguished French Surgeon, . . . 209 

Ratasse, Prince of Madagascar, .... 209 



Charles James Fox, . * . . . . 21 1 

John El wes, a noted Miser of London, . . . . 211 

Elizabeth Canning Meutiinitativenesa Large, . . . 212 

Mary Squires, the Gipsy, . * . . . . 212 

Pviilof, a murderer, . . . . . . . 213 

Mrs. Josephine A. Prosch, of New York, . . . . 213 

Ute Indian, of Salt Lake, . . . . . . 215 

Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain), Author of Innocents Abroad. . 215 

Kettle, a Selfish Indian Chief, of Washington Territory, . . 217 

Charlemagne ^Estheticalness Large, .... 217 

Flavins Josephus Carefulness Large, . . . . 219 

Thomas Hudson, notoriously Unfortunate, . . . 219 

James Fisk, jr., of Erie Railroad notoriety, . . . 220 

John Milton Spementality Large, ..... 220 

A Patagonian Puritati veness Small, .... 221 

Lucretia Mott, a Quakeress Preacher, .... 221 

Simon Fraser Lovit Intuiti veness Small, . . . . 222 

Giuseppe Mazzini, a talented Italian Patriot, . . . 222 

Mr. Thos. Rogerson Literativeness Small, . . . 223 

John Rnskin, a brilliant Author and Art Critic, . . . 223 

The Duchess of Kent, the Mother of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, 224 

Nathaniel Bently, the dirtest Man in England, . . . 224 

Nero Pitifulness very Small, ..... 226 

Baroness Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutta, . . . 226 

Lamartine - Imaginativeness Large, .... 227 

A Babbler Imaginativeness Small, . / . . . 227 

Frederick H. A. Baron von Hurnboldt, .... 228 

Miss Catharine Dunn, whose weight is 425 Pounds, . . 228 

A Saucy Boy, of Jacksonville, Illinois, .... 234 

John Sherman, U.S., a Senator from Illinois, . . . 234 

Voltciire Credulousness Small, ..... 235 

Wm. Harvey. M.D., who discovered the Circulation of the Blood, 235 

D. Fernando VII., a Tyrant, .... 237 

Count D'Orsay Courteousness Large, .... 237 

Abbey Kelley Foster Attentiveness Large, . . . 238 

His Majesty Pomarre, King of Taheite, .... 238 

Robespierre, a Bloody Tyrant, ..... 239 

Eustache Sympatheticalness Large, .... 239 

A Swan -Graceful ness Lart/e, ..... 240 

A Male Hippopotamus, taken from lifo, in the Zoological Gardens 

in London, ....... 2tl 

Caius Julius Caesar, the Dictator, ..... 242 

A Kyast Banian Man, of Surat, in India, .... 242 

Cut Nose, an Indian, ...... 243 

G. F. Handel Physioharmoniti veness Large, . . . 243 

Sarah and John Rovin, aged 164 and 172 respectively, . . 244 

Petrarch Zortan, 185 years of age, . . . . 245 

A Flat Head Indian, 24? 



A Quatsino Indian, ...... 245 

Dr. John Hunter, . . ... 24i 

Foolish Sam Deductivenesa Small, .... 246 

John Locke Deducti veness Large,*. .... 246 

King William, of Prussia, ...... 248 

A Flat-head Indian, Front and Profile, .... 249 

A. Quatsino, of the N. W. Coast of Vancouver Island, . . 20 

A murderous Indian of Minnesota, ..... 250 

A Digger Indian, of California (full length), . . . 251 

Orison J. Stone, of Boston, ...... 282 

Negro Boy, ....... 282 

John Wyckli fife, . . . . . . 290 

John Broughton, a bloodthirsty Pugilist. .... 291 

Love and Obedience, ....... 292 

Hate and Disobedience, ...-. 292 

David Hume, ....... 296 

Gustavus III., ....... 2% 

Vitellius, a good Digestion, . . .... 297 

Charles VI., Emperor of West Austria, . .298 

Aulus Vitellius, Emperor of Rome. . . . . 311 

Foolish Sam, ....... 348 

Major, a Lunatic of Glasgow, . . . . , . 349 

Curly Face, ... . .359 

Straight Face, . . . . . . . 359 

Systematic and Straightforward Gentleman, . . . 360 

Surly and Deceptive Scamp, ..... 360 

A Curly, Ambitious, and Jealous Dog; .... 363 

Foolish Mary, . . . . . . . 368 

Bob Dreghorn The Striding Gait, . .... 370 

Blind Alick The Sweeping Gait, ..... 374 

Captain Paton, of Glasgow, ...... 3SO 

David Dale, a Good Man, ...... 384 

Filament of Wool, ....... 403 

Negro Hair, ......... 403 

Love, Faith, Intuition, and Innocence, .... 409 

Miss Margaret Clephne, . . . . . . 417 

John Elwes, ........ 419 

Daniel Dancer, a Miser and Hermit, ... . . 420 

David Duncan, Hermit of Michigan, .... 426 

Washington Irving, ....... 426 

Rev. John Summerfield, . .... 435 

Miss Rosa Bouheur, .... 436 

Egbert, Kin? of the West Saxons, ..... 439 

Diogenes, ' Jynic Philosopher, ..... 457 

Lucitii A.r.nus Seneca, a celebrated Roman Philosopher, . . 458 

A Scotchman, of Edinburgh, ..... 459 

Greyfriar's Bobby, . . . . . . . 481 

A. Macrone, ........ 507 



A Quatsino, Indian Girl, ...... 608 

A Cnmaua Woman, ....... 508 

A Welsh Woman, ....... 609 

An Egyptian Man, ... ... 609 

A Muscovite Man, ....... 610 

A Flat-head Indian, ...... 610 

A West India Man, ....... 510 

A Greek Man, ....... 510 

A Scythian Man, . . . . . . . 511 

A Belini Man, ....... 512 

A Woman of Zanzibar, . . . . . . 513 

A Woman of Scatia, . . . ... . 513 

A Peruvian Man, ....... 513 

A Persian Man, ....... 513 

A Kyast Banian Woman, of Surat, in Western India, . . 514 

A Flat-head Indian, . . . . . 514 

A Cornori Woman, ....... 515 

A Cochi Woman, ....... 515 

A Woman of Turkey, ...... 516 

An Ethiopian, ....... 516 

A ParieMan, ....... 517 

A Macus Man, ....... 517 

A Tanibalian, ....... 517 

A Portuguese Woman, . . . . . . 518 

A Chinese Man, ....... 518 

Miss Tight-laced, ....... 519 

Natural Waist, ....... 519 

A Chinese Woman, ....... 521 

A Sciopede Man, ....... 521 

A China Man, ....... 523 

Captain Staddon, of Fan Francisco, .... 524 

Rev. Henry Ward Beechcr, ..... 525 

Fashionable Head dress of U. S. A. in I860, . . 528 

A Digger Indian, attired for an annual War Dance, . . 529 

An Indian of Arizona, ...... 630 

A Samian Man, ....... 530 

A Digger Indian, of Califi r/.ia, ..... 5..1 

Hon. Daniel Webster, ...... 532 

An Irish Peasant, .... 633 

Upwards of 40 portraits have been added to this book since this list 
of illustrations was compiled. 


The pronunciation is given immediately after each word in the following 

list, by the word being spelt anew phonetically. The number of the page 

where the literal meaning of the word may be found is given opposite each 
word respectively. 


Arquieaciveness, 5k'-kwI-e 1 s"-sKv-iie's .. .. .. .. .. 123 

Animalimitationality, an'-l-mal-inu-ta'-shun-aT-I-ty ., ., .. 126 

Aquasorbitiveness, ak'-kwa-sor'-bit-lv-ne's .. .. .. . . . . 127 

Puyaioelpidicity, fiz'-l-6-eT-pi-dls"-i-ty ., . . ,. ,. .. 128 

Graspativenesa, gras'-pa't-iv-ne's 129 

Associativeneaa, as-so-see-a'-tiv-nes .* , . . . .. .. 130 

Appetitiveness, Sp'-pe'-ti'-tiv-ne's .. .. ,. . . .. .. 131 

Eetaliativeness, re-tal-H-a'-tiv-ne's .. .. .. .. . . .. 132 

Seutinelitiveness, sgn'-ti-ner'-i-tiv-nea .. .. . . ,. ..134 

Morivalorosity, mo'ri-val-o ros"-i-ty .. .. .. .. .. 13-5 

Elevativeneas, el-e-va'-tiv-nea .. .. . . .. .. . . 136 

Olfactiveness, o'l-fak'-tiv-ne's 137 

Resistativeness, re-zis'-ta-tiv-ne's .. .. .. .. .. .. 138 

Assaultativeneas, as-sauU'-ta'-tiv-ne'a .. .. .. .. .. 139 

Watchfulness, watch'ful-nea .. .. .. .. .. ,, 139 

Suspiciousness, sus-pish'-iis-ne's .. .. .. .. .. ,. 140 

Locomotivity, lo'-ko-mo-tlv'-i-ty .. .. .. .. .. .. 141 

Inqnisitiveuess, iM-k\viz'-it-iv-nea .. .. .. .. .. .. 142 

Am biliousness, atn-i'ish'-us-nSs .. .. .. .. .. .. 142 

Autohegemony, aw'-to-he-^Sm"-6-ny .. .. .. .. .. 143 

Teinporinaturalitivene -s, tem'-po-ri-nat'-u-ral'-t-tiv-nes .. .. .. 146 

Physiovalorosity, tiz'-i-6-val'-'>-ios"-i-ty .. .. .. .. .. 147 

Sophisticalness, so-fis'-ti-kal-ne'd .. .. .. .. .. .. 149 

P.ayfulness, pla'-lul-nes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150 

Intermutativeness, in-te'r-mu'-ta-tTv-ne's .. .. .. ,, ,. 151 

Philomonotopicalness, fi'-lo-mon' o-top-i-kal-nSs .. .. .. .. 151 

Tonireceptionality, toV-f-re-sep'-shun-ai'-i-ty .. .. .. .. 152 

Concealativeness, koa-see'-la-tiv-na .. .. .. .. .. 154 

Eionomosity, e-kon'-6-mos"-slty .. .. .. .. .. .. 155 

Curativeness, ku'ra-liv-ne's .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 156 

Actumulativeness, ak'-ku-nm-la"-tiv-nes .. .. .. .. .. 157 

Monoeroticity, m8n'-6-Sr'-6-tis"-i-ty .. .. .. .. ..158 

Voluntativeness, v6'-liin-ta"-tiA r -ne3 . . . . . . . . . . 169 

Merriness, meV-i nSs .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 160 

Providentness, pro'v'-i-de'nt-ne's .. .. .. .. .. .. 161 

Contrativeness, kSn'-tra-tiv-n^s .. .. .. .. .. ,. 162 

Polyeroticity, pol'-i-Sr-6-ti8"-i-ty .. .. .. .. .. .. 163 

Mnemoniconominality, ne-m8n'-i-k8n-8m-i-n^l"-i-ly ,. ,. ,, 164 

Chromaticalness, kro-mat'-T-kal-ngs .. .. .. ,, .. .. 164 

Demolitiousness, de-mo-lish'-iis-ne's .. .. .. .. .. 166 

Philonepionality, fi'-lo-ne'-pe-o-nal"-Y-ty .. .. .. . .. 168 

Linguist! ven ess, llng-gwist'-iv-nes 
Physiodelectatiousness, fiz'-i-6-de-le'k-ta"-shu8-ne's 
Curativeness, ku'-ra-tlv-nea . . . . . . . . 

Solicitireputativeness, so-lis'-T-ti-re'p-n-ta"- tiv-ns 
Inexorableness, in-e'gz'-o-rab-e'l-ne'a .. ., 

Conaecutiveuesa kfin-sSk'-u-tiv-nes .. .. .. 

Sonidiffusitiveness, ao-ni-dlf-fu'-ai-tfv-ne's .. 

.. 169 

.. 171 

.. 172 

.. 173 

.. 173 

.. 174 

.. 176 

Decorativeness, dek-6-ra'-tiv-na .. .. . . .. .. .. 177 




HuntativeneB!", hunf-B-tiv-nSs .. ., ; 179 

Sagacitiveness, sa-gas-i-tlv-ng* .. .. .. ,. ,, .. 180 

Tradativeness, trad'-a-tiv-ne'a .. .. ,. ., ., ,. 182 

Adaptativenesa, a-dap'-tS-tiv-nes .. .. ,. . .. .. 183 

Discriminativeness, uIs'kiiiu-T-na"-tiv-ne's .. .. . .. .. 185 

Structurodt'iterity, 8truk / -tu-r6-dx-ter"-I-ty 186 

Ordiniphysicality, 8r'-din-ii-tiz-i-kal"-I-ty .. .. . ., .. 187 

Angularitiveness, ang-gu-lar'-i-tiv-n& .. .. 188 

Beneficentness, be-nef-i-sSat-nSs .. ., ,. .. .. .. 189 

Decisiveness, de- ai'-siv-nes .. .. .. ., .. ., .. 190 

Observativeness, 6b-zer'-va-tiv-n8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 191 

Peraistenacity, per-zis-ten-a'-ai-ty .. .. .. .. .. . . 192 

Rectituditiveneas, rek-ti-tu'-di-tiv-ne's 194 

Computationumericality, k&m-pu-ta'-ab.o-nu-me'i-f-kal-Y-ty . . *. 196 

Solidativeneas, sfil-l-da'-tiv-nes .. .. .. ,. ., .. 197 

Suggeativeneaa, auj-jeV-tiv-nea .. .. ., ., ., .*. 197 

Chttracterioscopicity, kar-ak-tSr'-i-6-skd-pia3"-I-ty . . .. . . 198 

Amicitiveneas, am-i-si'-tiv-n^a .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 

Originativeness, o-rij-m-a'-tiv-nSa .. .. . . .. .. . . 201 

Mensurativeness, mn-su-ra'-tiv-nea . . . . . . . . .. 203 

Pertinaciousness, pcr-ti-na'-shus-nes .. .. . . t . 20 1 

Temporimfchanicality, tem'-po-ri-m^-kan-i-kal'-I-ty .. . .. 205 

Practicalitiveness, prak-tl-kal'-i-tiv-n^s .. . . . . .. 206 

Reverentialness, rev'-gr-gn"-ahal-nes .. . ,, . .. 207 

Ordinimentality, 8r'-dia-i-men-tal"-l-ty .. . .. . .. 209 

Presrience, pre'-thens .. .. .. . . . . . . . . ..210 

Susceptibleneas, sus-s^p'-tible-nes .. .. .. .. .. ..211 

Mentimitaliveness, ment-im-i-ta-tiv-nSs .. .. .. .. ..212 

Affdblenesa, af-able-na 21? 

Salitiveness, sal'-i-tiv-n^s .. 214 

Sublimitasity, siib llm-K-tas'-i-ty ..215 

Futuritiveness, fu-ture'-i-tiv-nes .. .. .. . . . . .. 216 

j&atheticalneas, ace-thet'-i-kal-ngs 217 

Carefulness, kair'-fttl-ngs 218 

Spementality, ape-m^n-tal'-i-ty 21f 

Puritativeness, pu-ri-ta'-tiv-ngj .. .. .. .. .. .. 221 

Intuitiveneas, In-tu'-Tt-Tv-nes .. .. .. .. .. .. 22? 

Literativeness, Ift'-tgr-a-tiT-ngs 223 

Cleanness, kleen'-nea .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 

Pitifulness, plf-I-ful-c^s 225 

Imaginativeness, Im-maj'-in- a- tiv-ns .. .. .. .. ,. 22P 

Faclimemoriativenes^, fak'-ti-ni^in-6"-ri-S-tiv-n28.. .. .. .. 228 

Prudentiality, prii dgn-ahe-al'-ll-ty 234 

Credulousness, kr&T-u-lus-ne'a .. . . .. .. .. .. 23i 

Courteousness, kort'-yiis-nes .. .. .. . . .. ., .. 236 

Attentivenesa, at-t^n'-tlv-ne's . . .. .. .. .. .. 237 

Sympatheticalness, slm-pa-the't'-T-kal-iie'a .. .. .. .. 238 

Gracefulness, graisa'-f til- He's .. .. 240 

PrOiperativeness, prSs-speY-a-tlv-ne's .. .. .. .. 242 

Phyaioharmonitiveness, liz-i-o-har-mon'-i-ttv nSs.. ,. ,. 248 

Proportionativen^ss, pro por'-ahiia-ate-Iv-nes .. t .. 214 

Deduct! veneaa, de-duk'-tiv-nea . . .. 2i6 

Nor*. Prone unce a as a in fate ; a an in fat; a as in father. 

e as e in me; in mt. 

w i as i in fine ; t as in fin. 

obaoinno; o as in i5t. 

a as u in pure ; u as in >ut ; (i aa u in rxile. 


FOR the science upon which we propose to treat, a science 
so comprehensive in its grasp, and embracing, as it does, 
those mysterious principles of nature itself, which are so 
apparent in their manifestations, and yet, in the eternal 
conditions of their origin, so impervious hitherto to the most 
indefatigable and unwearied researches of master minds, we 
have no more fitting a term than that of "Physiognomy;" 
a designation all too inadequate in the poverty and con- 
tractedness of its literal significance, to draw together, and 
fully to shadow forth in one word, the infinity of meaning 
which has its abode within the range of the subject. 
Adopted at an epoch when little more than the merest 
outline of facial peculiarity was wanted to be expressed, 
when comparatively little importance was attached to these 
peculiarities, and when, it need scarcely be said, the subse- 
quent importance to which this department of Nature's 
mystic operations was destined to attain, was never so 
much as thought or dreamed of, the term " Physiognomy " 
performed its indicative functions passably well. As, how- 
ever, through the slow course of centuries, the importance of 
the science became better appreciated, and its ultimate com- 
prehensiveness began to be faintly shadowed forth, the 
poverty of the term fell further and further short of the 
widened signification which it was called upra to do duty 


for; and but for this slow and almost imperceptible ripening 
into maturity to which we have alluded, the term would 
have been left far astern and become disused, as all too 
insufficient for its purpose. Had the science, for instance^ 
through some intellect far in advance of its times during the 
middle ages, advanced with giant strides into broad day, and 
made as much progress in ten years as hardly ten long 
centuries have sufficed to achieve, then would the term 
" Physiognomy " have been doomed ; but, until very recently, 
no such sudden advance has been made, and the word has 
been retained with a gradually increasing significance to 
keep pace with the duties which it has to perform, until 
now it may be said truly the widening of its meaning has 
been co-eval and co-extensive with the evolution of the 
science itself. That science has now attained to such vast 
proportions in its intimate connection with everything 
human, and has become so universally recognized and 
established, that it can. well afford to disregard any little 
shortcoming on the part of a word, which has to perform no 
more vital function than that of its signboard. We are 


content, therefore, to leave it in undisturbed possession of 
the place of honour to which it has been elevated in virtue 
of length of servitude; and this much may at all events be 
said in its praise, that it is readily understood by the 
meanest capacity, and offers no bar of high sounding nomen- 
clature, to the neophyte who is preparing to tread the paths 
of initiation into the absorbing interest which its pursuit 
unfolds, and to participate in the incalculable benefits which 
the science never fails to shower upon its conscientious and 
painstaking votaries. 

Physiognomy, as a science, has now taken up so assured a 
position in the foreground of social and scientific progress, 
and has become so thoroughly recognized in the important 
bearing which it takes up in relation to all phases of society, 
alike the most elevated and the most homely, that it has no 


need to fall back upon its pedigree for any adventitious aids 
to its advancement and prosperity ; but however little it 
may require any bolstering up of this kind, it cannot fail to 
be deeply interesting to the student, to take a retrospective 
glance at its earliest conditions and surroundings. That it 
has, in all time, in a greater or less degree, been active in its 
operation and universal in its application, long before the 
crude and unformed intellect of the early progenitors of 
mankind whatever they may have been was capable of 
making even the faintest attempt to formulate its properties, 
is a proposition we think that cannot be doubted for a 
moment. That the universality and eternity of its scope 
must always have been, needs little reflection to convince 
any thinking man; and for ages before the dawn of history 
Physiognomy must have wielded, we may be sure, a power, 
mighty in its proportions, although little heeded it may be, 
by the beings on which it exerted its force. Nor do we 
require to predicate for such a state of things the existence 
of so highly organized beings as we are ourselves. A much 
lower type of organization would not preclude the living 
action of the all-pervading department of nature's functions 
of which we are treating, and wherever organisms existed, 
so far advanced as to be endowed with powers of vision, 
there must Physiognomy have been actively and perceptibly 
at worki in the relations which subsisted between the 
different varieties of organisms. There would we find the 
destructive form at work in destroying and devouring other 
forms of a less aggressive character, and the whole operation 
of nature, going slowly but surely on in its onward march 
to a perfection, the advanced stages of which, if not its acme, 
we can now contemplate in the conditions with which we 
are surrounded. Be it understood, however, that in alluding 
to the advent of visual organs, we do not mean to mark or 
limit the commencement of the operations of Physiognomy, 
except in so far as they then became visible to, and notion 


able by, the organisms themselves. Long anterior to this, 
nature must have been elaborating and perfecting this law 
of hers, which, through the lapse of ages, has attained such 
stupendous magnitude; but the mind of man reels back, 
stunned and dizzied, from the hopeless attempt to peer back 
to the remote recesses of the laboratory of that mysterious 
agency, which, for want of a better term, and it may be, in 
our ignorance, we call Nature. While, therefore, in the 
nature of things we are excluded from all actual knowledge 
of the development of Physiognomy during primeval and 
prehistoric times ; and while we recognize how fruitless and 
unsatisfactory mere speculation invariably proves to be, 
when affecting a subject of such importance as is our 
present one, we may at all events indulge in a legitimate, 
not to say laudable, curiosity and interest, respecting the 
dawning and primary conditions of the science, if indeed we 
may dignify by such a term, a thing that was only, as* yet, 
recognized half unwittingly and unconsciously. In glancing 
briefly at the early aspect and dawning conditions of the 
science, be it well understood, that we are in no wise to be 
considered as endorsing all or any of the opinions of the 
various writers whose names we may have to mention. In 
no department of abstract thought, perhaps, has opinion 
so much differed, or has error and misplaced deduction been 
so long entertained as recognized truth as in this science of 
which we are now treating; and it has been left to very- 
recent times to our own day, in fact, and that within the 
past very few years so to elaborate the science, as to place 
it on a basis of the very firmest foundation ; this basis being, 
an epitomizing of all previous experience, an avoidance of 
all previous error, and an experimentalizing on the very 
broadest principles, the whole forming, along with the con- 
clusive and illustrative results with which it is flanked, a 
broad scientific formulary, too elaborate and complete in its 
details, to afford a vulnerable point of attack to the deadliest 


of its enemies. A resume, therefore, of the early conditions 
of the science is in no way indispensable to the purpose of 
the present work, but is thrown in solely in the interest of 
the curious student of Physiognomy, who may possibly 
derive from it a pardonable satisfaction and amusement, 
akin to the sympathetic interest which the modern soldier 
of an antiquarian turn of mind feels in the contemplation of 
the rude flint battle-axes and arrow-heads used in the 
remote warfare of prehistoric times. That in the very 
earliest ages, and before the advent of written history, or at 
all events before the advent of any history which has 
weathered the stormy period of the middle ages, so fruitful 
in literary shipwreck, as we very well know, the principles 
of Physiognomy were entertained, recognized, and admitted, 
is a proposition that admits of very conclusive proof, even 
were there any now disposed to deny the assertion. With- 
out trenching upon the resources of the Hebraic Philosophy, 
which was of a more emotional and less practical character 
than that of the Greek Philosophers, we have only to refer 
to the golden productions of the latter, which have been 
miraculously preserved to us, after surviving the crash of 
nations which accompanied, and the Cimmerian darkness 
which followed, the collapse of the Roman Empire, to find 
ample proof that Physiognomy was, even at the time of the 
very earliest of the Greek writers, a recognized department 
of science, however far it may have fallen short at that time 
of correctness or accuracy in its deductions or formulae. 
Even in those remote times, it must have been regarded aa 
ha\ing already attained to a comparatively venerable age, 
for we do not find it alluded to as anything which had then 
just burst upon the perception of the Greeks in all the crude 
immaturity of a new and wholly untried and untested 
discovery. Crude, immature, and in a high degree un- 
reliable and unsatisfactory, it must then have been, is an 
assertion that will hardly be called in question ; but at the 


same time it seems equally undeniable that it had become, 
comparatively speaking, aged in its error; and while there 
is everything in the writings of the Greek Philosophers in 
favour of the hypothesis of old age, and absolutely nothing 
favouring the view of recent birth, their animadversions 
point rather to a dissatisfaction with its existing conditions, 
and the dawning of a vigorous effort on the part of Greek 
subtlety of intellect not to discard it as useless and per- 
nicious quackery but to separate the gold from the dross, 
and to purify it from the abuses with which it had become 

Aristotle, Polemon, Theophrastus, Plato, and at a later 
period Galen of Pergamos, were Greek writers who, with 
perhaps a dim intuition of the vast interests which were 
yet to be evolved from the womb of the science, all 
wrote on the subject, and endeavoured to add their quota 
of suggestion and speculation to the mass of mingled 
truth and error which had already been piled around it. 
Zopyrus, another Greek of a more practical and adventurous 
turn of mind, seems actually to have formulated the science, 
and to have come to the front as a practical Physiognomist. 
He drew up from Physiognomy alone, it is said, an 
estimate of the character of Socrates, not by any means 
complimentary to that gentleman, but with apparently a 
considerable dash of truth in its composition, since it 
appears to have been candidly recognized by the party 
most concerned, to be in all essential details, truthful, 
accurate and precise. Some lesser Greek names might 
be quoted representing authors who have written on this 
all-important subject, but we may not suffer ourselves to 
be so diffuse as we might be in this introductory part of 
the work. 

Several Roman authors, such as Cicero, Pliny, and others, 
contributed somewhat to the advancement of the science; 
but in the gloom and barbarism which followed the dis- 


ruption of the overgrown and unwieldy Roman edifice, 
and in the almost total eclipse of fine arts and literature 
which that stupendous and ruinous collapse of nations, 
peoples, and society entailed, the infant science of Physiog- 
nomy was, in common with other kindred departments of 
advancement and culture, almost totally extinguished. For 
some centuries during the continuance of this gloomy 
period of darkness and barbarism, we hear absolutely 
nothing of its existence, and nothing but its inherent 
vitality could have sufficed to buoy it onward to more 
congenial generations. This inherent vitality it possesses, 
however, in such a degree, that nothing short of the 
extinction of the human race and the hurling back of 
mother earth to its original conditions could have sufficed 
entirely to crush out the germs of life with which it is 
endowed ; and accordingly, no sooner do we find the mists 
of ignorance and superstition beginning to clear off and to 
admit anew the light of intelligence, than we again find 
Physiognomy slowly but surely taking its place as a science; 
with many a false step it may be, but continually correcting 
itself and again pushing forward in the direction of its goal. 
Early in the 14th century, so far had the science attracted 
attention in the dawning of modern civilization and in- 
tellect, that we find Petrus de Abbano, in the year 1335, 
making it the subject of lectures before the students of 
the University of Paris: and although the information, it 
must be confessed, is meagre, yet the bare fact itself is 
significant. Michael Scott, who flourished in the loth 
century, devoted no inconsiderable portion of his time and 
space to the elucidation of the science, in so far as his 
lights on the subject enabled him. The latter half of the 
15th, and the whole of the 16th centuries, comprised a 
period when Physiognomical speculation and research seem 
to have been carried on with a degree of diligence and 
perseverance never attained before that time. In the latter 


part of the 16tli, and the first portion of the 17th centuries, 
J. Baptista Porta, an enterprising and energetic Italian of 
Padua, wrote and published on this subject, a vigorous 
and painstaking work, which was illustrated and beautified 
by numerous cuts of faces of men and animals. In the 
year 1548, Michael Angelo Blondies issued a work on 
Physiognomy, having for its aim the elucidation of its 
principles, and the fixing of its powers and limits. In 
the same year a French writer, Anselm Pierre Douxciel, 
produced at Langres his "Speculum Physionomica," in 
which he endeavoured to lay down fundamental principles 
of the science. In the year 1588, Georgio Rizzacasa, of 
Carmagnola, seems to have been occupying himself to 
some purpose with the subject, as we since learn that he 
was then dedicating a volume on "Fisionomia" to Queen 
Elizabeth; and in the following year we discover Johannes 
Padovanus of Verona affirming broadly, " that every con- 
ceivable variety of character was shadowed out, and might 
be detected under the different conformations of the several 
members of the body" a proof that advanced and en- 
lightened views on the subject had already begun to take 
root amongst eminent thinkers of his age. In the year 
1621 Dr. Rodolphus Gocelenius wrote a work on Physiog- 
nomy while he held the post of Professor of that science 
in the Academia Marpurgensi; and four years afterwards 
we find Edmund Gallimard dedicating a "Traite Physiog- 
nomique au tres illustre Monseigneur Theophile Howard, 
compte de Sulfactz." Besides the names we have quoted, 
we may mention that of John de Judgagnie, who wrote 
on the science at an early but uncertain date, of which 
last-mentioned effort we had a translation in the year 1666 
from the pen cf Fabian Withers, shewing the author to 
have been remarkably clear and concise in the principles 
he has laid dow/i, however incorrect he may have been 
io some of the deductions he has drawn; and it should 



not be forgottet. in his case, that he probably wrote at a 
very early period, when as yet he could borrow but little 
light from other sources. The other names which we have 
not thought proper otherwise to particularize we may give 
here without comment, in order to afford the curious student 
an opportunity of looking, if he should wish to do so, at 
the notions more or less crude, which have in times gone 
by, been promulgated with respect to this science. With- 
out pretending to give an exhaustive list, we may mention 
the names of Adamantius, Albertus Magnus, Avicenna, 
Averroes, Cassidorus, Hippocrates, Melampus, Meletes, Eemi- 
gerius, Seneca, and Quinctillian ; and in reference to this 
additional list we may add, that in the year 1780 Franzius 
of Leipsic furnished a learnedly edited translation of the 
works of Adamantius and Melampus. 

Lavater, who was Pastor of St. Peter s Church at Zurich, 
became a martyr to liberty and truth in 1801. He wrote 
several works on Physiognomy, which were translated into 
various languages, yet they were so deficient in system and 
principles, that they are of little practical value to the world. 

All sciences, and indeed all advanced departments of 
culture, have had to endure persecution at the hands of 
misplaced and superstitious blockheads in power, or at the 
hands of brutal and ignorance-steeped mobs; and we do 
not find that Physiognomy has had any particular im- 
munity extended to it in this respect. In a semi-civilized 
age, any art that pretended to delineate the character and 
propensities of the individual, solely by means of the salient 
points and colours of the exterior, had too close a resem- 
blance, in the jaundiced eye of ignorance and superstition, 
to the occult arts of sorcery and witchcraft, altogether to 
escape some troublesome and unsolicited attentions. These 
kind attentions usually originated with that class of busy 
bodies which has flourished in every age, and the members 
of which have always been animated with a burning desire 


to keep their fellow-men in the paths of that code of virtue 
which is their own, and which they know to be the right 
one. Even in these enlightened days, when we are rapidly 
approaching the commencement of the 20th century, and 
when many flatter themselves that we have for ever done 
with those pests of former ages, a very moderate degree 
of discernment would suffice to discover the modern pro- 
totype of the sorcery and witchcraft hunter, in those 
watchful individuals who are les enfans terribles of 
their own church courts, who have had themselves dubbed 
" Heresy Hunters" by an indignant public, and who only 
lack the power and the opportunity to hunt, slay, and burn 
like their progenitors of three centuries ago, and with an 
equal zeal for the furtherance of the Glory of God. It 
will astonish some people to know, that by the 17 George 
II. c. 5, " All Persons pretending to have skill in Physiog- 
nomy are included amongst those offenders who are deemed 
Rogues and Vagabonds. As such they are liable to be 
publicly whipped or sent to the House of Correction, until 
the next Sessions, or any less time, and after whipping or 
commitment, they may be passed to their last legal settle- 
ment or birth-place; and moreover, the Justice may sentence 
them to hard labour for not more than six months." This 
delicate attention on the part of the British legislature, at 
a time when liberality of opinion and breadth of ideas 
were supposed to have made some considerable progress, 
is peculiarly touching; and in the year 1817 it seems to 
have induced Dr. John Cross no doubt with the view 
of reaping the full benefit of the enactment to publish, 
from the University Press of Glasgow, a work which had 
for its object the establishment of Physiognomy on scientific 
principles. This work comprised the reproduction of a 
series of lectures which he had delivered, and in which 
he had indulged in the most sanguine anticipations 
respecting the ultimate triumph of the principles of his 


favourite study. It does not appear that the legislature 
ever took any steps to enforce the provisions of this very 
considerate Act, and we are left to infer that Dr. Cross 
was permitted to seek his last legal settlement or birth- 
place entirely at his own charges. 

Were we asked to furnish proof of the amount of atten- 
tion which has been paid in all times and in all ages to the 
Physiognomical peculiarities which mark the infinite varie- 
ties of the human form and countenance, we have an 
irrefragable one ready to our hand, in the endless varieties 
of personal nomenclature, all having their origin in remote 
times it may be in the facial and corporeal peculiarities of 
our progenitors. A few examples will show at a glance the 
justice of this observation. x From Colour we have the 
names of Brown, Gray, Green, Black, White, Blue, and 
so on over the entire gamut of the artist's paint-box. From 
Stature we have Long, Shirt, Small, Bigg, Little, and many 
others. From Complexion we have Fair, Dark, Pale, &c. 
From bodily Strength we have Strong, Force, Wight or 
Weight, &c. ; and in reference to distinctive peculiarities, 
we may cite Strongarm or Armstrong, Greathead, Great- 
heart, Longear, Longshanks, Cruikshanks^ Longman, and 
a host of others, some of which will be readily suggested 
to the reader, and some of which also are capable of bearing 
very ludicrous constructions. lu such historical names also, 
as Malcolm Ceanmohr (Bighead), William Rufus (William 
the Red), Philip the Fair, and such like, we have clearly 
illustrated the distinctive amount of attention which has 
always been accorded to Physical oddity or peculiarity; and 
were we to search for further examples in other languages 
than our own, a mine of illustration would be opened up 
to us which might be worked successfully ad infinitum. 
But we refrain from swelling our remarks on a feature ol 
the subject which all .will readily admit, even although 
some may have been struck with it now for the first time. 


Having thus taken a cursory view of the literary history 
of the science, and brought it down to a comparatively 
recent date, we shall, in view of the hopelessness of the 
attempt to sketch the proportion and scope of the volum- 
inous writings on this subject with which the literature of 
our day has been flooded, proceed to outline, from a pre- 
fatory point of view, the intentions and aim of this the 
latest, and we hope to convince our readers, not the least 
meritorious of those works which have for their object the 
elucidating and elaborating of the noble and comprehensive 
science of Physiognomy. 

A vast amount of time, trouble, and money is expended 
in the search for new fields of natural Phenomena, &c., 
wherein to exercise that capacity for wonder and amaze- 
ment, with which the Divine Head of nature has seen fit to 
endow us. To gratify this propensity of ours, nothing 
seems too arduous to be undertaken and no problem too 
profound to be investigated. For this Central African 
voyages of discovery are embarked in, the crossing of the 
Australian Continent is attempted, the Matterhorn is scaled, 
and the interior of the earth is ransacked. For this Arctic 
Expeditions are^ organized, Rosse's Telescopes are invented, 
and Chemical analysis is undertaken. To minister to this 
craving men cross the Atlantic in a shallop and attempt to 
swim over stormy arms of the sea. For this numberless 
lives are lost in the watery wastes of the sea, and in the 
howling wildernesses of the land; and for this, from first to 
last, millions of money have been dissipated and oceans of 
blood have been shed. And yet how blind is all this 
wasteful expenditure of force and energy! Neglected sub- 
jects of wonderment are continually to our hand, before 
which, in the deeper and more legitimate sense of wonder, 
Matterhorns, Polar Seas, Earth's crust, and Ocean's bed 
dwindle into mediocrity and insignificance. To cite one 
subject which more immediately concerns the matter w 


have now in hand, we have but to look around us in the 
pursuit of our ordinary avocations at the amazing variety of 
form and feature which the human face exhibits. Whence 
comes this infinite variety, and what is the intention and aim 
of the all-powerful intelligence in diversifying so infinitely 
the results of that operation of its workings which we have 
accustomed ourselves, somewhat vaguely, to call Nature? 
The members of the human family are brought into exist- 
ence all possessed of the same general characteristics, the 
same organs of locomotion, of sight, smell, hearing, breath- 
ing, and touch, or, to speak in language more to the point, all 
have heads, eyes, noses, ears, hair, mouths, chins, breasts, 
arms, hands, fingers, stomachs, vertebi'ae, abdomen, genera- 
tive organs, legs, feet, and toes. If it be objected that 
absolutely all are not thus endowed at birth, and that 
abnormal specimens are not unknown, we answer, that this 
circumstance is in no wise either antagonistic or favourable 
to our premises, except in so far as that the rare exception 
contributes only the more firmly to establish the rule. For 
a general proposition we may assume, then, that all are en- 
dowed at birth with the same general characteristics, and in 
view of this, how calculated to excite our wonder is the fact 
that notwithstanding this general similarity, nature yet 
so diversifies her operations, that not one single human 
being is produced exactly like another. And not so only 
when applied to contemporary beings, but were it possible 
to reproduce the human race in its entirety, since the 
advent of man, no two individuals taken from these countless 
millions would be found to be alike. In view of this 
astounding diversity of lineament, so vast as almost to take 
away one's breath at the contemplation, it would be mere 
imbecility in our vain endeavours to find a solution, to 
throw ourselves into the arms of "Chance." Modern research 
has now left "Chance" not a leg to stand upon; there 
appears to be no such thing as accident in nature, and 


every effect, however seemingly insignificant or fortuitous, it 
the result of the operation of that inscrutable intelligence, 
which, working within well defined and unchangeable laws, 
wields the destinies of this universe of ours. There is not 
the very slightest variation of the human form and coun- 
tenance, which is not the result of well defined causes of pro- 
duction ; and we have only to formulate as is done in the 
science of Physiognomy these results, to acquire the power 
of deciphering nature's own hieroglyphics with unerring 
accuracy. As no two outward forms are exactly alike, so, 
and in just precisely the same degree, do no two inward 
forms or characters bear perfect resemblance. We may 
endeavour to divine the design of the Author of creation in 
enacting from all time a law so unchangeable and so preg- 
nant with weal or woe in its right or wrong comprehension 
and application to the human race, but as a matter of 
absolute certainty we are unable in the order of things to 
grasp at the motives of Omnipotence. There is, however, 
little doubt that the Universe, and the various organisms 
with which it is peopled, have been designed for the 
creation, occupation, and abode of that ethereal essence, 
the highest, infinitely the highest, organism of which we 
can have any conception, the SOUL. As, however, we 
have to do more with the material aspect of the subject in 
question, we shall not take up time and space at present 
in metaphysical deductions. 

Notwithstanding this broad and almost illimitable diver- 
sity, as exemplified in the individual, we find society as a 
whole riveted together in the closest bonds; and that 
element of individual diversity, which at first sight we 
might suppose to be calculated to have a disintegrating 
effect, is on a closer inspection found to be the very 
strongest welding ingredient which goes to form society. 
The mind, as it were, utterly defeated in the effort to take 
in the idea of the human race individually, seeks refuge ID 


the contemplation of it as a great whole, and tho same 
principle tends throughout to weld the mass together in 
the closest bonds of union. And it is not presuming too far 
to say that in these features we plainly discern the design 
on the part of the Divine agency to preserve distinctly 
together the two elements of individuality and union, the 
two separated by a well defined line of demarcation, and 
yet at the same time bound together and dovetailed on the 
most intimate footing of fitness and expediency. A har- 
monious union alongside of a distinctive identity we find 
maintained with the most beautiful precision, and all this 
accomplished notwithstanding the infinite multiplicity of 
names, and the antagonistic action of thousands of other 
causes, which would at first sight seem overwhelmingly 
destructive, but which become harmless when brought into 
close contact with nature's decrees. 

We have seen that the varying effects of this action on 
the part of nature's law are illimitable in number, and 
likewise we find that the causes which produce those 
effects are also countless in their character. Every con- 
ceivable variation of condition, however minute and 
however seemingly unimportant, exercises its influence 
on the interior and exterior, and goes to produce Physiog- 
nomies of innumerable types and forms. Ante-natal 
influences, such as the mixture of the blood of different races 
and nationalities ; the immediate conditions surrounding the 
parents, and thousands of influences acting upon them pre- 
vious to conception; the various causes which tend to pro- 
duce mother's marks; fashions wielding strong though 
often unsuspected influences upon nations and individual 
members before birth and throughout life; climatic agencies 
moulding and shaping the form and destinies of millions; 
altitude, with the hand of a master artist, colouring and 
laying on her tints and hues according to her strength 
and capacity. Heat and cold asserting their rights and 



stamping their effects. Food in its various quantities and 
unnumbered qualities affording varieties of expression and 
difference of strength to the varied forms of organization ; 
customs, habits, and fashions, with their elevative or depres- 
sive tendencies. The very air which fans the brow of 
man tones up or down his spirits; the west wind bringing 
enterprise and progress ; the northern blasts lending staid- 
ness, stability, and determination of purpose; the changeable 
and ever varying breezes from the mellow, sunny south, 
making us petulant, changeable, and faultfinding; and the 
dire east wind inducing a gloomy, morose, and foreboding 
state of mind in those who are subjected to its baneful 
influences, and warping them out of calmness and placidity 
into irritability and mental tempest. Sickness slowly but 
surely cutting her seams upon the visage; Avarice drying 
up and shrivelling the entire organization; Study and 
mental labour furrowing the expressive brow; Love warm- 
ing and tinting the face; Hate blackening arid hardening 
the visage; Hope lending a cheerful halo to adorn the 
countenance ; Aspiration elevating the features and inspiring 
the soul; and thus it is with every sentiment and emotion 
which has its abode in the human form. 

We have hitherto looked at Physiognomical phenomena 
from an independent stand-point, and watched, as it were, 
its manifestations from a distance; but we now proceed to a 
closer inspection, and endeavour to point out and particu- 
larize, in a prefatory way, the conditions of those manifesta- 
tions as displayed on the exterior of the human form. 
We have only to watch the first dawnings of intelligence on 
the face of an infant to find this principle of nature, viz., 
the relation of mind and character to external form 
asserting its unmistakable existence. How eagerly the 
little face scans the lineaments of a stranger, and how 
quickly the pleased smile or the frightened wail follows 
apon the verdict for or against which nature teaches it 


instinctively to bring! The maternal yearning of the 
mother clothes her face in lineaments of the deepest 
tenderness, and attracts in unquestioning reliance, the 
confidence and assurance of safety in the child; and as its 
Physiognomical studies are extended, it quickly learns to 
crow and laugh in the face of the benevolent stranger, or to 
bury its affrighted head in its mother's la-p at the approach 
of malevolence. Were it not for this inborn principle, 
infancy could have no impressions of love or terror whatever, 
because, at that period the reasoning faculty is latent, and 
does not arise in its strength until long after the truth or 
error of the first impressions have been tested, and tested we 
may add almost invariably, with the result of endorsing in 
the fullest degree the fidelity of nature to its law. The 
mind of man is alternately a prey to every conceivable 
variety of emotion and feeling, and by turns it is possessed 
by joy, desire, dislike, hatred, grief, love, courage, despair, 
confidence, contempt, admiration, cowardice, cruelty, pride, 
modesty, scorn, compassion, spleen; or by the intellectual 
capacities, reason, attention, discrimination, observation, 
retention, comparison, wit, taste, imagination, intuition, &c., 
&c. Each of these feelings and emotions has itself 
reproduced and photographed in some lineaments of the 
exterior; and each of these pictures has its distinctive 
characteristic, as accurately defined and distinct, as its 
prototype of the interior. In proportion as any particular 
emotion, or set of emotions, holds sway in the human breast, 
so in proportion does its photograph, picture or Physiog- 
nomical equivalent, become more conspicuous and less 
evanescent; and it is the promise of the Science of 
Physiognomy so to formulate this unerring reproduction 
of the pencil of nature herself, as to enable its student 
to read the messages from the interior with unfaltering 
accuracy. The. mind long given up to bursts of uncon- 
trollable passion, like a tempest- tossed rudderless ship, 


draws a picture of the strife within with a brush of no 
uncertain tint, and we can see the gusts of mental fury 
indexed on the swollen visage, and sweeping across like 
a storm-cloud during the hurricane's rage, leaving at last 
traces that become indelible, and that chart out in livid 
bands the predominant passions of the victim, as well 
during lucid intervals of fitful quietness, as in the heat and 
fury of the wasting mental strife itself. On the other hand, 
the countenance of the habitually philanthropical, faithful 
to the inner emotions of which it is the index, presents the 
calm unimpassioned but still yearning solicitude for the 
welfare of others, which is so easily read by all, whether 
old or young, and which attracts so powerfully the con- 
fidence and reliance of the broken and oppressed. The 
constant sway of ennobling sentiments within wreaths the 
face into the loveliest proportions, and invites the gaze to 
dwell there as it might wish to dwell, on the peaceful 
landscape, smiling under the weight of a bountiful harvest 
In either case and in all degrees that lie between the two, 
of whatever hue or texture, the picture becomes engraved 
deeper and deeper, and it can be read at last, as easily 
during sleep as in waking hours, with the predominant 
passions active and at work. The lineaments of the 
exterior perform the same functions and indicate intelli- 
gence from the interior with the same accuracy as the 
index of the telegraph, with this important difference, that 
while the language of the latter is momentary and 
evanescent, that of the former partakes more of the 
character of a paititing, fixed, indelible, and fading only 
with life itself. The Physiognomical operator can take 
messages with as much fidelity as his more humble brother 
of the telegraph needle; he pays nothing for his in- 
formation, but the trouble of observing; and if he has 
the talent, he may turn it to account, to an extent 
which is absolutely unbounded and illimitable. This law 


of nature which ordains that all the emotions of the mind 
must of necessity be figured on the exterior, is one fraught 
with the very deepest interest to mankind. It holds out a 
book to be read in broad day, a book of the most surpass- 
ing interest, and one whereon the educated appetite never 
palls; a book in winch all read to some extent, although 
it may be, and indeed most frequently is the case, that 
such reading is engaged in unwittingly and unconsciously. 
The merest tyro in Physiognomical education can draw 
treasures from this storehouse; and no one, however mean 
his capacity, can possibly pass through life without making 
some progress, however unwittingly and unknowingly. 
It is, however, to the diligent and purposeful student that 
Physiognomy unlocks her richest stores and unfolds trea- 
sures of untold wealth, incomprehensible in their magnitude 
to the uninitiated. Were this law of nature fitful and 
capricious in its enforcement, and open to be thwarted and 
negatived by the action of foreign and disturbing forces, 
then indeed half its value would be gone; but this fixity and 
unchangeableness is the chief ingredient in its composi- 
tion, and thanks to this, we are enabled, after having 
graduated in Physiognomical Science, to draw deductions and 
conclusions with the most absolute precision and certainty. 
This doctrine may give an unpleasant shock to some who 
have been flattering themselves for years in the fancied 
success which has seemed to attend their efforts at dis- 
guising the outward manifestation of their inward emotions, 
and it may be astounding also to others who may not have 
thought or speculated much on the subject. We are willing 
to admit that all efforts to disguise the countenance are not 
quite barren of results in the direction desired and designed 
by the disguiser ; but let us see in what consists the small 
clement of success which we are willing to accord. It is 
certainly not produced by the unaided talent of the 
disguiser, whose art can really go but a very slight way 


in the direction in which he aims, and before the accom- 
plished Physiognomist the flimsy veil which he lays the 
flattering unction to his soul is a screen of the most 
impenetrable opacity, is seen through like a clear glass, and 
torn to shreds as soon as it is set up. It is painful to us to 
seem so cruel in thus mercilessly exposing the worthlessness 
of the defences here erected, but we hope to convince that 
we are cruel only to be kind in the balsam, which, before 
we have done, we propose to offer for the cure of the 
bleeding and defenceless ones. The Science of Physiognomy 
in the advanced stages to which it has recently attained, is 
comparatively so little understood generally, that we are 
aware our dicta on its comprehensiveness, and the undeviating 
course of its laws, will not at first be universally, or even 
very generally, accepted, but it can afford to wait with 
time on its side. We accorded some measure of success 
to those who fancy their ability to disguise their features 
has hitherto been crowned with complete success, and 
this modicum of success we opine to be the deception 
which is effected upon simple and unthinking people. 
The effort to disguise is superficial and on the surface, and 
it succeeds only with people who are themselves superficial, 
and whose mental investigations never go below the surface. 
This may be poor comfort, but it is all we can truthfully 
afford in the circumstances. The attempt is an outrage on 
the laws of nature, and nature with a just retribution 
revenges herself. 

The degree of intelligence within is faithfully portrayed 
on the lineaments, and in highly endowed beings we have 
the reproduction without of the fertile soil within in a 
picture of the most sparkling brilliancy. The light of 
intelligence and genius ripples and dances over the visage, 
making a picture fit as a resting place for the eye; while, 
on the other hand, at the extremity of the opposite scale, 
where vacuity and barrenness of thought placidly reign, 


we bars the vacant expression of idiocy and mental eclipse 
mirrored in a visage equally devoid of expression. There 
is absolutely nothing within, and in accordance with the 
inflexible laws of nature, there is and can be nothing 
expressed without. We have the needle of the disused 
telegraphic machine, but the galvanic battery does not 
exist, and the one is equally inexpressive without the other. 
We have in the face here a faithful signboard of the empty 
warehouse within; there reigns barren emptiness, and the 
face is negatively intelligent and truthful when it honestly 
announces the fact in such a way that all who interpret rightly 
may understand. In the former case we have what has been 
tersely but graphically and eloquently expressed as a speak- 
ing countenance ; and in the other we have in equally terse, 
graphic, and eloquent phraseology vacancy. 

The benefits which accrue to the diligent, indefatigable, 
and painstaking student of the Science of Physiognomy 
are simply incalculable in number. In no other depart- 
ment of acquired information or education can it be 
asserted with more force of truth, and with less deviation 
from plain matter of fact, that true Physiognomical know- 
ledge is a gem of intrinsic value, esteemed highly when 
properly comprehended. The ability to read with unfailing 
accuracy the characters of his neighbours, to put his finger 
on their foibles, and in fact to lay bare their weaknesses, 
if the knowledge of the science is accompanied with talent, 
puts into his hands a lever of the most powerful character. 
That this power is dangerous in the hands of the un- 
scrupulous can hardly be denied ; but the element of danger 
can be eliminated by the general spread of Physiognomical 
education, so that, without contracting the actual power 
of discernment of the talented unscrupulous, which it 
clearly could not pretend to do, educational progress 
would make the science so general, that they in' their 
turn would have their character read, their wiles exposed, 


and their influence avoided. What, therefore, at first 
sight might bo deemed a dangerous, not to say mis- 
chievous, power, placed in the hands of a few, would, by 
the operation of the perfecting law of nature, and the 
general adoption of Physiognomy as a branch of the 
ordinary scholastic curriculum, finally result in greater 
openness of character, since attempts at disguise* would be 
fruitless; more sincerity of conduct, since hypocrisy would 
gradually find itself devoid of a rag to cover its naked 
deformity; more benevolence of disposition, since male- 
volence would find itself everywhere exposed and every- 
where scouted; and in fact it would gradually be found 
that the purer sentiments alone would pay, and that the 
indulgence of vicious habits inevitably led to exposure, 
ignomy, and disgrace. We are not so sanguine as to 
hope for a very early realization of this prospective state 
of tilings, but of this we are assured that come it will, 
following swiftly on the footsteps of the onward march 
of Physiognomy, as a science of universal application and 
utility, when the formulae become household words, and 
when it will be as rare to find a man ignorant of the 
first principles of Physiognomy, as it is now to find one 
who does not know his letters. 

In a commercial point of view, too great stress cannot 
be laid on the importance attached to the study of Phy- 
siognomy, and in this connection a curious and interesting 
feature strikes the observer. The whole fabric of our 
commercial prosperity rests upon the degree of reliance 
on faith and honour, which one man can place in another. 
When the proper balance of credit is maintained in a 
community, the members of that community are carried 
on with the steady stream of comfort and prosperity; a 
healthy social condition obtains, and a feeling of mutual 
trust and confidence is induced, which becomes stronger 
and stronger, and more and more conduces to the happi- 


ness of its members, in proportion as this principle is held 
inviolate. When a system of reckless and blindfold trust 
in all and sundry is engaged in ; when dishonest and 
unscrupulous men find it as easy to obtain credit as their 
upright and fair-dealing brethren, then follow bankruptcy 
and ruin, bringing in their train untold misery and woe 
on the heads of the innocent and helpless. In order, 
then, to conduct business to a successful issue, and to 
steer clear of the shoals of insolvency and bankruptcy, 
the merchant must have at his disposal means of some 
kind or another by which he may be able to separate 
the wheat from the chaff, the honest from the dishonest. 
If his path would not be one of blind and aimless direction, 
in which he would have an infinitely greater chance of 
ruin than of fortune, he must found the principles of his 
transactions upon some assured basis, and one would think 
that the scope and conditions of this basis would require 
to be laid down with the utmost precision, and defined 
within the narrowest limits of rule and compass, so as 
to ensure the realization of the end which he aims at, 
and at the same time to act as a guide-post to warn 
him, at the numberless turnings of his commercial career, 
of the dangerous paths which can only be trodden at the 
hazard of commercial existence. Yet we find the prudent, 
cautious, and successful, in numberless counting-houses, 
jogging steadily and assuredly on in the path to pro- 
sperity and fortune, without any well defined rule of 
action so far, at least, as the superficial observer can dis- 
cover. He appears capriciously and at random to give 
unbounded credit in one quarter, and in another to refuse 
trust to the extent of a sixpence. He throws himself 
warmly into one enterprise, while to another of an ap- 
parently equal promise he promptly and unhesitatingly 
shews the '_tH -shoulder. For one man he becomes security 
to the exteV /* thousands without enquiry, while to an- 


other he insists upon the strictest scrutiny into the state 
of his reputation at the bank, demands from him refer- 
ences of the most unimpeachable character, and finally, 
perhaps, notwithstanding the favourable appearance of the 
man, and the highly satisfactory result of the inquiries 
respecting him, he closes the negotiation with an emphatic 
shake of the head. Notwithstanding, however, all the 
incomprehensibleness of this system, or rather want of 
system, as it would appear to some, no reflective mind 
can doubt for a moment the existence on the part of 
the merchant of rules of the most undeviating character, 
which he never loses sight of. And what then is the 
secret? Simply that the successful man of business, how- 
ever much he may ignore the fact, is invariably a Physiog- 
nomist of a very high order. He is a successful merchant, 
in fact, in the same degree as he is a successful Physiog- 
nomist. The terms are synonymous in his case. There 
may be successful Physiognomists who are not successful 
merchants, perhaps, indeed, not merchants at all; but on 
the other hand, there is not and never has been a success- 
ful man of business who is not at the same time, although, 
we repeat, perhaps unknowingly to himself, an accom- 
plished Physiognomist. This quality enables him to select 
servants of the stamp suited for his business, and to avoid 
and discountenance those who could co-operate with him 
only to his disadvantage. It is this faculty of his which 
explains the seeming caprice of his conduct in dealing 
with business correspondents; and it is by this knowledge 
of his that he is enabled to separate the wheat from the 
chaff, the commercially dishonest and the rotten specu- 
lation, from the safe man and the good investment. It 
would very much puzzle such a merchant, as the one 
instanced, in taking a retrospective glance at his career, 
to discover how he had unwittingly become engaged in 
the study of Physiognomy; when his education bad been 


commenced, and most of all, he would be astounded at 
the fact that he should have graduated in the science 
with honours, and obtained by means of it social dignity 
and position, rank and fortune, without ever having 
suspected that there existed such a faculty as that of 
reading the inward character of a man by his outward 
lineaments, far less divining that in himself this faculty 
was developed to so high an extent, as to exert the most 
paramount influence upon his character, his prospects and 
his happiness. While we thus see the immense import- 
ance of the science to men of business, we must not forget 
that considerations more or less directly springing from 
it, enter into every conceivable phase of society; and we 
do not hesitate to affirm broadly, that nineteen out of 
twenty of all the lucky hits, and the same proportion of 
false steps, are traceable to a due observance on the one 
hand, or to neglect or ignorance on the other, of the laws 
which nature has enacted in reference to the portraiture 
on the exterior of the prevailing feelings and passions of 
the interior. "We meet the principle actively at work 
every hour of the day: in our homes, in the street, in 
the market, in railway trains, in steam boats, in the 
church, in the law courts, and in fact, everywhere, where 
man comes in contact with his brother man. It is simply 
this faculty, powerfully developed, of reading the face of 
man like a book which goes to form the character, and 
which constitutes the success in life of the clever shop 
salesman. He is a fair practical Physiognomist of a high 
grade, it may be, without knowing the fact. His oppor- 
tunities of study are vast and continuous, and when this 
coalesces with natural talents of perception, he becomes 
what is known as the clever salesman, whose services 
are valued by the silk mercer and other tradesmen at 
the very highest figure, worthy in fact to be employed 
at any price. In a large retail silk mercery establish- 


ment, such a man is a source of very considerable revenue 
to his emplo} r ers, by reason of his success as a salesman. 
This success, as we have said, consists in his Physiognomical 
knowledge, as applied to the features of the shopping 
portion of the community. When a new customer enters 
the shop, our clever Physiognomist has his character 
dissected in a trice, by means of the salient points of 
the exterior. He takes in during the first few minutes' 
survey his customer's predominant characteristics, and 
decides at once as to his foibles and his weaknesses. To 
one he is cringing almost abject in his servility, laying 
on the unction of what we may call passive flatter}^ with 
an unsparing tongue. To another he is calmly dignified, 
and to a third he is almost defiant. He knows in a 
second what kind of attitude to assume to each customer, 
so as to please and conciliate the various tastes. He 
divines at once where the ordinary servility of the shop- 
man would be distasteful, and where a demeanour of 
respectful and courteous equality would best please. To 
the foolish and the vain he is profuse of bows and salu- 
tations, all evincing the deepest reverence and the most 
respectful admiration. To the suspicious customer on guard 
against being cajoled into buying more than the one article 
to procure which he has entered, he is careless and indif- 
ferent, but manages nevertheless to take captive the atten- 
tion on one article after another, all of which he parts 
with, with a half-regretful air, as if he were throwing 
them away, and would as soon have kept them as not. 
He fixes the greedy and avaricious customer at a glance, 
and manages after a while to allow himself to admit 
inadvertently that certain lots of goods have been marked 
at a ruinous reduction of price. He would rather not 
dispose of them at those ridiculous prices, until he has 
had an opportunity of consulting his employers. He is 
certain these goods have been so marked in error, but 


having aroused the greedy demon within his customer, 
he allows himself to be cajoled into producing the articles 
in question, and finally he is even foolish enough to part 
with some of them at twenty-five per cent, over their shop 
value, though all the while prophesying a reprimand or 
even dismissal on the part of his employer. Thus to 
each and every of the various orders of customers has 
he ready an appropriate bill of fare, and all with the 
result of conveying money from the strangers' pockets 
to his master's till. The adroit salesman, from long practice 
and his natural gift of perception, divines, with unerring 
accuracy, the exact line of conduct to adopt, and follows 
it accordingly, never wearying or disgusting his patrons or 
the public by an inappropriate course of action, and never 
tiring until he sees the pockets empty, or at all events, 
his customer taken to the utmost limits of his purchasing 
inclination or ability. Any one who has done even a 
very moderate amount of shopping must be acquainted 
with the awkward and bungling specimen of shopmen 
whose ill-judged pertinacity displeases at once, and meta- 
phorically speaking, has the effect of buttoning up instead 
of opening the pockets of the customer, who in future 
avoids not only the man but the shop itself, to the 
detriment of the interests of the proprietor, and to the 
ultimate undoing of his servant's success. The latter 
is very probably a more honest, and a better man by far, 
than the gifted individual whom we have just portrayed, 
but he is not a Physiognomist, and in this lies the secret 
of his unsuccess. We have often wondered how it comes 
that hairdressers or barbers, as a class, are so devoid of 
this all important knowledge of Physiognomy: and so 
generally do they disregard its principles, that we have 
been sometimes well nigh staggered in our belief. Few 
men like to be reminded that a gray hair, here and there, 
is beginning to usurp the place of the whilom glossy lock* 


of their early manhood. Few men are so constituted as to 
be highly delighted when the announcement is made to 
them, "Your hair is getting a little thin on the crown, 
sir." And yet despite this fact, the genus hairdresser 
seems utterly to ignore the circumstances, and, as a rule, 
he loses no opportunity of mercilessly reminding his 
customer of the interesting change which is taking place. 
No sooner is a head put into his hands, than a severe 
scrutiny is institii^ed for the gray monitors of the fleeting 
character of human existence. If happily the hint is 
unsuccessful, an eager search for incipient baldness is 
entered into, and if baffled in this direction, he of course 
falls back on, "a great deal of scurf in your hair, sir; 
sure sign of an approaching falling off, sir. I rather think, 
sir, you have neglected to try our ' Eureka Restorer,' 
never-failing remedy for scurf, sir, eighteenpence a bottle, 
sir." Now, how abominably distasteful is all this to the 
average frequenters of the fashionable perruquier's shop, 
for to the credit of the humbler order of establishments, 
be it said, that in it this kind of persecution is almost 
unknown. With some simple people, this in terrorem 
warning is occasionally productive of "Eureka" sales, no 
doubt; but why not apply the principle of Physiognomy, 
and learn to read the customer's strength or weakness 
before running the risk of losing patrons, by announcing 
what may be truth partly, but at the same time truth 
which had much better remain unspoken. It is in our 
own experience, that it is almost impossible to find an 
establishment of this kind where such persecution is 
tabooed; and we have been forced to account for the 
fact, in a way not very flattering to the intelligence of 
perruquiers as a body. Shop after shop has been tried 
in the vain endeavour to find a peaceful asylum where 
one might sit down under one's comb and brush in peace. 
Failure has only succeeded failure, until we have been 


forced to submit silently in the sullen endurance of despair. 
The bright aspirations and dreams of our youth have 
faded one by one, and we now look for no alleviation until 
the Science of Physiognomy has so diffused itself through- 
out the world at large, as to have its principles at 
last made plain to the meanest capacity, even to the 
capacity of the hairdresser's assistant. Until this mil- 
lennium arrives, we submit to be solemnly warned once a 
month, that unless we come round to a full conviction of 
the efficacy of the "Eureka" and invest in an eighteen- 
pence bottle, we must speedily wear a crown of unhonoured 
gray hairs. But joking aside, the loss which uninitiated 
shopkeepers in general, and hairdressers in particular, inflict 
on themselves by reason of a neglect of the simple elements 
of Physiognomy is incalculable ; and in this connection we 
do not think we are too sanguine in prognosticating the 
speedy adoption of the science, as a common and everyday 
auxiliary to the conduct of the shopkeeping business a 
step "which will be conducive to the profit of the shop- 
keepers themselves and to the comfort and convenience of 
their patrons. 

As a ludicrous instance of the application of Physiog- 
nomical acumen to the furtherance of business, we may give 
the following before finally passing on to other phases, and 
for the accuracy of the narration we can bring a voucher in 
the form of the merchant who employed the astute clerk to 
whom reference is made. In one of the most thriving 
manufacturing towns of Scotland, in which our in- 
formant was, and indeed is still, at the head of a large 
soft goods warehouse, one of these born Physiognomical 
geniuses, who could drive profitable sales in the teeth almost 
of impossibility itself, was employed. Unfortunately, 
his capacity for usefulness was very much impaired 
by habits of dissipation which he had contracted, and for 
days, and sometimes for weeks together, he would absent 


himself from business. Admonition and advice on the part 
of his employers having been ultimately found totally 
unavailing, he was at length allowed to drift unmolested 
into the exercise of his own option of corning and going at 
his own sweet will, his services being much too valuable, 
however intermittent and fitful, to admit of the idea being 
entertained of dismissal. His presence in the warehouse 
was always marked by the uncomplaining and even grateful 
acquiescence of his employers, since it was invariably 
attended by a very appreciable increase in their revenue. 
My informant was, on one occasion, engaged in inspecting, 
in a back part of the premises, a parcel of goods which he 
had received from the steamer very much damaged by sea 
water, and a special sale of which had been announced by 
advertisement and placard. While superintending the 
arrangement and marking off the goods, he was approached 
by his Physiognomical assistant, who happened then to be 
in a humour for working a state of mind probably super- 
induced by a tightness in the money market. He had 
just tackled as my informant learned afterwards in the 
front shop, one of those customers (a lady) who belonged to 
that class who are insatiably greedy of bargains, and 
especially sweet on damaged goods, and having discovered 
her character in half a minute by Physiognomical inspection, 
he had gone to work. The lady wanted a considerable 
quantity of a particular article, and she was at once assured 
that the damaged bale contained precisely the thing she 
wanted, very little the worse for the sea- water, and at the 
same time marked at a ruinous reduction in price. "Mr. 

A , does that damaged bale include any ? I want 

some now." " No, it does not," Mr. A replied. " Then 

we must damage some ourselves," the salesman coolly re- 
joined; and without further remark he drew from one ol 
the shelves a sound web of the article required, threw it on 
the floor, and dashed a basinful of dirty water over it Such 


was the unquestioning reliance placed on the sagacity of 
this salesman, that my friend. did not think of interfering 
by a word of remonstrance, though he admits that for a 
moment he felt assured that this jewel of a salesman of his 
had at last drunk himself into a softening of the brain. 
Having damaged the web to his satisfaction, the latter 
shouldered it, and proceeded to rejoin his expectant 
customer, whom he speedily managed to make the happy 
possessor of the damaged goods in question, at a mere trifle 
over the figure for which she could have purchased them in 
a sound state. We need hardly say that we do not hold 
this touching incident up for the commendation or imita- 
tion of our readers, but simply as an illustration thoroughly 
well authenticated, of the influence for good or evil wielded 
by the clever Physiognomist. 

The more we consider the Science of Physiognomy, the 
more are we struck by the universality of its application in 
all circumstances of life. If we want to ask a favour of any 
one, a knowledge of Physiognomy will teach' us so to vary 
our modes of procedure, with varying character, as to reduce 
our chances of failure to a minimum. By it we are made 
aware of the predominant characteristics of the party whose 
good offices we seek to propitiate; and over and above all 
this we can, by means of Physiognomy, decide as to the 
particular kind of humour he is in at the time the favour is 
requested of him, and thus avoid a refusal by judiciously 
suiting ourselves to his state of mind, or by postponing the 
matter to a more convenient season. How often is the 
bungler, to his unbounded astonishment, met with a curt 
refusal to his request, in a quarter where he thought he was 
assured of success, while he has only himself to thank for 
his failure in neglecting the warnings of the Physiognomical, 
index, or in being unable properly to shape and time his 
petition to the particular idiosyncratic quality of hia 
customer or fellow-man ; and thus it is in every conceivable 



condition in which man and man are placed in relation to 
each other. During the tedium of a long journey by rail 
or by water, the value of this power of reading character 
can hardly be over-estimated. If we feel inclined to enter 
into conversation, we have the means to our hand of picking 
out those who are socially inclined, and of avoiding the 
repellant and hedge-hog kind of traveller; and it enables us 
not only to do this, but after selecting the individual to be 
operated upon, we can by it arrive approximately at a sound 
conclusion as to the particular kind of topic which is likely to 
prove the most acceptable and the least distasteful ; and thus 
we may accomplish at one and the same time the improve- 
ment of our own time in a pleasant and profitable way, and 
the furtherance also of the profit, improvement, and pleasure 
of others. We could multiply indefinitely instances wherein 
a knowledge of Physiognomy would be invaluable, but the 
limits of our space compel us to adhere only to the more 
conspicuous of those. Success in life hinges entirely upon 
the adoption, in youth or early manhood, of that particular 
calling, trade, or profession which is the best suited to the 
capacity and bent of the individual ; but it is well known, 
that in the majority of cases the choice of any particular 
profession is the result of fortuitous circumstances; and it 
will not be denied that this hap-hazard system results most 
frequently in the round pin being fitted to the square hole, 
and vice versa. We have shewn that no two human beings 
are similarly endowed, and as an evident corollary of this, 
each individual must be better fitted for some one occupa- 
tion than for any other. To neglect the means, then, of 
discovering the proper sphere in time is to be guilty of the 
most mischievous folly, and yet it is rare to find parents 
going systematically to work in a matter of so much im- 
portance, and, as we have said, the decision is left very 
much to accident or predilection on the part of the parents. 
Circumspection in this direction is of paramount importance* 


but, alas, how often does the prevailing method result in 
the dissipation of the energies of a lifetime, unillumiued 
by the faintest realization of the hopes whicli seemed to 
beckon it on at the commencement. The youth who, as an 
Engineer or Inventor, would have made a glorious name 
for himself, passes through life as a Doctor or a Lawyer, 
struggling and unsuccessful. Young men who would 
infallibly have taken rank amongst our merchant princes, if 
initiated at the proper time into the mysteries of commerce, 
frequently waste a lifetime in seeking distinction in some 
sphere for which they are utterly unsuited. Young women 
fret themselves to death in the uncongenial calling of 
millinery or dressmaking, when they might have been 
profitably and pleasantly employed in the kitchen or behind 
the shop-counter; and so of all the various occupations of 
life. Physical and mental disqualifications for particular 
walks of usefulness are unheeded at the time of choice, and 
the result is, that work which should be pleasant and 
healthful for mind and body, is conducive only to brittleness 
of temper and general unhappiness. A judicious choice, on 
the other hand, gives an impetus at the start, which carries 
them on pleasantly and profitably to that measure of dis- 
tinction for which they are suited. Above all, to both man 
and woman, the choice of a partner for life is an act fraught 
with the weightiest consequences, and in this, perhaps, as 
much as in any other turning point of life, the paramount 
importance of a correct understanding of the Principles of 
Physiognomy shines forth with the -clearest brilliancy. Not 
only our own happiness, but the happiness of our children, 
and our children's children, is bound up with a judicious or 
a foolish selection, and it well behoves us to give the matter 
the very deepest consideration, at so momentous an epoch of 
aur existence. 

Apart from a utilitarian point of view, the mere pleasure 
to be derived from the science is an element which, of itself 


alone might have sufficed to make it universal in its 
adoption. When disinclined for more active pursuits, what 
a vast fund of amusing instruction may be gathered in 
the contemplation, from a window overlooking a densely 
thronged thoroughfare, of the various types of countenances 
which pass and repass in an ever ceaseless flow. The same 
may be said of a journey by railway or steamboat; and aa 
pleasure is healthiest when combined with profit and 
instruction, we cannot do better than give this species of it 
our hearty recommendation and approval We have tried 
it for years, and find it an occupation which never palls ; 
and we are convinced that these studies for leisure hours 
will be more and more entered into as the Science of 
Physiognomy becomes better known and more widely 

The moral element which is bound up with the Science 
of Physiognomy is one deserving of the deepest and most 
profound consideration and attention: and we predict, that 
in the promotion of that science, the philanthropist and 
social reformer will find ere long their most powerful and 
most efficient levers for the regeneration of mankind. The 
swollen basilar visages of the habitually vicious are the 
direct and inevitable consequences of a life-long indulgence 
in the worst passions which can take possession of the 
human breast, and they may well act as a beacon and a 
warning to the rising generation, of the untold evils which 
follow in the train of unbridled indulgence, lust, and passion. 
These are the beacons .which tell of the danger-fraught 
rocks and shoals which lie below, and on which have 
perished so many goodly barks in life's tempestuous voyage. 
Once let the moral Physiognomical survey be made, and the 
moral Physiognomical chart be drawn and laid down, and 
the voyage of life will be robbed of one-half of its perils, 
and travellers relieved of one-half their terrors. Once let it 
be generally understood and admitted that an inward refor- 


matiou is the sure forerunner of a beautifying reformation 
in the outward and visible marks of the countenance, and 
vice will be robbed of one-half of her powers of seduction, 
while virtue will be reinforced to the same extent. Our 
prisons and our Courts of Justice would become colleges 
and museums for the student of Physiognomy, where he 
would see depicted, in endless variety of revolting delinea- 
tion, the degraded pictures of the votaries of vice. In fact, 
the extent to which this lever for the destruction and anni- 
hilation of vice could be used is unbounded, and the benefits 
which would accrue would have an application as wide and 
universal as the habitable globe. The enormous sums of 
money which are required in every country, for the efficient 
maintenance of the machinery for the control and punish- 
ment of the criminal population, would be replaced by 
modest figures, and the energies and talents of our public 
judicial servants would be turned into other useful channels 
of work The general adoption of the principle would have 
the effect of making so apparent the scoundrel, the thief, 
and the habitu&l criminal of whatever cast, that it would 
speedily be discovered that vice was an article no longer 
marketable, and that upngLt and honest dealing were the 
only passports to a livelihood. It is in this merciless 
exposure of vice, when the vicious could no longer walk the 
streets without, in his face, carrying a signboard denoting 
the rottenness within, that is to be found the most powerful 
element for the elimination of vice in the future. These 
unfortunates would be literally starved into a different 
course of action, and would be compelled, nolens volens, to 
retrace their erring steps to the paths of virtue. It is 
impossible to calculate the influence which this feature will 
exercise when the Principles of Physiognomy have reached 
their acme of development. When Physiognomy is taught 
in our schools, and when chairs of Physiognomy are insti- 
tuted in our Universities, then may we mark the dawn of 


the better time, the approach of the millennium of thefutuie, 
and a giant stride on the part of the human race in ita 
inarch to perfection a perfection which the Omnipotent has 
enacted from all time to be the fit resting-place for that 
ethereal essence, the Soul. 

L6ON M. GAMBETTA, an eminent French statesman and founder of 
the French Republic. When he died from a pistol wound, in 1882, at 44 
years of age, his brain was found to weigh 40-,^ ounces, whereas boys of 7 
to 14 years of age average a fraction less than 46 ounces. Dr. Flint, in his 
" Physiology," gives the average male brain in New York at a little over 
50 ounces. Here we find one of the most powerful of the statesmen of 
his time with a receding forehead and exceedingly small brain. 


" We are all the slaves of our organism." Emerson. 

THE question of human responsibility, involved as it is in 
the metaphysical subtleties, yet pregnant with the weighti- 
est practical interest, has ever been the vexed inquiry 
of speculative theology. But although I am somewhat 
attracted to this perplexing field, by the subject I am about 
to discuss, I shall not here attempt its exploration. I 
shall leave the metaphysicians to solve the question 
whether mind is the result of physical organization, or 
physical organization the result of mind ; or to what extent 
they both act and react upon each other. In this work, 
strictly devoted as it is to Physiognomical Science, it will 
be sufficient for me to point out those mental and moral 
characteristics which, in common experience, are always 
found in connection with distinctive physical types. 

A scientific definition of the types of the human body, as 
regards the relations and proportions between its various 
parts, has been attempted even by the earliest writers. 
Galen and Hippocrates contended that all men could be 
classed under four erases or temperaments, viz., the san- 
guineous, bilious, melancholic, and phlegmatic. The bilious 
temperament, according to Hippocrates, is the result of an 


excess of yellow bile secreted by the liver; the melancholic, 
of a surplus of black bile produced by the spleen; the 
sanguineous, of an overplus of blood originated by the heart, 
and the phlegmatic, of a superabundance of phlegm a 
watery fluid consequent upon the action of the brain. 
The progress of physiological science has shewn us that 
the brain does not, as the Greek pb} 7 sician supposed, 
originate a watery fluid, and that black bile is not produced 
by the spleen, nor blood by the heart. Yet, notwith- 
standing these errors in the details of Hippocrates' system, 
his classification, as such, has been handed down through 
succeeding ages, and is more or less in favour to-day. Now 
I maintain that this ancient system, and all the modern 
schemes which have been founded upon it, are essentially 
false, because they are not based upon nature, and because 
their terminology is obscure to any but the scientific 

I prefer, in the consideration of this subject, to discard the 
word temperament altogether, as liable to grave misunder- 
standing, and to designate the different classes of men by 
their different- physical forma. These forms, which are five 
in number, I shall consider in the following order. The 
Abdominal Form; the Thoracic Form; the Muscular and 
Fibrous Form; the Osseous or Bony Form, and the Brain 
and Nerve Form. In this order I follow nature in the 
manner in which she unfolds the respective powers of 
mankind. I ascend from that which developes first to that 
which is latest in maturing, from the lower part of the face 
and physique to the superior portions, and the same order 
is maintained throughout the entire classification of this 
book. The number of the classes of the signs of the 
faculties correspond with the number of forms which the 
signs and their even combinations represent. Every person, 
of course, possesses all of these forms, but in the vast 
majority of instances they are unequally developed, in 


which case, the predominating form or forms, by marking 
the leading characteristic, indicates the class to which the 
subject belongs. 

The abdomen is that part of the body which lies between 
the thorax and the pelvis, and includes the larger part of 
the digestive apparatus, and the intestines. The form to 
which the abdomen gives its name may be morbidly in- 
creased by entire freedom from care and study, and excessive 
indulgence in eating, drinking, and sleep. Those in 
whom it is highly developed have full cheeks, a double chin, 
one or more wrinkles running round the neck, short and 
irregular wrinkles on the forehead, almond-shaped and 
sleepy eyes, a round, pug nose, and general fulness in the 
abdominal region. They are epicurean in their tastes, 
prudent, indolent, good-natured, social, and fond of making 
and of spending money. They are rnclined to adipose 
accumulation, and succeed better in the social circle than 
in high deliberative or executive functions. The activity 
of their excernent system gives them the plump and 
aqueous appearance which is consequent upon an abun- 
dance of the vital fluids. Daniel Lambert may be cited 
in illustration of the abdominal form. 

The Thoracic form is highly developed, when the thorax 
is relatively large. The heart and the organs of respiration 
are contained within the thoracic cavity, hence mountain 
air, and mountain climbing; striking the chest rapidly after 
a full inhalation; running; swimming, and other exercises 
increase the Thoracic form, by developing the lungs, and 
stimulating the circulatory action of the heart. Those in 
whom this form predominates, are fond of amusements, 
pure air and exercise. They are cheerful and imaginative, 
but dislike confinement, and are usually averse to study. 
Their muscles are of a fine and rather firm texture, and 
they have generally a large nose, with expanded nostrils, 
prominent and wide cheek bones, protuberant veins, and 


moderate or small brain and abdomen. They are peculiarly 
liable to acute diseases, and especially to inflammatory com- 
plaints. Cicero was a good example of this form. 

As large bones are not always accompanied by powerful 
muscles, it is necessary to discriminate between the Muscular 
and Fibrous, and the Osseous forms. Dr. Windship of 
Boston, although able to lift 2,600 Ibs., is a man of small 
frame-work The Muscular form is developed by all kinds 
of energetic and healthful muscular exercise. Those who 
are distinguished by it are sensitive and energetic. They 
possess . abundant physical courage, and although compar- 
atively slow to anger, are desperate when exasperated. In 
the purely intellectual powers they are seldom gifted, but 
when urged to practical exertion by love, ambition, rage, or 
fear, there are few obstacles which they cannot surmount. 
They are elastic and amorous, and when irritated become 
destructive. Dr. Windship, who is a conspicuous instance 
of this form, told me that light-haired people were the most 
susceptible of physical development. He is light-haired, and 
of a sandy complexion. Romulus, Hercules, Achilles, Hector, 
Ajax, Alexander the Great, William Wallace, and Robert 
Bruce, all possessed the muscular fornj. The Spartan 
legislators paid particular attention to the development 
of the physique, and to that end ordained that women as 
well as men should practise running, wrestling, boxing, 
jumping, swimming, quoit-pitching, and throwing the 
javelin. To insure a muscular race, they also ordered that 
all weakly and deformed children should be destroyed 
immediately after birth. Plutarch informs us that, the 
better to tone the fibres, the athletic exercises of the Greeks 
were performed by both men and women in a nude 
condition. The physical signs of the muscular form are, 
general breadth of the body, well defined tendons and 
muscles, heavy shoulders, a nose broad at the base, and a 
large short neck. The muscles may be developed by 


vigorous exercise in the shade, but the growth of the bones 
is dependent on the influence of sunlight. 

Those persons strongly characterized by the Osseous form, 
have a sallow or dark complexion, long limbs and fingers, 
square shoulders, a prominent nose, hollow cheeks and 
temples, and straight hair. They are ungraceful in their 
movements, slow in motion and judgment, but very 
reliable ; awkward in bestowing or receiving a favour, 
careless in details, and more fond of comfort than display. 
When this form is supported by a large brain, and general 
healthiness of organization, it is highly favourable to talent 
and greatness. Plato, Plutarch, Alfred the Great, La 
Fayette, Washington, and Lincoln possessed the Osseous, in 
marked but harmonious combination with the Brain and 
Nerve form. 

The Brain or Nerve form is s^own by various external 
signs, such as an uneven or angular surface of skull, sharp 
features, thin lips and nostrils, wasted physique, an anxious 
and discontented expression, a relatively small chest and 
neck, and a relatively large head. Persons of this form are 
quick in their motions, keenly sensitive to every species 
of suffering or enjoyment, and peculiarly susceptible of the 
influence of alcoholic liquors, opium, tobacco, and tea. They 
are apt to be dyspeptic, irritable, fidgety, and super- 
attentive to details. They carry too much sail, and they 
need a great deal of sleep and healthful food to repair the 
waste of nature incident to the excitement of their intense 

The most important lesson which can be derived from 
the science of physiognomical forms is, that an appropriate 
and protracted system of education and living may so 
modify their relative development as to bring them all into 
that harmonious proportion which is the condition of the 
highest mental and physical health. A child, for instance, in 
whom the brain and nerve form is unduly ascendant, may 


acquire the Osseous form by drinking calcareous water, and 
by plain diet, pure air, and light manual labour in the sun- 
light. All the other forms may be similarly transmuted by 
appropriate training. The Creator has given perfection of 
physique to very few of His creatures; but he has arranged 
the animal economy with such ineffable wisdom and good- 
ness, that all have it in their power to decrease their natural 
defects, and approximate, at least, to a perfectly harmonious 
organization. As childhood is the period when human 
beings are most susceptible of all kinds of educational 
influences, it is evident that parents and guardians are 
deeply responsible for the healthy combination of forms in 
the children whose rearing is committed to their care. 

FREDERICK THE GREAT, author of 23 volumes, possessed the retro- 
gressive and homoeopathic forehead, crouched top head, yet, in liberality, 
significant genius, remarkable intellectual power, enterprise, and heroism, 
he has rarely, if ever, had an equal among monarchs. 


ONE of the most important lessons which an observant, 
thinking man can learn is, that there are certain boundaries 
to human knowledge beyond which he cannot step, without 
involving himself in the fogs of superstition. The How of 
a natural law we may define and explain, but the Why 
sometimes evades our efforts. 

We cannot tell why platinum is eighteen times heavier 
than water. Why chloride of sodium (common salt) 
always crystallizes in the form of a cube, no matter how 
often it is dissolved in water. We perceive that the com- 
bustion of a tallow candle is caused by the oxygen of the 
atmosphere uniting with the carbon or tallow of which it 
is formed, by what we term chemical action, producing 
carbonic acid gas. But Why this takes place has never 
been answered. 

Why the sun is so much larger than the planets, or why 
they revolve around him within certain limits, are matters 
entirely beyond the reach of our reasoning powers. We 
observe only the facts, and from those facts deduce what 
we call natural law. 

The same rule pertains to our knowledge of humanity. 
We cannot tell why men and animals with large build in 
the abdomen are more fond of eating and ease than those 
of less prominence in this region, and yet from practical 



observation we discover such to be the truth. To the 
attentive eye the world appears filled with principles and 

1. S 2. 

1. The Abdominal Form Large. The Claimant for the Tichborne Estate. 

2. The Abdominal Form Small. Wallace, of Kelly. Copied by permis- 
sion from "The Characters of Glasgow," published by Mr. John Tweed, 
1 1 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. 

curious facts, yet none can fathom the reason why of their 



Geology reveals to us the fact that the first living 
organisms were destitute of bone or frame-work. Every 
portion of the body was constructed to minister to eating 
and digestion, which was the great aim of their existence. 
Tue stomach occupied the centre, protected on all sides from 
injury, and the digestive power was strong and active. 
The Polypi were round bodied, destitute of bone or shell, 
and from the commencement to the end of their existence, 
did nothing but eat and digest their food. 

As we come down later in the scale of animated life, we 
discover the Dermal skeleton, or that where the bony 
structure or shell is on the outside, as in the Mollusca and 
other shell-fish, together with the tribes of insect life. Still 
later we have the Neural skeleton, where the bones are 
inside, as in the horse, dog, sheep, and animals of the 
highest type, as well as Man. 

The law of growth in the world seems to be from the 
lowest to highest forms of being. As the efforts of the boy 
are, excelled by those of the man, in beauty, perfection, and 
usefulness; so nature, or the earth, appears to progress in 
each later age in her productions of animal life. 

Races of men make their appearance, reach their utmost 
capacity, then go to decay, and become extinct. As one of 
the first acts of life is to eat, so the first nations of men 
lived mainly to eat. Then came the muscular age of Egypt, 
Greece, and Rome, where war and labour were the chief 
occupations, and now still later we enter upon the age of 
thought and reason. So rarely is it we meet a man of large 
abdomen, that when we do, we regard him as a specimen of 
the past age. 

Recollect the Abdominal form takes into consideration all 
that part of the body between the diaphragm (which 
separates the stomach and intestines from the lungs and 
heart) and the inner surface of the pelvis. It contains the. 
stomach, liver, and other viscera, and is the fat or oline* 


producing region the nutritive and assimilative part of 
the body. The vital forces are active in this form. What 
is eaten digests well, and the organs of assimilation store up 
their material in the form of fat; this cushions up the bones, 
rounds out the muscles, and gives a plump appearance to 
the whole frame. 

Attendant upon a large abdomen are broad mouth, round- 
ness of chin, cheeks, &c., a softness of flesh (from the 
presence of fatty matter) to the touch. The eyes are usually 
sleepy looking; face destitute of expression; pulse slow; 
movements lazy ; in fact, neither quick in action nor thought. 
To them it is a matter of indifference whether butter is ten 
or fifty cents a pound, provided they get enough of it. 
Personal cares hang loosely on their minds, and slip off as 
easily as their clothing; they never borrow trouble, but 
are ever willing to lend it; and are always averse to physical 
labour, or incapable by illness. They may be fitly repre- 
sented as a bag of food, or a storehouse of fat. 

An ordinary tumble does little injury to a man so \ell 
padded and protected. Dinners are of more consequence to 
him than ideas. Such men are never close students, what- 
ever may be their pretensions. Their dreams have never 
chiselled down their faces by day or night, and their joys 
are as rarely intense as their sorrows. The glands are all 
active, and do their work thoroughly; sleep is easy, and 
tends to assist digestion, while it increases the fatty secre- 
tions. Children who sleep much, and assimilate their food 
readily, are almost invariably fat. 

Persons ' Ihe Abdominal shape should be especially 
careful not to overload the stomach with food, as they are 
liable to diseases of an apoplectic or paralytic character. 

Man is endowed with reason that he may overlook and 
control his appetites and passions, and thus keep in a healthy 
condition the whole animal economy. 

The principle involved is like that of a threshing 


machine, too much grain chokes up the apparatus, and 
the whole force is lost ; so the vital organs become clogged, 
and disease and death ensue. Men who are large in the 
Abdomen are unexcitable, their ideas are as undefined as 
their bodies are destitute of angles and points. Daniel 
Lambert, in England, was a remarkable specimen of the 
Abdominal shape, and Dixon H. Lewis, long time senator 
in Congress, from the Southern States, was another, in 

They are subject to such diseases as inflammatory 
rheumatism, dropsy, and similar complaints. Mentally they 
are indolent, sensual, cowardly, unambitious, and deficient 
in enterprise. Those characteristics naturally invite the 
insolence and oppression of others. The inhabitants of 
Central Asia are principally of the Abdominal shape, and 
they are wanting in dignity, energy, and enterprise. 

The English partake in some degree of this build, blended 
with the bone and muscular attributes, and this combination 
gives them self-possession and a consciousness of indepen- 
dence. The highest compliment which an Englishman ever 
pays a foreigner is to tell him that he really took him for 
an Englishman. 

Where the Abdominal characteristics predominate in a 
nation the character of the people will be social in secular 
affairs, and slow and easy in domestic life. Women 
become indifferent to tidiness in housekeeping, as exer- 
tion is unpleasant to mind and body, and men of this 
build make poor and lazy mechanics. Their mental efforts 
are apt to become confused, the labour of thinking being 
equally disagreeable with that of physical exertion. 

Sydney Smith, the celebrated wit, once sat opposite to 
a man of this organization at the dinner table, and for 
a time was profoundly impressed with his solemn, por- 
tentous-looking face. After watching and waiting a while, 
to catch the drops of wisdom he expected to fall from 



the fat stranger's lips, a huge dish of apple dumplings was 
placed on the table, when in a moment the half-closed 
eyes opened widely, stared with delight at the dumplings, 
and the supposed philosopher exclaimed; " Them 's the 
jockeys for me." Sydney Smith then learned a lesson in 
Physiognomy which he never afterwards forgot. 

In the walks of science and art the fat man takes little 
delight; to him the thorny path which leads to greatness 
is an insuperable difficulty, and he is better pleased to 
reap the harvest which the industry of others has pro- 
duced, than to work himself in the vineyard. 

When boys shew a pre-disposition to this form, they 
are apt to be untruthful; they enjoy fun, but are physi- 
cally and mentally too lazy to make it; but when it is 
joined to the Bony and Muscular form, it gives a keen 
appreciation of wit and humour. They are sluggish, like 
the stagnant waters of a morass, and inclined to be impure 
in thou'ght. Not from such, but among the slim and 
active, must we look for the regenerators of the world. 

Food, when introduced into the stomach, allays the 
passions, and by calling the, vital energies to the work 
of digestion, produces an indifference to mental action: 
hence the importance of setting apart proper hours for 
thought and study. Whatever power is used in digestion 
lessens that necessary for the brain. Thousands of lawyers, 
clergymen, and merchants, invite their friends to their 
own funerals, by rushing into mental labour on a full 
stomach. A clear brain and a clean stomach are so nearly 
synonymous, that a sermon on health might be preached 
without any other text. 

Napoleon attributed the loss of a great battle to the 
fact of his having eaten something which did not agree 
with him. Charles VI., Emperor of West Austria, ate a 
dish of mushrooms that caused dyspepsia, and his death. 
The destiny of kingdoms sometimes hangs in the balance, 


which a full or empty stomach may turn in one or the 
other direction. To eat reasonably is to eat moderately 
the food best fitted for mental and physical activity, as 
the fatty or carbonaceous substances taken into the system 
only serve to maintain warmth, and fulfil no other 
purpose than the coal does in our stoves. We should, 
therefore, abstain from that class of diet, especially in 
the summer season, when warmth is not an object. Too 
many people cram and stuff their own stomachs, and those 
of their children, just the same in summer as in winter, 
and by that means induce the presence of those fevers 
which seem to be permanently located in our midst. 

When the body is healthy, we can often move among 
diseased persons with impunity; but when it is gorged 
with improper food, or too great a quantity, a field is 
offered for disease to work upon, and death is frequently 
the penalty paid for such neglect. An enormous appetite 
almost invariably attends insanity and idiotcy. 

Where it becomes necessary to cultivate the Abdominal 
form, care should be observed in the selection of food. It 
should be plain, easy of digestion, and taken several times 
in a day; mastication should be slow and perfect; rest 
after every meal; sleep indulged in if desired; good temper 
should be encouraged, and nothing should be allowed to 
interfere with the mind or body during the process of 
digestion. The drink, milk and water only, and very 
soon the viscera will be strengthened, and the abdominal 
powers will become enlarged and improved. 

To repress this condition, the eyes and ears should be 
kept open, and the mouth shut. We should eat less, and 
try to work and think more. 

By associating with persons whose brains are active, 
and whose nervous organizations are full of life, the sleepy 
fat man will gradually acquire habits of thoughtful ness; 
contact, by the law of sympathy, will induce greater 


activity in the torpid brain, and each succeeding effort 
will prove easier than the former; until at last, in the 
place of a human being devoted like a hog to the solidi- 
fication of carbon, in the shape of lard, we have a man 
fulfilling the nobler destiny of solving the great problems 
of life and motion with which the world is overflowing. 

The use of alcoholic drinks, in all cases, tends to a 
degeneracy of the body, producing the Abdominal form. 
The hydrogen, which is the basis of alcohol, produces 
temporary warmth at the expense of the destruction of 
the tissues of the body, and inclines the stomach and 
liver to fatty secretions; this is the reason we see so 
many bloated faces around our too numerous saloons; 
and when disease once takes hold of such a subject, he 
is almost sure to be hurried off to that bar, where, it is 
said, men give an account of wasted or well-spent lives. 

Personal salvation must begin by controlling the appetite; 
pure souls are not to be found in impure bodies, and 
before we can be born again, a fitting temple, swept and 
garnished, must be prepared for the regenerated spirit. 
Associate, then, with persons who are intelligent, observe 
and copy their habits and manners, and in time the 
burden of fat will fall from you, and additional weight of 
brain will take its place. 

This large Abdominal condition has many times been 
cast aside, and exchanged for muscle and brain. Sleep 
little, eat seldom, study much, bathe daily in cold water, 
climb the mountains, and there, while respiring the pure 
air, let your soul drink in the great and holy sermon 
which is preached through nature's beautiful handiwork. 

As your thoughts tower away among the hill tops, or 
recline among the flowery vales, nerve again your whole 
frame, for one grand effort,- to send your spirit, imagina- 
tively, throughout the vast labyrinths and mazes of worlds, 
rounded and painted with flowers, gladdened with the 


songs of birds, and decorated with rainbows, blue sky, 
and glorious landscapes, until you are swinging on airy 
pinions, 'mid the beautiful Paradise of the Poets. 

When your natural condition returns, and you wonder- 
ingly scrutinize, and try to divine whether it was a vision, 
a dream, or noble thought, almost doubting your own 
identity, then remember one step has been taken to 
bring your spiritual nature over your gross animal appetites 
and deadening passions. A hundred such lessons, with 
daily care and diet, will give you spiritual conceptions, 
and a thousand similar upliftings, and you will have a 
spiritual birth. Thus, and thus only, can we develop the 
mind and spirit, and curb the " Old Adam" within us. 

Dn. J. F. BLTJMENBACH, a celebrated German anatomist, physiolo- 
gist, and anthropologist, filled the chairs of anatomy and medicine at Got- 
tingen more than half a century. He first divided the human species into 
five races. This is a superlatively scientific and pure face. 


THE thorax or chest is the highest of the two great divisions 
of the trunk in the human body, being situated between 
the neck and the abdomen, from which it is separated by 
the large muscular partition called the diaphragm. The 
chest is protected from external injury by the back and 
breast bones, and the ribs, which permit the necessary 
amount of expansion, but prevent so much as would be 
injurious. It incloses the heart and lungs, with the various 
arteries, veins, ducts, tubes, which are immediately connected 
with them, and necessary for their functions. This is not 
only the great centre of the circulation of the blood, but the 
laboratory in which is carried on the all-important work of 
purifying it, so as to render it fit to fulfill its office in the 
system. Impure or venous blood impure because charged 
with carbon venous because flowing through the veins 
enters the right auricle of the heart, thence proceeds to the 
right ventricle, and is driven from that into the lungs, to be 
exposed to the influence of the air which has been inhaled 
through the trachea or wind-pipe. The precious, life-giving 
oxygen of the air seizes upon, and as it were, burns the 
carbon of the blood, which now pure, warm, and life-giving, 
is conveyed to the left side of the heart ; while the impure 
air, called carbonic acid gas, is expelled from the lungs and 
breathed out through the trachea or wind-pipe. The pure 



arterial blood is pumped from the heart through the arteries, 
and circulated in the body by capillary tubes, where it again 
contracts carbon, and returns through the veins to undergo 
the same process. As soon as the lungs have sent away the 
purified blood for circulation, the heart pours into them a 
new stream of the impure to meet the next breath, and so 
the process goes on, 
with silent but mighty 
and withal harmonious 
activity, through our 
sleeping as well as 
waking hours, from 
the first hour of life 
on till the last; for 
the commencement of 
these operations means 
life begun; the cessa- 
tion of them is life 
ended in death. The 
quantity of air taken 
into the lungs is reck- 
oned as about 502 
cubic inchesperminute 
for a grown person at 
rest during the day, 
and 400 during the 
night. But this quan- Tlie Thoracic Form Large William IIL 
tity is largely increased by exertion. 

If the respiratory and circulatory apparatus of any indi- 
vidual is in a good condition for accomplishing its work, 
sufficiently large, and having room for full play, it will 
appear outwardly in a broad capacious chest, and with this 
will be associated large nostrils, and prominent malar or 
cheek-bones. This conformation is found much more in 
mountainous regions than in low plains. In Switzerland, 


Scotland, the high lands of California, and in parts of New 
England we find what we may call the Thoracic shape pre- 
vailing; and all the points that go , to compose it are 

conspicuous in the North American 
Indians. So also the Inka Indians, 
living on the mountains of South 
America, have very large and long 
lungs; they live to a great age, 
and never suffer from pulmonary 
disease. Some are said to have 
prolonged their lives to two 
hundred years. The inhabitants 
of the city of Mexico, which is 
seven thousand feet above the 
ocean level, are never pulmonic 
or consumptive, while in the low 
grounds of that country, such dis- 
ease is very prevalent. Similar 
facts are observed in Nevada, 
The Thoracic Form Small Oregon, and Washington Territory, 
as well as in the mountains of California. All consumptive 
patients experience relief, if they visit these heights in good 
time, before the disease has progressed too far. As elevated 
regions are favourable to persons liable to pulmonary affec- 
tions, those near the sea are quite the reverse ; therefore the 
climate of London, Glasgow, San Francisco, New York, and 
other localities situated but little above sea level, should be 
avoided by persons of contracted chests. 

We are informed by Audubon, Wilson, and other Orni- 
thologists, that birds which habitually fly high have 
larger air-vessels than those which remain in lower air. 
The wild pigeon, which is capable of such a rapid and 
extended flight, reaching in some instances as much as 
three hundred miles an hour, has both lungs and heart 
large in comparison with any other birds not migratory. 


Likewise the bears of mountainous countries have lung- 
power very superior to that of the same class of animals 
living in the valleys. Even fish in mountain streams 
and lakes are found to have larger air-vessels than those 
swimming in the sluggish waters of the lowlands. 

These facts may be thus explained. In low flat countries 
the atmosphere is denser, and a given amount of air con- 
tains more oxygen than it does on the hills; therefore 
there is not the same necessity for filling the lungs in 
order to obtain what is necessary to support life. But 
when- we ascend to higher regions, the atmosphere becomes 
rarer, and we are compelled to inspire more in 'volume, 
in order to get the same in weight and efficiency. Another 
cause affecting the action both of lungs and heart, is, that 
higher altitudes are (cet. par.} colder than lower ones; and 
as we require more warmth, we must burn more fuel, that 
is carbon, to maintain the heat of the blood. Consequently, 
we must not only eat more fat and other carbon-producing 
matters, but must take in a larger quantity of oxygen to 
burn it; and then the heart has to send the vital fluid 
thrilling to the surface and extremities of the body. It 
appears to be a universal law of nature that use increases 
capacity; and herein we see the philosophy of sending 
weak-lunged people to the hills. Not only is the tempera- 
ture more equable, but the increased action of the lungs 
steadily enlarges them; the heart as a necessary conse- 
quence begins to beat Stronger; the appetite improves, 
because the carbon must be found ; good health and spirits 
are the natural result. Nature responds to activity and 
use, by giving increase of power, and strength, or profit 
thus verifying that old parable of the Talents, where those 
who used them won others, and were rewarded with 
increase, while he who buried his for safe-keeping with- 
out using it, lost that which he had. Nature destroys 
that which is not used, and because it is not used. 


When, howevei, the Thoracic form largely preponderates 
over the abdominal, the activity of the heart arid lungs 
may be too great in proportion to other functions; and 
the very intensity of the fires may destroy the life which 
the} 7 were intended to preserve. Though the broad-chested, 
large-nosed, wide-cheek-boned mountaineer is no subject 
for Phthisis Pulmonalis, he may be subject to diseases 
of a characteristic type. Among us, persons who have 
too great a proportion of Thoracic development are liable 
to haemorrhage and inflammatory fevers; when exposed to 
great muscular exertion and fatigue, they may be afflicted 
with pleuro-pneumonia and rheumatism. When supported by 
corresponding abdominal powers, and large bone, muscle, 
and brain, the well-developed thorax produces true leaders 
in war. But where it predominates, as in the mountaineers 
we have referred to, and others among ourselves who are 
not mountaineers, *t marks a type of character easily 
recognized. The distinct, well-marked features, the im- 
petuous glance of the eye, the animated hopeful expres- 
sion of countenance, the well-rounded limbs, and fine 
compact muscles, free alike from angularity and flabbiness, 
prepare us to find less mental than physical power. SucK 
persons are more disposed for a stirring, active life, than 
one of study and close application. Their impressions 
come and go; so do their opinions and religious beliefs, 
fickle as the wind; yet with a strong and courageous will, 
they act upon each while it lasts. Again and again have 
great revolutions been occasioned, \id effete civilizations 
overturned by hordes of such impetuous mountaineers 
sweeping over the more settled lowlands, and carrying 
all before them, only to be themselves* in turn displaced, 
when, through ages of luxury, they have lost their thoracic 
character. So did the earliest bands of the Caucasian race 
pour down from the Asiatic highlands to settle in Europe, 
and develop the civilizations of Greece and Rome. But 


when they became deteriorated, hordes of Goths and Huns, 
usually called barbarians, descended from the mountains 
of northern Europe, and took possession in their stead, 
to become civilized in turn. Still later, the Norsemen 
came down on old England, and gave a mighty stir to 
its population. So did the Tartars of high Asia make 
themselves masters of India, and become the terror of 
Eastern Europe, dispossessing its less hardy occupants. The 
traditions of Mexico, in like manner, point to a time when 
people came from the Andes and Cordilleras to settle in 
the lower lands and elaborate a new civilization. Popu- 
lations of rude, elastic, stirring character are bred in 
mountain lands, to transfuse fresh life every now and then 
into the more sedentary inhabitants of the plains. 

As certainly as Cuvier could describe the general charac- 
teristics of an animal from a single tooth presented to 
him, and Owen, still later, undertook to make drawings 
of animals never seen by living men, but which lived on 
our earth hundreds of thousands of years ago; so surely 
by observing the law of harmony in nature's works, the 
constant correspondence between mind and body, man and 
his surroundings, we are able to predicate that which we see 
not from that which we do see. And whenever we meet a 
man in whom the Thoracic form is strongly predominant, we 
expect to find him active and elastic, rather than plodding; 
disposed to be prodigal in his expenditure ; a playful, 
humorous, caressing, and obliging companion; easily elated 
by prosperity, and hopeful in adversity; of lively deport- 
ment, and springy step ; fond of variety, ever astir, never 
long at one stay. Such a one seldom attains pre-eminence 
in his sphere, but he may do much to keep his neighbours 
alive, and prevent social intercourse from stagnating. Let 
us add, he should never marry one of the *same type ; he 
needs a careful, steady, even-going wife, to counter-balance 
his disposition to profusion and restlessness. 


No portion of the human frame-work is so difficult to 
describe, as that upon which muscular activity and 
strength depends. We discover one man weak, another 
strong, one overflowing with physical vigour, another all 
feebleness, yet size has apparently very little to do with the 

The prize-fighter, by training, is reduced in bulk pre- 
paratory to his trial of strength and skill. The race-horse 
loses weight of one kind, which is replaced by activity and 
endurance, ere he can win the prize ahead of his com- 

To determine from whence this quality is derived, will 
be the subject matter for consideration in this chapter. 

It is not sufficient to know that one specimen of life is 
full of physical force, and another comparatively helpless; 
but the causes or principles which underlie those conditions 
must be studied, and to this task we invite our readers. 

It is from Nature we learn all that we know or can 
possibly accomplish. The Poet says 

" Nature hath nothing made so base, but can 
Bead some instruction to the wisest man." 

The artist sometimes endeavours to teach others to paint 
a landscape, but you only learn to imitate from him ; he, or 


his tutor, learned the lessons from Nature. The true land- 
scape was painted by her long before man studied her art. 
The portrait painter but copies the face which nature has 
so richly tinted; and the photographic artist uses the sun- 
light to accomplish those well rounded lines of beauty and 
grace, which no human hand can excel and but few imi- 
tate to perfection. 

The Electrician pumps small doses of lightning from that 
great reservoir the earth, but nature furnishes immensely 
larger ones from the same source. 

The rocks have been printed indelibly by nature's type, 
so that the geologist reads her stories, as readily as from a 
book, and modern civilization but poorly imitates her 
action, in that art we term the "Mighty Press. 

The Muscular Form Large S. Judas Thadeus. 

Navigation is a copy from the Nautilus, which trimmed 
its tiny sails on summer seas long ages ere man made his 



appearance on this globe. Our best efforts in this direction 
often vainly try to work out safety and deliverance from 
danger, while this little creature is capable of providing 
against the ocean storm, and always gains a haven of 

Houses were made by the beaver, musk-rat, and other 
animals, long before the first-born son of Adam built the 
City of Enoch, and their habitations serve their purposes, as 
well or better, than many of those erected by man. 

The first dwellers in 
tents but imitated the 
closing foliage of the arched 
forest overhead. The walls 
of the ancient Egyptian 
temples, leaning inward, 
are only imitations of that 
primitive tent, with the 
pointed top replaced by a 
flat covering or roof. Thus 
architecture may be traced, 
step by step, from savage 
woodland life. 

The tribe of Muras, 
occupying the forests of 
the valley of the Amazon, 
build their houses in the 
tops of trees, in exact imi- 
tation of certain animals 
which live in countries subject to inundation. Thus we see 
that nature is the source from whence we draw all our 
designs, and obtain all our patterns; even the front and 
back doors of our modern palatial mansions were invented 
by the chattering English Magpie a bird whose ingenuity 
and taste are only exceeded by its everlasting round of 
trickery and talk; perhaps in this latter respect poor 

The Muscular Form Small Princess 


humanity has also some semblance to this denizen of 
the air. 

Thus we might enumerate every trade, art, or profession 
which man proudly claims as his own invention, and shew 
they are but plagiarisms on Nature. All we know we 
learn either directly or indirectly from this great Mother 
of Life. She is our teacher, and obedience to her lessons 
implies strength, security, and success. 

Anatomy and Physiology are partial studies of the form 
and laws which govern our being, and Physiognomy 
requires the utmost accuracy in the ob. enr :ion of nature, 
to obtain success. 

The Muscular system is divided into two sets, known as 
the organs of strength and motion: the first are known as 
the voluntary muscles, which respond to the option of the 
mind ; and the other acts independently, as in the motion of 
the heart, lungs, alimentary canal, arteries, bladder, skin, 
&c. Those two sets of muscles are inherited previous to 
birth ; consequently we have only to do with their develop- 
ment and cultivation. 

In looking at nature, as exhibited in the vegetable world, 
we discover that of all the woody fibres, that species is 
toughest and strongest which, during its growth, exhibits 
the greatest activity or motion. The Elm is an instance 
of this fact. Its slim branches are constantly swinging 
gracefully in the air; no limbs bend more readily, and none 
are harder to break. This law, which unites activity with 
strength, pervades all the vegetable world; indeed, rules all 
animate life, and plainly teaches the great lesson, that 
motion and life, rest and death, are but synonyms of 
each other. 

At the birth of a child, it is unable to stand, or even 
crawl alone; but as it puts forth effort, strength begins 
to be developed, and continued activity soon converts a 
helpless being into one physically or musculurly strong; 


vigour takes the place of atony, and langour gives place 
to lustiness. 

Exercise, then, is the great developer of animal muscle 
as well as vegetable fibre. As illustrations of the fact that 
active exercise promotes this muscular strength, may be 
mentioned the cases of the Kanakas, who have been known 
to swim thirty miles, remaining in the water six hours. 
The naked castes of Hindostan, the Tasmanians, and 
Fuegians, who go unclothed in very cold weather, by 
constant exercise are able to endure cold and fatigue, 
astonishing to less active races. An Eton boy can climb a 
tree as readily as an ordinary lad could go up a ladder, and a 
savage will mount a smooth pole, using his feet like a second 
pair of hands, and jump from tree to tree, with great agility. 

In our own country we have the case of Dr. G. B. Wind- 
ship of Boston, who, by a thorough training in lifting, 
pulling, swinging, and the other various manoeuvres 
attending a gymnastic course, has become a perfect 
specimen of health and strength, lifting 2,600 Ibs., or a 
dumb-bell of 200 Ibs. at arm's length. His plan seems 
to have proved a perfect success. Inheriting, from eight 
generations of studious men, a disposition to inactivity 
of the Muscular system, and weighing but one hundred 
and twenty pounds, he sought to remedy the defect by 
a course of active exertion, so as to increase his size 
and strength. To-day he weighs one hundred and 
forty-four pounds. The deltoid muscles on his shoulders 
are very broad, the biceps in his arms are immensely 
developed, and his whole body is a miracle of manly 
strength. He now teaches a gymnastic system of physical 
cultivation in Boston. 

Compare the life of this man with that of some exquisite 
fop, whose highest ambition is to dress in the latest style, 
talk flabby nonsense to some coquette, and puff tobacco 
eruoke in the pure air, or squirt the juice upon the pave- 


ments of our cities Windship is a bundle of living nerves 
and muscles, full of life and energy, while the other drawls, 
fritters, and " cusses " a noble opportunity away. 

In addition to this constant exercise, pure air is an 
absolute necessity for the preservation of perfect health and 
strength. Our houses are, generally, poorly ventilated; and 
when mankind learns the influence of sunlight on the 
human body, we shall have stronger and better men than 
at present. This activity in man and the vegetable world 
works out all unnecessary material from the body, and 
leaves only the strongest and best behind. The lungs take 
in at least one-third more air during exercise ; consequently, 
the supply of oxygen for vitalizing the blood and manu- 
facturing muscle is increased ; much of our indisposition to 
move about arises from the presence of this useless, cumber- 
some matter in the body; and there was a profound 
philosophy in that ancient system of punishment which 
sought to cure the lazy scamp by whipping his hide 
through the streets of a town. 

As physicians, we have to be very careful in setting a 
broken bone, when the individual has been confined to his 
bed for some months, because there is unusual liability of 
fracturing the tender bone in another place. Thus we find 
that inaction causes even the bones to weaken, and become 
tender, as well as the muscles. How delicate and fragile 
are the bodies of those stationary mollusks, or shell -fish, 
when compared to the agile trout or well-muscled eel. 

Herbert, the sweet singer of a hundred and fifty years 
ago, was inspired with the thought of an active, muscular, 
and healthy man, when he sang 

"Man is all symmetry, 
Full of proportions, one limb to another, 

And to all the woi'd besides : 
For head with foot hath private amity ; 
- Each may call the farthest, brother, 
And both, with moons and tide*." 


When men with excellent Muscular development ara 
well educated, what useful members of society they become. 
This was undoubtedly what Pope meant when he penned 
the lines 

" And praise the easy vigour of a line, 

Where Denham's strength and Waller's sweetness join." 

Men who are authors, and at the same time strong in 
muscular proportions, will give evidence of boldness of con- 
ception in natural science, mechanism, or the fine arts, such 
as only comes from physically strong persons. Dr. Johnson 
was an exceedingly strong man. Robert Burns, when a 
plough-boy, could handle any two boys of his age. Shake- 
speare carried the brick and mortar with which to build the 
tabernacle in which he afterwards performed his plays before 
Queen Elizabeth. The shady halls of colleges damped and 
dwarfed not his great mind. Benjamin Franklin could carry 
a form of type in each hand up two flights of stairs, while 
it required an ordinary boy to use both hands to carry one 
of such weight. 

In our present time we have had such men as Professor 
Wilson of Edinburgh ( " Christopher North "), Charles 
Kingsley, Hugh Miller, Lord Palmerston, Lord Brougham, 
and a host of others, remarkable for muscular strength and 
activity, as well as profound learning and authorship. 
Many of these mounted the ladder of fame from humble 
life, entirely through activity of character. Some were 
poor; and here let us say, that one of the greatest blessings 
to the young is that of poverty, because the very necessities 
it involves become an incentive to action, which forms the 
basis of future greatness. Elihu Burritt, the greatest living 
linguist, laid the foundation of his greatness, in bone and 
muscle, while labouring as a blacksmith. At the forge, 
while blowing the bellows with one hand, he held a Greek, 
Hebrew, or Latin Lexicon in the other ; and in the interval, 
while the iron was heating, he mastered from two to six 


words of those difficult languages; and while hammering 
the red hot metal with his hammer, he was busily engaged 
forging out ideas on the anvil of his mind. This was the 
price he paid for greatness; and his example is but the key 
to that law which is universal. 

While men frequently work just about enough for good 
health, women often overwork themselves, especially those 
who are mothers, and have the care of a house and family. 

Legitimate rest is as necessary for health and strength as 
exercise. The pernicious custom of turning night into day, 
by woman working long after dark, causes her to feel as if 
Jael were driving the nail which killed Sisera into her 
temples, or a tightness as though Luke's iron crown encom- 
passed her brow. Many cases of constipation and headache 
can be traced to want of sleep from this cause. Then let 
mothers rest more, and make their idle sons and daughters 

To give my readers an idea of the advantages of poverty, 
and how men who have risen, started in the world's great 
race, I quote the following concerning the origin of noted 
men : Columbus was the son of a weaver, and a weaver 
himself. Claude Lorraine was bred a pastry cook. Cervan- 
tes was a common soldier. Homer was the son of a small 
farmer. Moliere was the son of a tapestry maker. Demos- 
thenes was the son of a cutler. Terence was a slave. 
Oliver Cromwell was the son of a London brewer. Franklin 
was a journeyman printer, and son of a tallow chandler and 
soap boiler. Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Worcester, was the son 
of t\ linen draper. Daniel Defoe was a hostler, and the son of 
a butcher. Whitfield was the son of an innkeeper at 
Gloucester. Sir Cloudely Shovel, Rear- Admiral of England, 
was an apprentice to a shoemaker, and afterwards a cabin 
boy. Bishop Prideaux worked in the kitchen -at Exeter 
College, Oxford. Cardinal Wolsey was the son of a poor 
butcher. Ferguson was a shepherd. Dean Tucker was the 


son of a small farmer in Cardiganshire, and performed hia 
journey to Oxford on foot. Edmund Hailey was the son 
of a soap-boiler at Shore-ditch. Joseph Hall, Bishop of 
Norwich, was the son of a farmer. Virgil was the son of a 
porter. Horace was the son of a shopkeeper. Shakespeare 
was the son of a wool-stapler. Milton was the son of a money- 
scrivener. Robert Burns was a ploughman in Ayrshire. 
Confucius was a carpenter. Mahornmed, called the prophet, 
was a driver of asses. Mohamet Ali was a barber. Madam 
Bernadotte was a washerwoman of Paris. Napoleon, a 
descendent of an obscure family of Corsica, was a Major 
when he married Josephine, the daughter of a tobacconist 
Creole of Martinique. General Escartero was a vestry-clerk. 
Bolivar was a druggist. Vasco de Gama was a sailor. John 
Jacob Astor once sold apples OQ the streets of New York 
Catherine, Empress of Russia, was a camp grisette. Cincin- 
natus was ploughing his vineyard when the Dictatorship of 
Rome was offered to him. 

I also make another selection, to show how many of the 
wealthy men in the city of New York began the great battle 
of life in poverty. 

There are sixty-seven who pay an income-tax of $100,000 
and over. The man who leads the list, A. T. Stewart, 
everybody knows, is an Irish emigrant, who commenced life 
with a capital of less than twenty-five cents. Jay Gould 
drove a herd of cattle from Delhi, Delaware County, when 
a lad, for fifty cents a day, in order to get money enough to 
reach the Hudson River. David Groesbeck, over thirty years 
ago, used to mend old shoes for his brother, who was a 
respectable shoemaker in Albany. Henry Keep, boasts 
that he graduated from the poor-house of Jagerson County. 
Jnmes Gordon Bennett and Robert Bonner, both poor boys, 
full of talent and industry. Rufus Hatch, when a youngster, 
had an ambition to hold the reins of a pedlar's waggon 
E. D. Morgan commenced life with a quarter measure of 


molasses. Henry Clews was an errand boy in one of the 
banking houses down town. The Brothers Seligman started 
out in life with a pedlar's pack. David Dows retailed pork 
by the half-pound, and molasses by the gill; and H. T. 
Hembold was first cabin boy on the sloop " Mary Jane," 
that navigated the Delaware. Such men as these were the 
architects of their own fortunes, and active muscles and 
brains did the work of their elevation. 

We all perceive the growing aversion which exists in the 
minds of Americans to manual labour, and this is the reason 
why an essay of unusual length upon its advantages and 
importance can hardly be amiss, while considering the Mus- 
cular build or form. Scarcely a month passes in which 
several young men have not applied to me for a situation to 
travel. When asked what they wish to do, they answer, 
" They would like a situation where there was not much to 
do, and without hard labour, yet good wages, and all expenses 
paid, together with a good chance to see the world." Oh ! 
horrible, lamentable fact! How many such silly idlers the 
world possesses, anii I am sorry for them. I pity them, be- 
cause their lack of training has doomed them, with all their 
golden dreams, to disappointment. My answer to them is, I 
have no such situation, not even for myself. Such young 
men will refuse positions as farm labourers at high wages, or 
the opportunity to learn some useful trade. All over the land 
complaints go up against high prices, which this growing 
hatred of work causes, while on the street corners of every 
city may be found specimens of humanity telling such tales 
as these 


" Now I lay me down to sleep, 
Musquitoes at your distance keep ; 
And if I snore before I wake, 
Tis owing to the buckwheat cake. 

" Let me dream of other days, 
On whisky punch, oh, let me 


On sherry cobblers sucked through straw% 
Before they make Maine liquor lawa. 

" Sing me the songs I used to hear, 
When every store sold lager beer, 
And every loafer told his joke, 
In clouds of poor tobacco smoke. 

*' Wake me up ' when daylight's o'er,' 
I can 't go out with clothes so poor ; 
For every fellow whom we meet 
Thinks I look too mean to treat. 

" So I lay me down to sleep, 
I wish my thoughts away would keep ; 
Oh ! could he sleep till he were dead, 
Rest would come So the loafer's head." 

A certain amount of bodily labour is a prime necessity as 
a promoter of good health and solid happiness ; and until 
young men, and young women also, cast aside the fallacious 
iio f ion that labour is degrading, we shall find poverty and 
puling sickness stalking into every house in the land. Dis- 
content, and divorces in ninety-nine cases out of every 
hundred derive their origin from the idleness of one or both 
parties. Bear in Blind, that honourable labour promotes 
womanhood and manhood, health, wealth, and that great 
boon for which thousands are vainly seeking happiness. 
When we look over the United States of America, and see 
the Northern States blooming like a garden; their stately 
edifices, private and public; their free schools, thriving 
machine shops, and manufactories; and then contrast the 
view with the woody, uncultivated south, with its ox-teams 
and log-houses, its scarcity of schools, and other means of 
enlightenment, we are forced to the conclusion that the 
people of the North have toiled and laboured, and time has 
repaid their well-directed efforts. Whereas the South has 
compelled its disinterested negroes to do its work, while the 
white race has grown up inactive and useless, leading aim- 
less lives; and an unthrifty country is nature's reward 


There is a law of compensation in nature, and by this law 
labour, if well directed, is always richly repaid. Thank 
fortune that, since the war, the Southern people have 
become more industrious, and consequently prosperous. 

The poorer classes of England and America have been 
cultivated physically by the labour to which poverty com- 
pelled them. There was a time when France and England 
had no postal system, as at present, and fast couriers were 
emploj^ed to carry letters from city to city. That class of 
servants or foot-runners were well cultivated, and conse- 
quently vigorous and healthy. In France this service waa 
performed by the inhabitants of the Basque provinces, who 
were very swift of foot. The English runners were very 
supple and robust, and took pains to keep themselves strong 
and active by dieting and other means. As a method of 
physical development, the Carthaginians engaged in swim- 
ming. About three hundred and ninety years after the 
founding of the great Roman Empire, and even at the time 
when the tyrant Caracal! a ruled Rome, the practice of rope- 
dancing was one of the popular games, and it developed the 
Muscular system in a remarkable degree. In the days of 
Socrates, leaning was a common amusement. Alexander had 
many expert runners whose muscles were finely developed; 
and Glaucus excelled in many kinds of gymnastic feats. 

Not only did the ancients practise fighting, running, 
wrestling, &c., for health and strength, but they most assidu- 
ously cared for their bodies, by currying, washing, and 
rubbing, &c. Their gymnasiums were amply provided with 
bathing appliances; and Lucian informs us that the com- 
batants in the arena freely cleaned each other after each 
combat, if not quite disabled. 

Thus we learn what care was taken in ages past to increase 
and preserve muscular strength, and the millions of dollars 
and years of labour were not bestowed in vain. We know, 
by the remains they have left behind them, that the Romans 


excelled in works of art and grand design, and that their 
bodies were models of physical and mental beauty. In 
imitation of this ancient curriculum, the colleges of Harvard 
and Yale are beginning to see the importance of physical 
training as a part of education, and are erecting gymnasiums 
within the walls hitherto sacred to mental labour. 

When this change begins to be felt, we shall see our 
college graduates taking rank equally with the sons of 
mechanics and labourers in scientific and literary pursuits. 
Among statesmen and men of letters, we rarely find the 
sons filling high stations, or making their mark as men of 
superior worth, for the very reason that the possession of 
wealth enables them to fritter away their time in idleness; 
while the mechanic often tries to make a tradesman of his 
child, whose talents fit him for philosophy, science, or art. 
The physical cultivation of the mechanic is transmitted to 
his children, and this natural birthright gives them greater 
force of character in both body and mind. 

One great cause of physical decline in children is the 
use of tobacco and stimulating beverages, such as whisky, 
brandy, rum, gin, wine, tea, and coffee. Living in impure 
air, tight lacing, concentrated and mixed diet, spices and 
I tickles, hot saleratus bread, and late hours, are all dele- 
terious to health and strength. There are secret sins 
among the young which are more prostrating to the 
Muscular and Nervous systems than any of the above 
mentioned. Then, to be strong in muscle, and of iron 
heart, that we may insure health and success to ourselves 
and to our offspring who shall represent us in life's great 
drama, let us be " temperate in all things," and above all, 
be virtwous. 

" Count life by virtues these will last, 
When life's lone-footed race is o'er; 
And these, when earthly joys are past, 
Shall cheer us on a brighter shore." 


The Muscular form, being compressed, rigid, and com- 
pact, gives such individuals a quick firm step, and generally 
rapid motions. They usually lack the gentle and tender 
emotions which we find in the Brain or Thoracic form. 
They have vigour and intensity in everything; this class 
is impressive, and capable of lasting attachment. They 
are noble in ambition, and fearless in enterprise, when 
possessed of a cultivated intellect. They resemble the 
muscular animals: the lion, grizzly bear, tiger, panther, 
lynx, gorilla, &c., all of which are full of physical courage. 
Such men dare to do for themselves, and usually are quite 
considerate. They are proud. Being irritable and high 
tempered, men of this form are vehement, intense, emo- 
tional, and strong. Their irritability and emotions affect 
the liver, which is largely under the influence of the mind, 
and this causes them to become bilious, or to have derange- 
ments of the portal and hepatic systems. They have a 
very changeable and contradictory temper. In religion 
they are apt to be remarkably inquisitive, penetrating in 
scientific investigations, and prying and expert in domestic 
affairs. Good in all serious affairs, except in prayer; 
sumptuous in living, and imperious as superiors. 

Thus we have given in detail some of the characteristics 
which attend this build. The type of these men, like the 
animals they resemble, is broad rather than tall, round, 
wide head, broad short ear, small eyes, nose wide in its 
lower part where it joins the face, short broad foot, and 
a remarkable closing of the mouth when in the act of 
eating, as if more in earnest in that affair, and at that 
time, than in any foregone act of life. They should guard 
well against liquor, for where their animal passions are 
aroused by its stimulating effects, they are apt to become 
turbulent, and at times have been known to murder, as 
they are naturally destructive. A good moral education, 
and strict temperance, will enable them to rightly direct 


their surplus force, and save them as ornaments to the 
world, and from an unnatural and disgraceful death. As 
action is the great cultivator and cause of physical strength, 
so in turn it acts again on the animal and man, and 
demands almost constant exercise. Hence, if such persons 
are not engaged in some laudable employment, their very 
nature spurs them on to do something, either right or 
wrong. Tbej' " put an enemy within their mouths to 
steal away their brains," and allow the system to become 
unbalanced by the use of alcoholic liquors, or mental 
derangement ensues, to which this form of individual is 
quite liable. 

This unguided physical force is like a powerful steamer 
without a pilot, rushing onward, mayhap, to swift destruc- 
tion. But action is their nature, and act they will, for 
weal or woe ; hence the great importance of teaching those 
strong boys the true aim of life self-government and 
strict sobriety. 

E. DiCinNSON, an American authoress, orator, and actress, 
whose vigor of intellect, force, and independence of character are photo- 
graphed on every feature. 


GEOLOGISTS, in speaking of the mountain ranges of North 
America, refer to the Rocky Mountains as the backbone of 
the continent, and the lesser ranges as the ribs and sup- 
ports, branch off from this central system; and we find 
they bear a striking similarity to the human body, in the 
apparent support they give to other portions of the earth's 
surface. As the rocks represent the* stable and reliable 
portion of the globe, so the Bony structure of man and 
other animals, gives firmness and tangibiKty of character, 
which cannot otherwise be obtained. 

There are two great causes which go to produce and 
develop large bones in man and animals. 

The first comes from nature, in the shape of soil, or 
food, and water. For instance, the States of Kentucky, 
Virginia, and Tennessee, are famous for tall men, fine 
horses, and large mules, among other things that might 
be named. The foundations of those States are laid in 
the lime rock, which everywhere prevails under the 
surface, and the water supply to man and animals is 
largely impregnated with lime, the material of which 
bones are made. 

Its secondary influence is found in the fact that the 
cereals are largely built up from this source. The wheat, 
corn, straw, and Hay of those States contain a larger per 



nentage of bone-producing food than is found in many 
other States. 

The second cause is exercise, which grows naturally out 
of a healthy and rapid bone development. The inhabitants 
of Tennessee and Virginia, who ride much on horseback, 
are usually large, lank, and 
powerfully-framed men. That 
species of exercise does not call 
for the use of the muscles so 
much as other labour, and } 7 et 
is sufficient to make the bones 
grow. Prominent men in our 
own and other countries, are 
striking examples of the inti- 
mate relation between exercise 
and large Bony structure. 
Washington, six feet three in 
height, rode a great deal on 

Lincoln, whose early life was 
one of much exercise, towered 
body and mind above his fellows. 
Lafayette, the great Philanthro- 
pist and Franco-American de- 
fender of liberty, was one of the 
tallest officers in our revolution- 
ary army. The exercise of his 
school days at Chavagnac, his 
birth-place, developed the boy 
into the tall and bony man, 
whose honesty became a pro- 
verb. Cyrus the Elder, 
Caesar, Brutus, Mahomet, Crom- 
well, and a host of others might be named who were all 
tall and bony men, and the ones, of all others, on whom 
the nations relied for support. 

The Osseous Form Large. 
Lowrie Coulter. Copied from 
"TLe Characters of Glasgow." 
Published by Mr. John Tweed, 
11 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. 


Strength of bone structure is allied to honesty and 
reliability of mind. As Owen, one of the greatest Anato- 
mists of the present centur}^ has observed, "The only 
difference between a wise man and a fool is a few grains 
of phosphorus more or less in the brain." 

So with regard to firmness and honesty of character, a 
few pounds more or less of bone makes all the difference 
between an honest man and a villain. Shakespeare was 
right when he made Julius Caesar, while he plotted for 
supreme power in Rome, exclaim 

" Let me have men about me that are fat, 
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' night ; 
Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look 
He thinks too much; such men are dangerous! " 

He knew that he could bribe and purchase the silence of 
the plump jolly fellows, but the angular long 
men were too honest to be bought. 

General Sherman is six and a-half feet 
high, and no more upright and honest man 
ever faced bullets on American soil. 

Ewing, who raised Sherman, said he was 
the most reliable boy to do an errand he 
ever knew, and by far too honest for the 
political field. 

When you see a man moving like a tall 
pine among oaks, rest assured that in con- 
nection with his fine bony structure will 
be found probity of character. Care, how- f^ 9 Osseous 

ever, must be had in arriving at conclusions Form very Small. 
,,. , . , . , , , . .,' Mr. G. W. M. 

on this subject, as height alone is not the .. 

Nutt. " Commo- 
sole criterion. dore Nutt." 

Some men are not so tall, who have larger bones, in pro- 
portion to other portions of their body. 

The general appearance of the bones of the face, the 
squareness of the shoulders, &c., are signs which indicate 


the prevailing bone build. Prominent wrists, knuckles, 
nose, cheeks, and forehead stand out plainly, as if to sayj 
here I am, you can depend upon me in case of emergency. 

You will observe that in all the portraits of Lincoln, 
the bones jutt out all over his face; and his honesty (not- 
withstanding his villifiers) has marked the pages of history, 
as it did his features, with indestructible glory. 

A_idrew Jackson was another President who knew no 
bribery or guile; and the rough bony face of the man 
would be the best monument to his memory, as integrity 
and virtue last longer than marble, and are more truly 
ornaments of human character. 

Wellington was made of more bone than any other 
material ; and as his fame reverberates from valley to hill- 
top, again and for ever, no dismantling has left one gem 
less in the great crown of honour which ever encircles 
his name. 

The highest tj r pe of animals, and those most useful as 
servants to man, are the horse and ox. They have large 
bones, the presence of which is manifest in the arch of 
the eye, at the hips, in the legs, shoulders, and other 
observable places. 

On the other hand, the most worthless and deceptive 
animals, such as the skunk, fox, porcupine, American 
panther, and animals of the cat tribe, are small-boned and 
full-muscled, and of little or no service to man, and quite 
dishonest and untrustworthy. 

The camel again is an animal of large bones, and see how 
much service he nffords in carrying human beings across 
the pathless deserts of Asia and Africa. The camel takes 
his exercise in sunshine, while the skunk, fox, coon, cat, 
and other small-boned animals prowl about at night, retiring 
to the darkest shades at break of day, while the panther 
buries himself in the underwood or gloom of the forest. 

Large bones are as much an evidence of trustworthiness 


in men as in animals ; and the influence of sunlight and 
exercise tends towards developing the Bony structure, while 
the reverse action deteriorates it. 

The backers of London, at the present moment, are 
puzzled to devise some plan by which their clerks may be 
kept honest. We say, the only way is to procure from the 
country districts boys who, by the exercise necessary to 
farm life, have finely-developed bone forms, for with this 
class of organization will be found stable honesty of charac- 
ter. Perhaps some finely-dressed city fop may wink, and 
wince, and say, a country lad could not do the business, he 
would be " so green." We reply, that George Peabody was 
a country boy, who had an excellent physical constitution, 
the foundation of which was laid in country life. Nearly 
all the London and New York bankers were raised in the 
country, and do not seem to be so green as the city fops, 
who never mount the ladder of fame, or wander abroad 
except after gaslight. 

As a general rule, persons unused to reading character 
scientifically, measure the characters of persons by them- 
selves. A mean man is well assured that 'others are as 
mean as himself. A miser supposes the love of money the 
ruling motive of action in bargain or trade. The thief says, 
" I would like to see the fellow that wouldn't steal if he 
could;" and in this way ignorance "measures another's 
corn in its own bushel." Small-boned men, whose souls 
are of the same diminutive build, can divine no motive 
but selfishness in the most generous ' actions, or in the 
lives of the world's greatest philanthropists. 

Large men, whose bones bear a full proportion to the 
other parts of their bodies, will be found to be decided, firm, 
persevering, honest, honourable, hopeful, slow, and sure; 
enduring, constant in affection, poor politicians, progressive 
in science, good providers in a family, peace-loving, yet full 
of moral courage 


Variations among members of the same family may fre- 
quently be observed. The father may have very large 
bones, and the mother very small ones, and the children 
might inherit the individual qualities of either parent 
exclusively, or a commingling of both. Bone culture is an 
inheritance not confined to one generation, but permeates 
through a long series of ancestors, and, like liberty, or any 
other of the great blessings of humanity, its price is "eternal 

While marriages are contracted without due regard to 
fitness of organization, the children born under such circum- 
stances will not only vary, but are likely to deteriorate ; 
consequently every child should have especial education 
and training to preserve and bring out the best type of 

The poorer the structure, the greater care is required to 
develop better conditions. It is the poor farm that needs 
the husbandman's nursing hand. What a stupid mistake 
those parents make, when they train up their delicate, puny 
children to be tailors, shoemakers, &c., thus dooming them 
to a life of disease and early death. 

They should have been sent out into the sunlight and 
pure air, to gambol and play the livelong day, or to swing 
the axe, to climb trees, or take any exercise that would in 
some measure remedy their poor fortunes. 

It is time we should learn the fact, that labour out of 
doors in fresh air is physical salvation, to be followed, not 
preceded, by mental safety and beauty. 

We refer our readers, who desire to learn more fully the 
effects of Bone culture, to the chapter on " Rectitude " in 
this work, or the succeeding book. When the Bony form 
becomes allied to Brain form, we have men of great genius. 
Cicero, Locke, Tasso, Petrarch, Shakespeare, King Alfred, 
Tyndall, Wickliffe, Liebig, Morse, and thousands of others 
were specimens of this combination of bodily and mental 


strength. This form gives decided features and well- 
marked physiognomies, which indicate energy of character 
and honesty of purpose. 

Bone-brain men are slow of motion, strong of mind and 
body, possessed of untiring energy and powerful passions, 
which make them disregard the grovelling law of common 
life, by which the bulk of mankind are governed. They 
devise gigantic schemes of adventure, and great and perilous 
undertakings in the pursuit of science, power, or renown ; 
linked to their purposes by the bony bands of a strong 
manhood, they pursue profoundly and accurately, without 
extravagance, the great business of their lives. This com- 
bination produces the grave and thoughtful, prudent and 
doubtful, orderly and mathematical, mechanical and inven- 
tive genius men who are usually dignified and safe in 
every enterprise. They are firm in step, cautious in their 
vocations, and penetrating in science. 

The following verse pictures men of the Brain-bone make: 

" Big was he made, and tall, his port was fierce, 
Erect his co'-'Utenauce ; manly majesty 
Sat in his front, and darted from his eyes, 
Commanding all he viewed." (EDIPUS. 

Or, as Shakespeare has remarked of large men 

" Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world 
Like a Colossus ; and we petty men 
Walk under his huge legs, and peep about, 
To find ourselves dishonourable graves." 

Most of the Bone-brain form can labour and think with 
apparently little exhaustion, and to be great requires that 
capability in an unusual degree. 

" 'Tis hardship, toil, 

'Tis sleepless nights, and never resting days, 
'Tis pain, 'tis danger, 'tis affronted Death, 
'Tis equal fate for all, and changing torture, 
That rear the mind to glory, that inspire 
The noblest virtues and the gentlest manners." 



With these facts before us, how important becomes the 
physical development in this direction, what nobler work 
for parents and educators than building up a good solid 
basis upon which to rear the future fabric of civilization? 
Men of strong arms, broad shoulders, and prominent fore- 
heads are to be the coming pioneers in all great deeds. 

Yet remember, that while every male child born in the 
United States is eligible, by law, to the highest office in the 
gift of the people, but few ever become qualified to fill the 
position of President. So with our children, the possibili- 
ties of their training are infinite, but the actual facts of it 
will depend upon the earliest attention being given to 
exercise that shall increase the growth of Bone and Brain, 

CHARLES SKINNER, a congenital idiot, being neither epileptic, rickety, 
nor hydrocephalic, yet he has the boldest, widest, and highest forehead 
the author ever saw on a human being, his head immediately above the 
eyebrows and the tops of the ears has the enormous horizontal circum- 
ference of 2GJ inches. This idiot possesses more than Goldsmith's " gar- 
nish of brains," if we judge by the size of his head, as do the phrenologists. 


AMONG all the forms of the human system, the Brain and 

Nerve form is the most important. To the rest it sustains 

the relation of master, for to it all others are subservient. 

Or if we compare the human system to a family, the brain 

may be said to be the 

husband, the digestive 

organs the wife, the 

bones the oldest and 

sturdiest son, the muscles 

the youngest and most 

mischievous son, and the 

heart and lungs the only 

daughter. The Brain and 

Nerve form being thus at 

the head, requires and 

ought to have more- 

attention paid to it than \ 

is given to the other I 

forms, as the health and The Brain Form Large. John Price, a 

, . f ,i learned critic of England, 

working power of the 

head of a family the bread-winner should be looked to 
though not exclusively, yet, with a preponderance of care; 
and where this is done, it will be found that the upper part 
of the forehead predominates in width over the facial organ- 


ism or cheeks. Of this the likeness which we give of 
President Spraker, who was for a number of years President 
of Wittenberg College at Springfield, Ohio, is an excellent 

illustration. For years he was 
a great student, lectured, taught, 
and preached, and thus strength- 
ened and developed his mind by 
hard toil until it became, as the 
reader may notice, proportion- 
ably larger than any other part 
of his organism. Persons in 
whom this form predominates 
may always be set down as 
thinkers, with inclination to hard work; so that, generally 
speaking, it is impossible for them to become fleshy. The 
truth of this proposition may be verified any day in any of 
our high class educational institutions. The round cheeked, 

full-faced boy, 
who has hitherto 
lived for the deve- 
lopment of his 
abdominal form, 
enters one of our 
colleges with a 
determination to 
work hard; and 
he is not long 
there until he 
begins to exhaust 
more than his 
average vitals are 
The Brain Form Small. George III. a bJ e fully to 

recuperate; so that he very soon becomes, gradually and 
perceptibly, thin of face and spare in framework, convexities 
and concavities make their appearance in his face ; and j ust 



as old ocean is deepest where its waves and billows are most 
stupendous, so these Physiognomical signs constitute unmis- 
takable evidence of a clear thinker. Deep lines and strongly 
marked protuberances bespeak originality of thought and 
profundity of mind; still, on the other hand, as the 
smooth and placid lake must of necessity be shallow 
compared with the heaving ocean, a smooth unwrinkled 
face declares a feeble mind, quite unfitted for anything save 
the surface of things only. 

Thus human forms 
change; the Abdominal, as 
in the above case, retires, so 
to speak, allowing the Brain 
and Nerve form to become 
regnant; and in whomso- 
ever this takes place, there 
will be found inclination to 
study, to behold, to write, to 
teach, to lecture, to superin- 
tend or plan; in short, there 
will be found the thinking 
mind. A large brain and 
a fleshy body do not seem 
to be able to draw together; 
and hence, when the Brain 
and Nerve form predomi- 
nates in a man, the flesh seems to pass imperceptibly away, 
leaving leanness and spareness behind it; at least, it is in 
harmony with observation, that the man of large, thoughtful, 
clear inind-power is as to his make-up lank and lean. And 
so Shakespeare says "Yon lean and hungry Cassius, he 
thinks deeply and reads men well." "He cannot sleep well 
o' nights; oh! that he had more of that rounder, sleeker, 
fatter head, and could sleep better o' nights." 

The Brain and Nerve form is of all the other forms in the 

The Brain Form Large. Rev. S. 
H. Tyng. 



human system the most exhausting ; and this being the case, 
with what solicitude and care it should be watched and 
trained; and in order to this, how anxious we ought to be 
to understand its working, its tendencies; the food best 
suited for its healthy and vigorous action; the recreation 
most suitable for it after hard work, and all its other 

diversified necessities, 
which, to be ignorant of, is 
almost certain to shorten 
life. Sleep restrains and 
refreshes this form, as does 
also physical labour, when 
not of an over-exhausting 
character. The other forms 
of the body are in a sense 
as important as this; but 
this being the age of intel- 
lectuality, it is thought well 
in this essay to explain it 

The Brain Form Small. Thomas Cribb, pretty fully in plain and 
Champion of England in IS 11. , ir MI ,1 

intelligible terms, so that, 

having a knowledge of its nature, requirements, and the 
influence it exerts over the whole system, our readers 
may be in a position, humanly speaking, to ward oft 
disease which, where ignorance prevails, is ever found 
planting its heavy foot upon the mechanism of the brain. 

The brain, being the seat of sensation, is related to all 
parts of the body \)y & beautifully designed system of 
nerves, so that, whatever organ may be damaged, the brain 
suffers with it. The brain may be said to be the guiding 
form ; but this is true only in a relative sense, for without 
the soul or "the Divinity that stirs within us," the brain 
would be blind, or at least would be incapable of rational 
action. The body, according to the Scriptures, is the temple 
of the living God, and ought to be the repository of the 


highest and most noble thoughts. How important, then, 
to sustain it in good order; to ward off disturbing elements 
from its various functions, so that it may pursue its in- 
tended course without let or hindrance! And how can 
this be done, save by means of that food which nature 
has provided for it, and that work for which it is so 
evidently adapted? We have said that the Brain form 
requires the greatest care; and, considering its relation to 
all the other forms, how important its healthy and pro- 
per training. Everybody knows how detrimental it is to 
have frequent sudden rushes of blood to the brain, but 
how few there are, comparatively speaking, who have 
learned' to avoid such an evil by avoiding the cause or 
causes. Hence the frequency of what is sometimes 
called nervous exhaustion, which would be more properly 
termed paralysis of the brain tissues. Whatever tends to 
derange the nervous system, deranges the brain, and much 
of the domestic unhappiness of which we hear is attri- 
butable to no other cause save this, that the habits of 
society are against a healthy nervous system, and con- 
sequently against a healthy Brain form. Husband and wife 
take into their systems enormous quantities of strong tea, 
spirituous liquors, &c., all which irritate the brain, and what 
ensues? Constant dissatisfaction, fault-finding, disrespect- 
ful retorts, squabbling over the merest trifles, so that the 
domestic hearth, which should ever be the home of peace, 
becomes turbulent with unhappiness. An English gentle- 
man once went to his minister, and told him that his house, 
from being one of the happiest homes in the world, had 
come to be a little hell. His wife and he, he said, could not 
sit five minutes together without indulging in the most 
irritating language, and as this was known to the children, 
indeed observed daily by them, he felt things to be almost 
intolerable, and wished the minister's counsel. "You are a 
heavy smoker, 1 think," said the minister. "I am," replied 


the gentleman. "And your wife, if I mistake not, indulges 
largely in tobacco, though that is not generally known?" 
"She does," answered the gentleman. "You are both in 
the habit also of indulging in spirituous liquors, especially 
at night?" "We are," confessed the gentleman. "And you 
drink very strong tea?" "Yes," replied the gentleman. 
"Then,"' said the minister, "I am not astonished at your 
domestic unhappiness. Indeed, it is a mystery to me, 
knowing what I have known all along of your habits, 
that you are not both in a lunatic asylum. Go home 
and give your wife money, and send her to one hydro- 
pathic establishment, and go you to another, remain there 
three months, and during that time give up the noxious 
things I 'have mentioned, and at the end of that time come 
back and tell me how you feel." The minister's advice was 
taken ; the old habits were given up, and at the end of 
three months a new life dawned upon that. house, peace and 
happiness reigned supreme; and why? Because, -by care- 
fully avoiding food and drinks having a tendency to 
derange the nervous system, the Brain form was kept in a 
healthy condition, and thus all tendency to irritability was 

When we say that the brain is the seat of sensation, we 
are but repeating what physiologists of all classes know to 
be a fact. Once let the nerves proceeding from the brain 
be destroyed, and the mind ceases to act; the person sinks 
into a more or less insensible condition, and sometimes 
becomes unconscious altogether, either of pain or pleasure. 
Sir Astley Cooper, a celebrated British surgeon, gives an 
instance of this, which excited much attention at the time 
at which it happened. A man (see Preshaw's Elements of 
Human Anatomy and Physiology] who, during the days 
of Lord Nelson, had been pressed on board an English ship, 
received, when sailing in the Mediterranean, a fall from the 
yu-d-arm, and when picked up was found to be insensible. 


The vessel soon after making Gibraltar, he was placed in an 
hospital there, where he remained for some months, still 
insensible; and some time after he was brought from 
Gibraltar, on board an English frigate, to a depot for sailors 
at Deptford. While he was at Deptford, the surgeon under 
whose care he was placed being visited by Mr. Davy, then 
an apprentice in a London Hospital, said to him, "I have a 
case which I think you would like to see. It is a man who 
has been insensible for many months; he lies on his back 
with very few signs of life; he breathes, indeed, has a pulse, 
and some motion in his fingers, but in all other respects, he is 
apparently deprived of all powers of mind, volition, or sensa- 
tion." Mr. Davy went to see the patient, and on examining 
him, found that there was a slight depression on one part of 
the head. Being informed of the accident which had 
occasioned this depression, he recommended the man to be 
sent to St. Thomas's Hospital in London. When admitted 
into that Hospital to undergo an operation, it was thirteen 
months and a few days after the accident. The depressed 
portion of the bone was elevated from the skull. While he 
was lying on the table, the motion of his fingers went on 
during the operation, but no sooner was the portion of the 
bone raised than it ceased. The operation was performed 
at one o'clock in the afternoon, and at four, when Sir 
Astley was walking through the wards, he went up to the 
man's bed-side, and was surprised to see him sitting up in 
his bed. He had raised himself on his pillow; and when 
Sir Astley asked him if he felt any pain, he immediately 
put his hand to his head, which showed that volition 
and sensation were returning. In four days the man was 
able to get out of bed, and began to converse; and in a few 
days more he was able to tell where he came from. He 
recollected the circumstance of being pressed and carried to 
the vessel; but from the moment of the accident, up to the 
time when the operation was performed, his mind remained 


in a state of perfect oblivion. For thirteen months he had 
been dead so far as his mental powers were concerned, but 
by removing a small portion of bone from his brain, he was 
at once restored to all the functions of his mind, and almost 
all the powers of his body a most remarkable proof of 
the statement we have just made, that the brain is the seat 
of sensation, without which neither pain nor pleasure could 
be felt; and an illustration of the care with which the Brain 
and Nerve form should be attended to, and everything 
tending to its derangement excluded from the system. Not 
only by such an accident as we have described, and by 
an over indulgence in stimulants, is the brain deranged. 
He who overloads his stomach with the most harmless 
food, or most innocent drinks, must of necessity do injury 
to his nervous system, and through the nervous system 
so delicately connected with the brain, cannot avoid 
doing mischief to that form. Hearty suppers immediately 
before retiring to bed, engender unpleasant dreams, and 
unpleasant dreams it must be admitted by all, have a 
tendency to weaken the organization. That, in so many 
cases, fatal disease, called congestion of the brain, is not 
unfrequently occasioned by the very things of which we 
are speaking. After a succession of horrible dreams, 
brought on by indulgence in late suppers, the brain 
becomes what is commonly called "flattened," or "softened ; 
the person still sometimes thinkins," but cannot think 
consecutively ; by-and-by the memory ceases to retain : its 
shelves are suddenly emptied of all its stored-up know- 
ledge, so that the sufferer is unable to conduct intelligent 
conversation, even of the simplest kind; the faculty of 
comparison seems to go into oblivion; then judgment 
vacates her throne, and the individual dies. We di not 
describe an imaginary case. That doctor's practice cannot 
be very extensive who does not know that such cases are 
common, and in an untold number of instances, the disease 


has been brought on, as asserted, by over-loading the 
stomach prior to sleep. Wise men are not gormandizers. 
They eat moderately, drink moderately, sleep well, and 
thus avoid that nervous irritation so detrimental to the 
thinking powers. For the most part, the authors of the 
eighteenth century and before that era, both British and 
Continental, were poor, and probably to their poverty, as 
much as to their genius, we are indebted for those works, 
whether of history, science, poetry, music, or descriptions 
of society which now enrich and adorn our libraries. Those 
men were saved from gormandizing for want of means, 
they lived on extremely simple fare, because they were 
compelled to do so, and who dare say that, if the reverse 
had been the case, the works which have made them 
immortal would ever have been written. From garret 
rooms, shabbily furnished, sometimes containing only a bed, 
a small table, and a rickety chair, and which seldom saw a 
richer diet than the plainest bread and butter, and often not 
very much of that, came forth those thoughts before which 
Kings and Cabinets have humbly bowed, and which have 
done so much to advance the civilization of the world. 
These men lived not for the stomach, but for the brain. 
They were compelled to keep the body under, and bring it 
into subjection, because they had no means of doing other- 
wise, and to this compulsion the world owes a vast debt of 
gratitude for her brilliant thinkers and towering genius. 

But even men who live sparingly, and never indulge in 
anything save the simplest food, are apt to bring disease 
upon the brain. They are hard students, live a secluded 
life, are seldom seen in society, think and compose often 
when other people are asleep. Their increasing study goes 
on for years, it may be, without any apparent evil conse- 
quences. But the time comes when the strings of the brain, 
so to speak, like the over-screwed strings of a violin, snap, 
leaving their possessor a mental vreck. Hugh Miller was 


a great student. His works are voluminous, and he indulged 
in no superfluous writing. But who can think of his sad 
end without feeling that it would have been better for him 
had he contented himself with the half of the literary labour 
to which he was devoted. " What brought you here ? " said 
a gentleman one day to a brilliant preacher and popular 
author whom he found in a lunatic asylum. " That which 
will never bring you here," was the sharp reply. " And 
what is that ?" asked the gentleman. " An over- wrought 
brain," replied the lunatic sternly. To keep their thinking 
powers in a healthy condition, our literateurs require to 
work according to a system. Four or five hours per diem. 
at most is quite sufficient for the most active mind to 
work, and these should be in the early part of the day. 
Then in the afternoon let them do a little gardening, or let 
them ply the axe, hold the plough, or play at golf or cricket, 
or any other harmless game; they will thus encourage 
digestion, strengthen both bone and muscle, and, in short, 
do their duty to that temple in which the living God deigns 
to dwell. The man who acts thus returns to his mind 
work with a keen zest; thoughts of the noblest kind crowd 
upon him; difficulties vanish; his pen moves surely and 
rapidly over the paper; his thinking powers never become 
sluggish; and after accomplishing more work than those 
who, by over-tension of the mind, gradually commit suicide, 
he falls asleep in a ripe old age, supported with the idea 
that he has left his footprints on the sands of time, and 
that his example is worthy of being followed. Compare a 
case like this with that of Hugh Miller, who, after years of 
incessant mind toil, in which it was evident that he was 
gradually committing suicide, deliberately loaded a pistol, 
and in a fit of mental derangement, shot himself. Let young 
men take warning. Be thankful if nature has blessed you 
with a superior Brain form, but see that that form receives 
from you the treatment it requires. It is at once the most 


important and most tender form in your constitution. 
Certain of your bones may be broken, and still you may 
live a useful and happy life. You may, like Dr. Kitto, lose 
your hearing and ultimately your speech, and yet do some- 
thing for which posterity will feel grateful. Nay, you may 
be deprived of the organ of vision, like the Puritan John 
Milton, and notwithstanding this, leave behind you that 
which will make your name immortal ; but indulge in any- 
thing, whether too much eating, too much drinking, or an 
over close application of your mental powers, by which your 
nervous system is thrown out of order, and your Brain form 
stultified, and the time may come when, instead of feeling 
life a blessing, you will feel it to be a curse, and will go 
down to an early grave, if not a direct, at least an indirect 
suicide. This is the age of thinking. The world has passed 
through the Abdominal epoch, the Muscular epoch, &c., and 
now we have reached the mind or intellectual age. Think 
of the time when scarcely any one could read, save the priests, 
who depended for much of their power on the ignorance of 
the people, and compare that age with the present, and 
behold the contrast. That was the age of chivalry, when 
men lived in their lower natures ; this is the age of thought, 
in which men fight, not with sword, and spear, and lance, 
but for the most part with their intellects. And who can 
contemplate the result of our haste toward increase of 
knowledge, and thirst for literary fame, without being 
impressed with the words of Henry Ward Beecher, when 
he says, " the literary field is like unto a battle-field, a 
grand slaughter-house." 

Now, if any of our readers are conscious of having gone 
astray in this matter; if they feel that they have failed to 
do justice to their Brain form, and are in consequence 
subjects of pain and suffering ; let them seek deliverance 
from their condition now. Let them cease to do evil, and 
learn to do well Appliances of all kinds may be tried, 


but so long as the cause is at work the disease can never be 
removed. The sun is capable of drying a piece of wet cloth 
when brought under its influence, but in order to this you 
must cease pouring water on it. Let this be done that is 
to say, let the cause be removed, and the sun will speedily 
dry it. And so it is with a deranged brain that is, a brain 
out of order, whether by over-eating, over-drinking, or over- 
working. If you find that the food you use does not agree 
with you, give it up, and try something else. If you find 
that tobacco or spirituous liquors impair your Brain power, 
why certainly, then, forego them. Or if you find that your 
eating and drinking are simple enough ; but that you are 
bringing disease upon your brain by over-working it, then 
in the name of common sense, do take warning and refrain 
from the use of your mind, and whatever taxes largely your 
sensations. Unless you are very far gone, nature can restore 
you to former health, and all your powers to their wonted 
activity, but only upon condition that you avoid those 
things which have caused the disorder. Mind power is like 
Muscular power; it grows in strength and vigour, by means 
of a reasonable and moderate amount of work. But just as 
a pugilist, however powerful his bones and muscles, will fall 
exhausted after a prolonged battle, and remain exhausted for 
months to come; so an over- taxed mind, that needs noxious 
stimulants in order to make it work, becomes at last 
exhausted, and exhaustion indulged in brings on congestion, 
and if that is not removed, death is the result. Sluggish 
digestion, want of fresh air, sudden excitement, whether of a 
sad or joyful character, with a thousand other things that 
could be mentioned, destroy the nervous system, affect the 
arind, make people ill-tempered, and anything but pleasant 
companions. Nothing can please a man who lives undei 
the power of these things. The day is either too hot or it is 
too cold. The dinner bell is rung too early or too late. In 
ehort, he is not at peace with himself, and consequently 


cannot look upon life with a pleasant eye. He wears green 
glasses, which make everything green outside. To such a 
man life is a living death. Now, ignorance lies at the 
bottom of all this ignoring of the laws by which nature 
governs the body in its different forms. How foolish is this 
ignorance ! And how terrible its results ! In early life the 
evil begins. Children go to school, and their powers being 
over-taxed they grow weakly. The question which parents 
and teachers ask is not " how much may the child learn, 
and yet preserve that physical equilibrium which nature 
desires ? " but this, " how much can the child learn at all 
hazards?" Teachers are not always the wisest of men. 
Indeed, perhaps, there is no class of men anywhere who 
need more drilling in regard to the subject of which we 
have been treating than teachers. For a number of years 
children should be taught chiefly through the physical 
senses. Their memories should not be worked as they are 
at present in a certain class of schools. In short, parents 
and teachers, who between them have the training of the 
future generation, should see to it that the children first of 
all make body ; for it is a fact that the strongest, healthiest, 
most active, and most successful men are those who, when 
they were young, studied little and played much ; while 
our weak, irritable, bilious people, are those who had long 
hours at school when they were young, hard mental tasks, 
and almost no running about. " All work and no play 
makes Jack a dull boy," is a proverb the truth of which is 
verified by experience. But dullness is not the worst evil. 
The darker consequences may be witnessed in every lunatic 
asylum and every grave-yard. 


THERE is a tendency in nature to destroy. We have illus- 
trations of this everywhere, and in all ages. As it has been, 
so is it now. Crops are blighted, fences are laid low, trees 
are torn up by the roots, houses are razed to their founda- 
tions, ships are sunk, and men and animals are suddenly 
deprived of life. This apparently suicidal tendency is called 
demolitiousness. On the other hand, nature possesses a 
preservative power. In her bosom lie those treasures of 
gold, silver, coal, iron, &c., which, when laid hold of by man, 
minister so much to human comfort and prosperity. This 
power, common both to man and surrounding nature, we 
call concealativeness. 

To this nomenclature none can object; but with its 
modus operandi of application among a certain class of 
teachers it is impossible for us to agree. When you speak 
of nature as being destructive, concealative, &c., you say 
what is undeniable truth; but when you presume to descend 
to particulars, and attribute to one part of nature demoli- 
tiousness, to another concealativeness, and to another resist- 
ativeness, we are compelled, by the sheer force of evidence, 
to dissent. You cannot localize these faculties, yet their 
signs are local and general. You cannot speak of them 
collectively or individually as being here and not there, as 


being in the mountain, but not in the ocean, or as being 
above you, but not beneath you. The spirit that moves in 
nature is ubiquitous. Its centre is everywhere and its 
circumference no where; -and as this spirit is the onsia, as 
the ancients called it, in which all the faculties of nature 
inhere, we must, by a process of reasoning, trace the 
different tendencies to that spirit, as we trace the different 
manifestations of power in the human body to the un- 
seen man within it; and just as we speak of a man doing 
this or that, and not of his hand doing it, or his eye doing 
it, or his feet doing it, so is it absurd to localize the above 
faculties in nature and speak of them as being present here, 
but absent there. Wherever the spirit of universal nature 
is, there are the faculties. And as the spirit is everywhere 
in man's form and in all nature, so must the faculties be. 
He is a fool, therefore, who would lay his hand upon one 
mountain and say, here we have demolitiousness ; and on 
another, and say, here we have concealativeness ; and on a 
third and fourth, and say, here we have truth and love; the 
truth being, that the whole of the faculties inhere in that 
existence which, for popular purposes, has been denominated 
nature : only in some places they are manifested in an observ- 
able manner, and in others not. Matter we may locate ; 
mind or God we cannot. 

To localize faculties is no new thing in the world. The 
tendency toward it is hoary with age. The literature of 
ancient Greece and Rome is full of it, and the religion of 
the Egyptians was founded upon it. Socrates, and Aristotle 
after him, with all their philosophical acuteness, were unable 
to perceive that universal nature was permeated with one 
indivisible spirit, the cause of all existences, animate and 
inanimate. They clothed certain material things with attri- 
butes considered to be divine, and in these material things 
they believed powers or gods to reside, exclusive of all other 
places, and in consequence of this they worshipped them 


But not only in heathendom do we find this tendency 
Even the Jews, with their oracles, patristic traditions, and 
living prophets, were unable to extricate themselves from 
its seductive influence. Hence they saw the Great Spirit 
of the Universe only in certain of His works, and not in 
others; in those which moved and alarmed, not in those 
which came daily and steadily; in the tempest which 
blighted the crops, not in the heat and moisture which made 
them to spring up, and grow and ripen; in the disease which 
wasted and ravaged, not in the health which sustained and 
gladdened the frame for years; in the lightning which 
smote, but not in the light which smiled; in the eclipse 
with its lurid darkness, but not in the pleasant sunshine 
which daily played .upon the earth ; in the meteor which 
burst out so ominously, but not in the stars which looked 
down upon them so purely and benignly; in sudden and 
unexpected prosperity, but not in the common blessings 
which were showered upon them from day to day; in the 
storm which sunk the vessel, but not in the favourable 
breezes which bad borne it along for such a length of time ; 
in the preservation of the individual in a shipwreck, but 
not in that assiduous care which to so many had prevented 
shipwreck altogether. Such was the state of things among 
the Jews; and in modern Christendom, what do we find but 
the same spirit? Men are unable to worship the unseen. 
They must not only have God embodied, they must have 
Him individualized and separate. He dwells in the Pope, it 
is said: and when men meet his holiness, they prostrate 
themselves before him, intentionally or unintentionally, 
believing that the great moving spirit of the universe is 
hid within the old man's bones and muscles, to the exclu- 
sion of surrounding nature. And so, too, among religious 
reformers. Places are set aside and consecrated, such as 
churches, &c. ; and in these places, we are told, God vouch^ 

safes His presence, as if that Being who shines in the sun, 


and glows in the moon, did not live thioughout all space, 
and could be walled in by brick and mortar! What is this, 
we ask, but the localization of the faculties of that un- 
bounded spirit which is everywhere and indivisible! 

Against this tendency, then, we most earnestly protest. 
In God we live, and move, and have our being; and in 
that God there is an infinity of faculties or powers, all 
working to one glorious end; but these are not separate 
and limited, and confined to certain defined parts of space, 
but are diffused throughout all nature. 

The word faculty denotes ability to act or perform, 
whether that ability be inborn, or developed and cultivated. 
When Fuller says that the Pope granted him a faculty to 
set him free from his promise, he means that ability had 
been granted to him to avoid the fulfilment of his promise; 
and when Quincey says that the vital faculty is that by 
which life is preserved, he simply predicates of living exist- 
ences the ability to preserve life. On this principle, when 
we speak of the faculties of nature, we refer to the powers 
or abilities which nature possesses to accomplish ends by 
appropriate means, whether these powers or abilities 
operate or otherwise. To act is one thing, the power, 
faculty, or ability which underlies the act is another and 
very different thing. Acts performed sustain to the faculty 
which acts, the relation of production to producer; or, in 
other words, the faculty is the cause, the act accomplished 
is the effect: and while effects may be limited, and indeed 
must be, both by time and space, it is impossible to localize 
the primary cause. 

What we contend for is beautifully portrayed in man, 
felicitously called a microcosm, a little world in himself. 
Professor Frazer, of the Edinburgh University, speaks of 
man as being a bundle of attributes, which is just a repro- 
duction of the oft-quoted idea of England's greatest poet 
and dramatist, "What a piece of workmanship is man! how 


noble in reason! how infinite in faculties!" Innumerable 
as the sands upon the sea-shore, and full as old ocean are 
the powers of this noble and wonderful microcosm man. 
Here, as well as in the broad expanse above, and in the 
green earth beneath, are evident tokens of design. As ships 
are built, and so built as to plough the ocean with as little 
difficulty as possible, so men have been constructed for a 
purpose. One man is born a mechanic. He has within 
him the faculty of appreciating physical proportions, that 
he may be able to form materials square, round, &c., as the 
case may be; and as that faculty is developed, we see it 
controlling the materials on which it acts. Another man is 
born with endurance. He has within him the faculty of 
bearing up in extreme difficulties and hardships. Waves 
that would overwhelm others have no effect on him. His 
constitution, like the blacksmith's arm, gathers strength by 
exercise. So it is with the man of scientific tendencies. He 
is constructed to be scientific. His faculty of penetration, 
his faculty of generalization and abstraction seem to predo- 
minate. He has been born to chain the winds that they 
may do his behests, to direct the lightning for conversa- 
tional purposes, to traverse the starry-paved firmament, 
and find out the positions of the planets, and to delve into 
the dark recesses of the earth, and tell the history of the 
world by means of fossilized substances. Another man has 
been constructed for musical purposes. His varied powers 
coalesce, so to speak, and develop into a beautiful harmony. 
This man deals with sounds and controls them, and can 
detect in an instant the slightest discord, even though the 
performers could be numbered by thousands. But who can 
lay his hand upon a man and say, here, at this particular 
part of his complex organism, is the mechanical faculty, or 
here, at another part, is the faculty of endurance, or at 
another, the penetrative or scientific faculty, or at another, 
the musical? The man who acts thus meroly assumes or 


imitates. He does not reason, and if he systematizes his 
notions into a whole, he systematizes what is and must be 
false, for his notions have no foundation in principle. Why 
does he fasten on a certain part of the human organism and 
say, here we have the mechanical faculty or the musical 
faculty? He cannot tell, or will answer, that " observation 
has determined that a fulness at such a point indicates 
certain idiosyncracies of character;" the observation may be 
true of the sign, but not of the faculty or principle that is 
general in nature. He can give no reason for it. He 
merely assumes and asserts, and takes the sign for the 
faculty. And as assertions without reasons are unreason- 
able, and that which is unreasonable, false, it follows that 
his notions, whether detailed or gathered up into a system, 
are wholly unworthy of belief. The faculties of man, like 
the powers inherent in nature, cannot be located. The man 
who has the mechanical faculty is a mechanic from the 
crown of his head to the soles of his feet. The man who 
has the faculty of endurance is an enduring man through 
and through, not in one bono merely, but in all. He who 
has the scientific faculty, m scientific, or constructed for 
scientific purposes all throughout his organism; and the 
musical man is not musical in part, but from the centre 
to the circumference of his being is permeated with the 
faculty of music. There is no location; there is no 
dividing of the integral parts of a man, one part contain- 
ing one faculty, and another another faculty; whatever 
faculties a man has are diffused throughout his whole 
body, soul, and spirit, as God is diffused throughout 
universal space. There are signs of faculties, and these 
grouped into one whole we denominate Physiognomy; 
but the signs must be distinguished from the faculties 
themselves. The signs are local, the faculties are not, 
and it is because these two things have been confounded, 
instead of being distinguished, that the localizing theory 



which we have been condemning has found a footing 
among men. 

Here it may be remarked, that man has failed as yet 
to master even the alphabet of his own nature, and the 
cosmical system with which he is surrounded that, 
indeed, as Sir Isaac Newton once said, we are just 
like children gathering shells upon the sea-shore, while tho 
great ocean of truth lies before us unexplored. 

THE MAKQUIS DE LAFAYETTE, a distinguished French statesman, 
patriot, and philanthropist. His low and greatly receding forehead did 
not prevent the manifestation of sound reason, good judgment, and 
superior intellectual ability. 


IT is implied in the heading of this essay that there is 
in man a something called Mind, as distinct from that 
which we denominate matter physical substance or body. 
What mind is in its essence, we know not, any more than 
we know what matter is in its essence. "What is mind?" 
asked an inquirer once of a philosopher. " No matter," was 
the reply. "And what is matter?" continued the inquirer. 
" Never mind," was the laconic answer. These we con- 
sider to be the best answers which could possibly, in our 
present condition, be given to the questions. We know the 
attributes of matter, at least some of them, but that is all 
we know; and we know the qualities of mind, at least 
some of them, and there our knowledge ceases. When we 
come into contact with a substance which has length, and 
breadth, and height, and depth, hardness, or softness, or 
colour, we immediately conclude that that substance is 
physical, that it is matter or body ; and when, by the 
exercise of our inner consciousness, we find in ourselves 
the qualities of thought, feeling, and volition, we infer from 
these qualities that there is some kind of substance or 
existence in which they inhere, and that substance we call 
Mind. The qualities of mind cannot be predicated of 


matter, nor can the attributes of matter be predicated of 
mind. The two reside together, and in a mysterious 
manner influence each other, but they are not to be con- 
founded. Materialism, therefore, pure and simple, is, as a 
system, false. There must be something greater than 
matter, which produces it, controls it, and gives it endur- 
ance; that something we call Mind. 

It has been said, " there is nothing great on earth but 
man, and there is nothing in man great but mind." Sir 
W. Hamilton was so convinced of the truth of this state- 
ment, that he used it as the motto of those immortal 
lectures now published, which, as Professor of Logic, he 
delivered in the Edinburgh University; and certainly, 
taking the term great in its loftiest sense, the great 
metaphysician was right; for body without mind as a 
moving principle would sink into nothingness. 

The question as to the number of faculties possessed by 
fcho human mind has perplexed scientific and philosophic 
inquirers in all ages. Some dogmatists have professed to 
master the question, and have been forward enough to put 
their answer on paper and give it to the world. Others, 
more penetrating in intellect and less bold, have named a few, 
leaving future searchers for truth to discover more; but few 
have been able to see that what we call mental faculties 
spring up as the ages roll on, and are brought to light by 
the surrounding circumstances which demand them. Nature 
creates nothing in vain. She gives only as man requires. 
Just as a wise man, when travelling through foreign coun- 
tries, will not cumber his pockets with money, but take 
with him a bill of exchange by which he can supply him- 
self on his way just as he requires it, so Nature acts 
naturally and reasonably, bestowing powers only where 
and when they are needed. The ancients, who were able 
to do without clothing, and without roofs to their houses, 
as the lower animals do still, did not possess the architec- 


tural faculty which has done such great things in the 
present day; and Nature did not impart it to them, because 
in their case it was not required. Architecture, like ever} 7 
other art, is a thing of growth. From the rude, unpolished 
upright stones of barbarous times, to the beautiful fluted 
pillars of the Athenians, there was a gradual growth, just 
as there has been since the time that the then gorgeous 
Areopagus was built. At first the faculty was given in a 
rude form, gradually it became brighter and brighter, 
and is becoming more and more polished still; and who 
dare say that man possesses it in perfection, even in this 
the 19th century. May we not say, that notwithstanding 
the past glories .of architecture, there are glories yet to be 
revealed, in the presence of which the architecture of the 
present will appear as rude as was the work of the first 
architects, as compared with that of architects now? And 
so it is with other mental faculties. They are growths. 
The demand creates the supply. Reason was given when 
it was needed, and because it was needed; and this may 
be said of every power which man at present possesses. 

The lower and more animal faculties are, as well as the 
special senses, common to all mankind; the higher, and 
more refined, and spiritual, are the products of cultivation 
and growth. Worship is a matter of education. Prayer is 
a matter of education. Like monkeys, men are imitative, 
and take on much from example. The child, under the 
tuition of a praying mother, will most probably become a 
praying man; but without such tuition, it is most likely 
that in this respect he would fail. Prayer is based upon 
education, like telegraphy. Could any school-boy become 
an accomplished telegraphist at once, without the necessary 
drill? The thing is impossible. And so it is with prayer. 
Printers learn to be printers. They are not printers by 
intuition. A man who never saw a printing press, and 
knew nothing of types and their settings, could never make 


an intelligent impression on paper. It is mind under drill 
and cultivation which telegraphs and prints. Those powers 
peculiar to Christianity were once but conceptions in the 
inind of Jesus of Nazareth; but through the instrumentality 
of those whom he educated, those conceptions have spread 
through the civilized world, and have produced in men's 
minds those faculties for worship which we find in the 
Christian Church. Christianity brought new faculties to 
men, but these it distributed gradually ; and who dare say 
that that system called Christianity has been exhausted, 
and that all the powers it can impart have been imparted? 
Step by step are men being led; and only step by step can 
they be led, until they reach that noble manhood which 
consists in an innumerable array of received faculties work- 
ing harmoniously together. The faculty of music, too, is 
a thing imparted. Many a girl has been set down as 
incapable of becoming a pianist, who, nevertheless, after 
careful training, has manifested a power in the art quite 
uncommon. Without the training, her ear would have 
remained dull, her voice timber-tuned, and she would have 
been as unsusceptible of sweetness of sound as a blind man 
is to colour. The faculty of language is also imparted. 
No man is a linguist by birth or intuition. Language is 
learned, and learned by imitation. The Eastern Prince, 
confined from infancy to mature years, deprived of the 
privilege of listening to articulate sounds, was wholly 
unable to articulate. People who are absolutely deaf can- 
not speak simply because the want of hearing hinders 
them from imitating the sounds of the more fortunate. 
Let, however, their ears be opened, and place them under 
training, and the faculty of speech will gradually come. 
A hard-working mind, by severe study and prolonged 
application, develops new faculties in itself, and these 
again, brought to bear upon mankind, propagate themselves 
in a remarkable manner. He who has the musical faculty 


strong and highly cultivated, will produce that faculty in 
others. The mathematician who has cultivated in himself 
the faculty for the right adjustment of figures, will produce 
the mathematical faculty in others. The philanthropist 
makes philanthropists; the man of science produces the 
scientific faculty in his fellows ; and by the influence of 
the philosopher, races of men possessed of the philosophical 
faculty spring up. Men are not all gifted alike. Inventors 
and discoverers have faculties which other men have not. 
Every man is not a Sir Isaac Newton or a Columbus. For 
ages men had seen apples fall from trees; but it was left 
to the self-developed discovering faculty of Newton to infer 
from the fall of the apple that there was a law in nature 
which might properly be called the law of gravitation. 
Thousands of men in earlier times had put the question, 
" Has the whole world become known?" But it was left to 
the observant Columbus, blest with the faculty of fresh 
discovery, to find out the Western Hemisphere. Wise men 
wrought hard, and developed in themselves faculties which 
others did not possess; and those again, working back upon 
mankind, produced their like, and quickened discovery in 
men. The necessity for the Davy Lamp was felt for ages 
among miners; but never until Sir Humphrey developed 
in himself the faculty of invention was that lamp, so useful 
to those who work underground, brought to perfection. 
Who can read the lives and study the works of such men 
as these and others, such as George Stephenson, and yet 
believe that there are as many faculties in one man's mind 
as there are in another? The system of reading mental 
faculties by physical signs in the human body is undoubt- 
edly the only system by which the end can be rightly 
reached ; but Gall was perfectly right when he somewhat 
humorously said that the would-be seers had christened the 
babe before it was born, when they called it " Craniology," 
thus confining observation exclusively to the head. He 


took a wider view of things. Ke saw that mind wrought 
through every part of the body, and that, in order to study 
the faculties inherent or developed by cultivation in the 
mind of man, every part of the body must be taken into 
account; and this system he called Physiognomy, a name 
which we have adopted, as covering the whole field of 
that investigation of which we speak. 

Standing, then, on this platform, we are able to discover 
what the dogmatic mind has never yet seen. Faculties are, 
yearly being noted, and their signs observed, that hereto- 
fore have been unindicated. Still, we dare not say, even 
from the stand-point of the Physiognomist, that all the 
faculties in the human mind have been discovered. Lying 
between the zoophite and the man of cultivation, there is a 
strange gradation of faculties; but we cannot say that all. 
that is possible within the sphere of mental activity and 
development has been brought to pass, .even in the most 
thoroughly educated and cultivated of minds. We can tell 
what we have discovered, but can say nothing of that 
which has been unexplored. We know that Physiognomy 
reveals many new faculties, and calls attention to their 
signs, but we dare not say that Physiognomy has as yet 
revealed all. There are depths yet unsounded. Progress 
is the law of nature and the law of the human mind. As 
men continue going forward, so will their mental faculties 
increase. Already in some, as many as a hundred and even 
two hundred have been discovered; but who can tell what 
Physiognomy will bring to light, when the science has been 
brought to perfection? Who can say what number of 
faculties will be possessed by the human mind when the 
present sustains the relation to the future that the past 
sustains to the present? As the petals of the flower are 
unfolded by the light of the sun, so are men's minda 
wrought upon by minds greater than themselves. Truth 
begets truth, science begets science, faculties beget faculties: 


so that the time may come when it will be seen that the 
powers of the human mind are as innumerable as the sands 
d ? the sea shore. 

"Curb, then, tkming dogmatists, your piou. wrath .t 
Canute-like, ye may sit upon the shore 
Opposing angry foam with angry froth; 
But with encroaching wave and growing roar 
It comes, your sand -placed thrones must topple o'er, 
Whelmed in the wave that but recedes to gain 
A higher leap and wider than before. 
Scold not the waves, they but obey the plain 
Resistless destiny, that rulee Mind, like the main." 

GEORGE CANNING, a famous British statesman, poet, wit, brilliant 
debater, sapient intellect, and powerful leader of his party, notwithstand- 
ing his squat and undersized forehead. This profile denotes untiring per- 
severence, sterling energy, thorough education, and a judicious and honest 


THE word "Faculty," as is clearly shewn by its derivation, 
simply denotes the possession of ease or facility, in a greater 
or less degree, in performing actions, or in carrying out to 
their ultimate results a given class of propensities or 
proclivities. It is derived from the Latin "facultas," a 
substantive closely allied to the adjective "facilis," easy, 
and from which we have direct our English words, facile, 
facility, facilitate, facilitation, &c., &c. A faculty, therefore, 
whether regarded from a physical er mental point of view, 
is, as the etymology of the word plainly demonstrates, the 
amount of ease or facility which attends the performance 
of actions or thoughts, and irrespective of whether the 
particular faculty which may happen to be under consi- 
deration be of an inborn origin, or superinduced in whole, 
or in part, by cultivation. The degree of endowment 
between one individual and another is, as might be 
expected, exceedingly varied, and may almost be said 
to be co-extensive with the expanse of the human race 
itself. This variety is not, of course, confined to the element 
of number, though even in this limited sense the remark as 
to the great diversity of endowment would still hold good ; 
and it is in the degree of strength or intensity of faculty, aa 


developed in different individuals, that we may probably 
expect to find the most prominent exhibition of variation. 
In some individuals we find present in a greater or less 
degree of development, an astonishing number of different 
faculties. In such a case, we have the "Jack of all trades 
and master of none," when the great variety of faculties 
with which the individual is endowed or cursed is but 
feebly backed up in point of degree of strength or intensity; 
when great variety of faculties and a high degree of strength 
or intensity combine in harmonious action, as they very 
rarely do, we have as the result an "Admirable Crichton," 
who does everything and everything well. Every faculty 
appertaining to the human family is of a two-fold character 
the physical and the spiritual and these double charac- 
teristics are closely interwoven, and intertwine with each 
other, acting harmoniously and in unison, but without 
obliterating the line of demarcation which exists between 
them. The vast variety in the degree of endowment, and 
the phenomena of the spiritual existing in excess of the 
physical, and vice versa, are clearly traceable to, and the 
results are directly deducible from, the preponderance of one 
set of elements over another set in the human bodily 
structure. As an easily understood illustration of this, we 
have only to examine the salient points of the human 
edifice, to be furnished with the following indisputable data: 
The Abdomen, when, relatively to the other members of the 
body, of large development, indicates will of self or selfish- 
ness; the Thorax, of a largeness of size m disproportion to 
the other members, is an indication of the excess of will of 
action or courage; the undue development of the Muscle* 
is an unfailing index of the presence of the will of con- 
trariety; the Bones, large relatively, indicates the preponder- 
ance of the will of inertia or obstinacy; while the Brain, 
large out of proportion to the other members, shews the 
presence of will of opinion, or the capacity of overpowering- 


antagonists in intellectual warfare. The number of distinct 
faculties existing in the different individuals of the human 
race is really much larger than we would be disposed to 
imagine, after a cursory and superficial glance at the subject. 
Many of them are particularized in the Physiognomical 
books which we have already given to the public; but 
these publications have by no means exhausted the list. 
Amongst numerous others not commented upon in the 
works referred to, we may here mention the human facul- 
ties of walking, swimming, skating, horsemanship, labour, 
clothing, marriage, morality, metaphysics, common sense, 
consciousness, mediumship, intelligence, instinct, conception, 
judgment, archness, intention, psychology, idealism, clair- 
voyance, comprehension, intellection, apprehension, and 
intelligensitiveness. The list might still be extended very 
considerably, but those given will suffice to give the reader 
some conception of the comprehensiveness of the subject. 
The physiological explanation of the causes and effects 
which we have attempted to illustrate, in reference to the 
relative preponderance of the five varieties of faculties 
which advance themselves most prominently, is not very 
far to seek. The Abdomen, when relatively large, denotes 
the presence of a selfish will, in virtue of the grasping and 
craving nature of that part of the body, and of the juicea 
which are engendered and secreted there. These urgently 
demand primary attention, and they will countenance 
no consideration for the wants of any of their brother 
functionaries, until their own demands have been conceded 
to the uttermost. This granted, they acquiesce actively, 
as well as passively, in the conveyance to its various 
destinations of the support which is necessary for the 
existence of the other members of the human functional 
body. This is the very essence of selfishness. The selfish 
individual is not averse to the contemplation of content- 
ment and enjoyment in others, and he will even contribute 


to bring about this result; but with the inevitable proviso 
that he must first be served, or serve himself to repletion. 
When relatively large, the Thorax, which is mainly made 
up of the heart and lungs, is indicative of the will of 
action or courage largely developed, because these parts 
of the human frame exhibit, during every second of the 
existence of life, an unceasing and incessant activity. Here 
we find the grand principle of action displayed to its fullest 
extent; and not a moment of our life but the heart beats 
and the lungs dilate with dauntless, unwearied, and un- 
ceasing regularity and fidelity. The less sensitive and less 
active of the human functions may sink to rest their 
wearied faculties, secure in the assurance that the heart 
and lungs will courageously and unweariedly carry on 
the needful action, and maintain the heat necessary for the 
welfare of the body corporate. When, therefore, the pro- 
portions of the Thorax are large, we may be sure the mental 
part of the individual is richly endowed with motion, 
activity, or courage. The uninitiated may not be aware 
to how large an extent the principle of contrariety pervades 
the functionary arrangement of the muscles. It would 
seem as if it were the very nature of the muscles of the 
human frame to act contrary or in opposition to other 
muscles forming part of the same bodily structure. If we 
examine the Muscular arrangement of one of our hands, we 
find that its action is the reverse of the arrangement on the 
other hand, to which it acts in direct contrariety 
thereby demonstrating the existence of a two-fold power 
of action. When a volume of air is received into the 
lungs, it instantly enlarges the thoracic part of the bouy; 
but immediately the principle of contrariety, which we are 
now noticing, displays itself in the elasticity of the pulmo- 
nary cells and abdominal muscles, which, by a contrary 
motion, at once expel the air that has just been admitted. 
When the heart receives blood, it is extended and dilated; 


but instantly the various layers of muscles which form its 
walls, acting with what we may be pardoned for calling 
instinctive contrariety, put themselves in action, and 
drive out the blood which has been received. This 
principle of contrariety pervades the entire Muscular 
arrangement of the human frame; and where we find in 
the individual a Muscular development in excess of the 
other -bodily functions, we may be sure of the presence oi 
the will of contrariety, or, in other words, the presence oi 
an easiness, facility, or faculty of going and doing contrary, 
and of working to cross purposes. This is the pig character, 
and the human variety will be found built broad and low 
like his porcine brother. When Bones predominate in the 
individual human structure, the ruling principle of the 
individual will be found to be obstinacy. The quality oi 
obstinacy, when dissected and examined, will be found 
to be simply a disinclination to move; a predispositioD to 
inertia, such as the ass, which may be regarded as obstinacy 
itself on four legs, and endowed with life, displays with so 
frequent a recurrence. The ass has a large Bone develop- 
ment, and it is mainly due to this peculiarity that it has 
acquired so unenviable a notoriety for obstinacy. The 
component parts of bone are largely made up of lirne, 
phosphates, and other rocky material. Now, this rocky 
substance, which enters so largely into the composition of 
bone, is inert matter, which is moved with difficulty, and 
never in consequence of any action from within. When 
this tendency to inertia or obstinacy is individualized by a 
predominance of bone, the individual has, as the most pro- 
minent feature of his character, a distaste to motion, an 
inertia, obstinacy, in fact. The last spiritual manifestation 
deducible from an excess of development in the five salient 
features of the human frame is what we have termed " will 
of opinion," traceable back to predominance of brain, and 
which may, in other words, be described as a " positive or 


vivid power of sensation." When the idea of a material 
form is conveyed to the brain, through the medium of the 
material eye ; or when an abstract or immaterial entity is 
looked at and examined by the eye of the mind, an impres- 
sion is made upon the nervous system; these impressions 
become mentally solidified into convictions, and the indi- 
vidual forms positive conclusions respecting the object, 
whether material or abstract. The conclusions arrived at 
in this way are, in common parlance, his opinions, and his 
capacity for forming and retaining opinions will be in pro- 
portion to the real strength of his mind. Man's endow- 
ment in this respect leaves even the most advanced of the 
rest of the animal world far behind ; and this fact is directly 
dedncible from the nearer proportion of his parts. This will 
of opinion, where inordinately developed, has led to the 
sacrifice of millions of human lives, for causes spiritual, 
intellectual, commercial, political, and polemical. We hope 
we have made it plain to our readers to how great an extent 
the two phases of each of the five particularized faculties 
depend on, and are regulated by, each other. All the other 
faculties maintain a parallel attitude, and hinge equally with 
those we have detailed on the predominance of one part of 
the human edifice over another; and it is in a proper under- 
standing of this comparative structure that the key is 
to be found to the phenomena and mystery of the human 

As we have, we hope, shewn that, in special and pro- 
minent cases, the faculties appertaining to humanity are 
dependent for their existence on their various material 
prototypes resident in the bodily structure, so may the rule 
be accepted as universally applicable in general and less 
prominent cases. All faculties, however subtle and com- 
plex their composition, are dependent for their existence 
and support on particular elements, forming constituent 
parts of the material structure of the bodily frame. The 


faculties have no patent of self-existence; and continued 
and adequate support is absolutely necessary to their living 
and healthful action. If this support be vitiated at its 
springs, or totally withdrawn, the faculty becomes unhealthy 
in its action, and finally ceases to exist. According to the 
character of the faculty, support is sought from the various 
members of the material body, the spiritual character of 
the faculty bearing a close resemblance to the character- 
istics of the region from which it draws its supplies. As 
an illustrative example, the faculty of appetite, or appe- 
titiveness, has for the object of its existence the furnishing 
and regulation of the supplies of food necessary for the 
keeping alive of the bo\ly ; and accordingly, as the Abdomen 
first assimilates and then regulates in the interior the 
distribution of the requisite aliment demanded by the 
other organs, so is it the prototype or sign of the supplyant 
faculties, of which that of appetentiveness is one. A 
parallel case is that of aquasorbitiveness, or that faculty 
which regulates the reception of liquids into the human 
system. The admission of a stipulated supply of liquids 
is equalty necessary with the supply of solids for the due 
nourishment and support of the frame; and therefore, as 
the Abdomen or stomach is the internal assimilator and 
distributor of nourishment, the faculty of aquasorbitive- 
ness looks to the Abdomen or stomach for its guidance, 
and for the degree of vigour and judgment which may be 
necessary for the proper performance of its functions. 
When the Abdomen is distended with easy repletion, a 
calm contentedness and acquiesciveness supervenes ; this 
placidity is immediately communicated to the faculties of 
appetitiveness and aquasorbitiveness, and for the time 
being a peaceful harmony reigns supreme throughout the 
entire range of the supplyant powers. Animalimitation- 
ality is the faculty which enables one individual of the 
animal creation to copy or imitate the actions and motions 


of another. In the human variety the very first exhibition 
which we have of animalimitationality is in the lately 
born infant teaching itself, or being taught by example, 
the motions and actions necessary for the admission 
of nourishment ; and therefore animalimitationality will 
come under the natural law in belonging to that part 
wherein the faculty is first brought into use, which, in the 
instance on which we are now engaged, is in and around 
the mouth, and in immediate combination and connection 
with the supplyant powers. The mouth and its immediate 
surroundings, in virtue of the great mobility or power of 
motion which is seated there, is eminently adapted for 
producing imitations of animal actions, and the facial 
power of expression seems here to reach its acme, culmin- 
ating in a wonderful range of power in the direction 
of animalimitationality. The conditions reigning in and 
around the mouth also are faithfully indicative of the con- 
ditions which subsist in and around its prototype of the 
interior, the Abdomen; and it is closely allied to, and 
conscientiously illustrative of, the whole of the signs 
connected with the supplyant powers. The mouth is, 
moreover, the commencement of the alimentary canal, 
with the entire course of which it must correspond, rela- 
tively, in point of size and conditions. It is not, therefore, 
difficult to see to what a large extent the mouth and its 
concomitants form an index of the size of the abdomen, 
or how its width corresponds to the strength of the faculty 
of animalimitationality and its fulness, or the extent to 
which it reaches forward to its activity. This law of 
necessity and convenience, as illustrated in the harmonious 
regulations of the supplyant powers, as well as in those of 
the other classes, offers a tempting opportunity for an 
incisive examination and elucidation of the springs of action 
whence those beautiful arrangements have their origin; 
but as this is not an essay on the principles of the signs 


of the faculties and powers of man, we must leave that 
phase to be dealt with by the student of natural law. A 
curious law operating in connection with the human 
faculties is, that it is not within the power of any indi- 
vidual to do or perform anything which does not already 
exist and reside within his organization. When a man 
finds himself unsuited for any particular calling or occupa- 
tion, his incapacity proceeds purely from the non-existence 
of the thing within him; and there is therefore a very 
considerable amount of truth and aptness in the expression, 
rashly set down by many as slangy and indecorous, "it is 
not in him to do it." The simple fact is, that we cannot 
do, or judge of, outside of ourselves, what we do not already 
possess within our systems. A man need not attempt to 
become a carpenter or architect, or to build a house, if he is 
not himself constructed on the mechanical principle. If he 
does not possess the faculty of structurodexterity, that is 
to say, if he is not himself built upon the mechanical 
principle, with square form, and provided with large bones, 
he will be quite unable to distinguish himself in dealing 
with square objects, or things with angles and straight 
lines, and he would fail utterly in any attempt to expend 
his energy in an architectural or mechanical direction. To 
afford a prospect of success in this quarter, the beginner 
must already possess the elements of the art within him, 
and be constructed on the principles we have mentioned. 
If so endowed and possessed of the requisite Muscular 
strength, he will find no difficulty in acquiring, by the 
necessary amount of practice, an easiness, a facility, or 
faculty of performing and judging of mechanical work. 
Again, to enable a man to do and judge of round work, it 
is necessary that he should be himself built on the round 
plan of human architecture. It would be futile, for instance, 
to set an individual to learn the art of watch and clock 
making, if he were wanting or deficient in the corporeal 


elements of motion, roundness, stability, and mechanism. 
The result would inevitably be a signal failure, arising from 
having disregarded the fitness of things, and the universal 
law of the relations subsisting between the functions or 
faculties, as such, and those portions of the human structure 
on which they are severally dependent for existence and 
support. One man is abundantly endowed in the matter 
of colour, and he becomes, or would become, if circumstances 
led him to make the attempt, a great painter. Another mau 
has only one colour in his form, and thousands of pounds 
might be spent in vain in trying to teach him to paint. 
The thing itself does not exist within him ; and it 
were as reasonable to attempt the manufacture of some- 
thing out of nothing, as to endeavour to supply, by artificial 
means, that wealth of colour which nature has denied him. 
The same principle applies with equal force throughout the 
entire scope of the subject, and in every case deals equally 
powerfully with all the human faculties, whether in their 
spiritual or physical phases. A man cannot regard money 
from the miser's point of view, unless there is within him a 
preponderance of the material over the spiritual. A would- 
be painter cannot picture on the canvas what he is unable 
to originate and conceive within his own mind. It would 
be worse than idle or unreasonable to expect a song from 
a man who had no music in his soul. You might as well 
hope to get five hundred dollars from one who did not 
possess a cent. to get a dove to carry the load of an ox, 
or a spider to spin a web of sufficient strength to arrest the 
rapid motion of a train of cars! These latter expectations 
everyone will readily admit to be in the highest degree 
absurd; and yet they are not one whit more absurd than 
to hope to attain to usefulness not to speak of eminence 
in any particular walk of life, if the candidate does not 
exhibit in his bodily conformation that particular fitness 
and aptitude which, by the eternal law of nature, governs 
the oarticuiar faculty which is in questic n. 


The faculty of deraolitiousness is the presence of a prone- 
ness, a facility, or faculty for destruction. To have the 
power to bring about wreck and destruction, strength is 
absolutely necessary, and this strength is only obtainable 
in a large development of the Muscular system. Large 
muscular development, perforce entails width of body, and 
wherever we find exhibited an unusual width or breadth of 
bodily structure, we may accept that as excellent prima 
facie evidence of the existence in the individual of a power- 
ful development of the faculty or principle of physical 
destructiveness. And as a corollary of this, wherever we 
tind the head narrow, and long from front to back, that is 
to say, in its anterior and posterior diameter, accompanied 
by wide shoulders, and a prominent and rather thin nose, 
we may take it for granted that we have before us an 
example of the embodiment of spiritual destructiveness, by 
which we mean, a facility or faculty for the demolition of 
erroneous and mischievous ideas. This is the description of 
great reformers of thoughts and morals. When we find an 
unusually large development of the flexor muscles, we may 
be assured that we have discovered a safe repository for 
secrets; this development of the flexor muscles denoting 
the power of retaining possession of secrets without the 
least pain or exercise of self-denial. The very genius of the 
entire system of such a specimen is secrecy, and it delights 
in nothing so much as in the possession and retention of 
exclusive information and intelligence. 

We have admitted the possibility, under certain condi- 
tions and within somewhat narrow limits, of the cultivation 
and partial development of faculties; but let it be borne dis- 
tinctly in mind that this is possible only to the extent and no 
farther that it is practicable to modify by cultivation, use 
and wont, the bodily proportions. This action is very limited 
and circumscribed ; and the influence exerted by the bodily 


proportions upon the faculties themselves is in exact ratio 
with the changes which they have first undergone. It 
will, however, sometimes appear as if the entire mental 
action were reversed, and this is explained by taking the 
material example of the steam-engine. A very slight 
exertion of power on the part of the engineer acting upon 
the lever or valve-handle will gradually slacken the speed 
of the machine, until it comes to a stand; and a further 
movement will cause the power of the steam to be exerted 
in such a way on the machinery as to engender a contrary 
motion, and the engine, which was before proceeding east- 
ward, now proceeds westwards, impelled by the same 
power acting on the same machinery which formerly pro- 
pelled the machine in an easterly direction. The organiza- 
tion of man is infinitely finer and more complex than that 
of a steam-engine, and the forces which act upon it are 
vastly more numerous than those of heated water and air, 
and it is therefore capable of an infinitely greater variety of 
action and motion. To strengthen the spiritual power of 
man, we have no other means than that of purifying his 
material proportions, and enlarging the sensorium or Brain 
and Nerve form. Gradually, and in exact proportion as his 
system becomes purified and etherealized, the spiritual 
phase of his faculties becomes improved and enriched. Let 
the body undergo deterioration by physical drudgeries, 
unwholesome food, filth, or excessive indulgence in ardent 
spirits, and the human engine is immediately reversed, and 
runs in the direction of the animal, instead of the spiritual. 
The operation necessary, therefore, to awaken a latent 
faculty, or to change the direction and aim of an existing 
active one, is simply that of effecting a change of the 
conditions of the bodily proportions. To secure the healthy 
and useful action of the faculties, it is necessary to have 
each individual faculty existing in harmony with the 



and where this harmony is exhibited in its fullest extent, there 
do we find specimens of humanity constructed on the suret-t 
principles for the furtherance of their own happiness, and 
the amelioration of the conditions of the world at large. 

DR. E. B. FOOTE, the distinguished author and physician, of New 
York, known by his writings throughout the civilized world. (Portrait 
copied from frontispiece of his " Plain Home Talk," a popular work upon 
topics relating to health, marriage, heredity, etc., etc.) 







Full cheeks and placidity of countenance indicate acquies- 
civeness or contentment generally, especially if the 
aspect is cheerful. 


EVERYTHING that exists within the range of nature, and, 
whether embodying material or abstract ideas, has as a 
fundamental accompaniment, an underlying principle that 
ranks before, and in precedence of, the fact, idea, or faculty 
itself. In observing the fall of an apple to the ground, 
from the particular branch or twig whereon it has grown, 
the most superficial observer may recognize the fact that 
the apple has fallen; but under and preceding the simple 
fact of the apple having changed its place and position, 
there is the infinitely more interesting consideration of the 
cause or principle whence the change of place has sprung, 
and this underlying cause or principle we call the " natural 


law of gravity." But for the operation of this law of 
gravity, that attracts every atom of natural matter in the 
direction of the centre of the earth, the apple might have 
remained for ever in its elevation of a few feet above the 
surface of the earth, or it might have been left to be 
operated upon by other forces in any other direction. From 

Acqniesciveness Large 
Welsh Woman. 

Acquiesciveness Small 
Mrs. Bachus, of California. 

this illustration, we perceive by a train of logical reasoning 
which all may comprehend, that facts, occurrences, or by 
whatever name we may choose to call them, are invariably 
preceded by natural originating principles these facts being 
the natural outcome of the forces exerted by those prin- 
ciples, and not independent occurrences constituting cause 
and effect in themselves. Simply to observe facts is one 
thing; but to trace back from effect to cause to sift and 
elucidate the underlying principles, and to unfold and explain 
the time and mode of action, is quite another thing, 
requiring a much higher order of logical reasoning power. 
In this article we propose, briefly and simply, to open up 
this feature of the question, by indicating the principles 
acting in precedence of each faculty or power, in the parti- 


cular order in which the faculties have been arranged 
The underlying principles will be placed as the last verse 
under each faculty, in their respective order, as in the 
following paragraph 

Acquiesciveness makes its presence manifest in a full 
development of the muscles and tissues of the cheeks, 
temples, &c., conclusive evidence of an abundant supply of 
animal juices, and consequently of the possession on the 
part of the individual of excellent digestive powers, and of 
an ample and well-working assimilative apparatus. As 
there is no time when what we may call bodily content- 
ment, or the absence of any kind of craving or uneasiness 
is more conspicuous than immediately after a wholesome 
and well regulated meal, so is there no time when mental 
tranquillity or contentment is more fully displayed than 
immediately after the bodily wants have been attended to, 
and when the juices are actively engaged in the assimilation 
of the nutritious ingredients that have just been submitted 
to their action, for the purpose of being worked up and 
elaborated into invigorating life. We thus at once perceive 
the intimate relationship subsisting between a fulness in 
the cheeks, temples, &c., and the faculty of contentment or 
acquiesciveness the cause being the excellence of the 
digestive organs, and the consequent abundant presence 
of the animal juices, the effect being the development of 
the faculty of acquiesciveness. Good digestion communi- 
cates its signs to the Physiognomy, and spreads itself 
throughout the entire character which the face represents. 




A wide mouth, in a narrow face, may safely be defined as 
indicative of Animal Imitation. 

Animalimitationality Large 
A Fort Rupert Indian. 

Animalimitationality Small 
Horace Greeley. 

The most mobile and expressive part of the face by far 
is the mouth itself, and here we find the seat of powers of 
imitation of a character almost illimitable. In particular 
individuals we find occasionally an amazing capacity for 
imitating the sounds of man and animals, and in no speci- 
mens is this power not developed in a certain degree. 
These powers of imitation are seated in and around the 
mouth, and accordingly to this part of the Physiognomy 
we assign as a natural consequence the outward sign or 
manifestation of animalimitationality ; for, if we are not to 
look for the sign of a particular faculty in that part where 
it is most manifested, how can we hope to discover it 
elsewhere? We measure the swallow of the whale by the 
dimensions of the animal's throat, and by the same proce* 


of reasoning we measure the capacity of an individual for 
producing imitations of the sounds given forth by his 
brother man and by the inferior animals, by the form and 
degree of mobility of that part of the face wherein resides 
the highest powers in this direction. The degree of 
development, therefore, of the faculty of animalimitation- 
ality is determined by the size of the mouth. 



A rounding or puffy fulness of the cheeks, from one-half 
to three-fourths of an inch outwards, backwards, and 
slightly upivards from, the mouth is that part of the face 
where the love of liquid first inanifests itself. 

Aquasorbitiveness Large George Aquasorbitiveness Small 

Morland, a talented painter. Nicholas Copernicus. 

This faculty directs the quality, quantity, and frequency 
of the supplies of liquid that are necessary for the healthy 
working of the body corporate. It receives its inspiration 
from the condition of the juices of the stomach, and we may 


predicate with absolute certainty its intimate relations to 
these juices. Of a soft character, they would naturally 
operate upon the soft parts of the face, and accordingly we 
find the outward sign of the faculty located in the soft 
parts of the cheeks, and just before the masseter muscle. 
The faculty may become unduly developed or vitiated by 
immoderate drinking, as in the case of George Morland, and 
other intemperate people, and in proportion as this phase 01 
disease develops itself, we find the growth and enlargement 
of the outward sign itself more fully manifested in the 
swelling out of that part of the cheeks in which it is 
situated. This is a development of the law of use and 
wont, in this case operating, and naturally so, upon that 
part of the face set in motion by drinking. The sign of 
the faculty of aquasorbitiveness is accordingly situated in 
the cheeks, just before the masseter muscle. 



Full, moist eyes, plump cheeks, large neck, and an elastic 
springy step, can be safely relied upon as signs of physical 
hope. The sunken, dull eye, hollow cheek, and drooping 
corners of the mouth are physiognomical indications of a 
gloomy nature. 

As this description of hope relates only to the animal or 
material department of wants, and is confined to the natural 
bodily craving for the sustenance which is necessary to the 
existence of life, it is natural that we should look for its 
bigns in that part of the body which first touches and 
receives the bodily aliment on its way to the interior, viz., 
ir and around the mouth and the lower part of the face. 



As the amount of animal hope depends entirely upon the 
amount of life force which is present, so would we naturally 
look for the outward sign or manifestation of this faculty 
rn that part which indicates the presence of a reserve of 
vitality, and we accordingly find that results bear out this 
chain of reasoning. 



Heavy jaws, large neck, and heavy chest, are signs of large 


The conformation of the mouth generally, but more 
especially of the jaws, which are the means that Nat:ire 

Graspativeness Large. Robert 
Gregson, a notorious English 

Graspativeness Small. Nana 
Narian, an East Indiaman. 

.ias provided to man and to the lower animal kingdom for 
grasping and retaining possession of their food, denotes in 



proportion to its relative development and prominence of 
size and position, the degree of the predatory proclivities of 
the individual. This graspativeness is not confined to the 
matter of food alone, but comprises everything within the 
range of human experience, on which the grasping faculty 
can be expended. The outward sign, therefore, resides iu 
the mouth and jawa. 




Open, protruding, red lips, full cheeks, and large abdomen, 
are signs of sociality. 

This is a genial interchange of sympathetic thought and 
feeling; a magnetism and a vital force which spring up in 

Associativeness Large. Samuel R. 
Ward, a Negro remarkable for 
bis social disposition. 

A.ssociativeness Small. David Don* 
can, a Hermit of Michigan. 


human intercourse, and warm up into full action before the 
extracting influence of appropriate and loveable companion- 
ship. To be capable of a full display of this genial effer- 
vescence, the individual must be well and fully endowed 
in the matter of vital force. His living action must be in 
the enjoyment of the fullest and the freest play; his animal 
juices must be abundant, and the whole ^machine must be 
throbbing in the exuberance of overflowing life and action. 
In such a subject we find the lips full and protruding, the 
cheeks plump, eyes sparkling, and a warm and healthy 
glow overspreading the entire Physiognomy. These are 
infallible indications of sociativeness, being the natural 
outcome of the superabundance of life and energy, which 
is the unfailing accompaniment of a high degree of sociality. 



Width and general fulness of the cheeks opposite the molar 
teeth, and a large mouth are never-failing testimonials of 
good sustentative propensities. 

Appetitiveness Large. David 
Hume, a celebrated historUn. 

Appetitiveness Small Gustavut 
III., King of Sweden. 


This faculty shews its presence in a fulness of the cheeks 
opposite to the maseter muscles, and the reason of this is at 
once plain and evident. The maseter muscles being those 
used in the mastication of food, they are seldom idle for any 
length of time ; and, by the natural law of development by 
use, the result is arrived at of a fulness in the face over 
the place where those useful and industrious workers are 
silently and efficiently performing their duties. 



This disposition being stronger in the dark races and 
animals than in the light, we conclude that persons are 
retalialive relatively in proportion to the depth of their 
colour. Another sign of revenge is a hollow in the centre of 
the forehead. The elephant is an example of a revengeful 
character; and the hippopotamus and rhinoceros are 
exceedingly retaliative. Horses with this deep indent in 
the forehead should never be trusted. 

By the term Retaliativeness we are generally understood 
to signify the returning of evil for evil; but this meaning is 
by far too restricted in its comprehensiveness. It is in fact 
the reflection back, or reaction of any set of feelings from 
one individual to another; and it is quite as much to be 
regarded as the returning of good for good, as any less 
worthy motive or action. This capability of reaction or 
reflection is only highly developed in those who are 
endowed with a superabundance of the Fibrous and Muscular 


form, accompanied with a predominance of the Abdominal 
Now the Abdominal form being largely made up of the 
soft or semi-fluid portions of the body, its natural tendency 
is to reflect back as with a shadow the impressions that 
come in contact with it. It is the nature of water, as 
well as of all other kinds of fluid, to reflect back blows or 
shadows, or whatever may be received on their surfaces; 
and this reflection or reaction becomes, when accompanied 
by an impelling force, the faculty of Retaliativeness: and 
it is thus that we account for the fact, that a man with a 
large development of fat is given to retaliative propensities; 
and when we add a large abdomen and sufficient depth of 
colour, we have combined in one individual all the elements 
that are necessary for the vigorous throwing back of all 
impressions, whether these impressions be good or bad, 
that come in contact with this form. The faculty has its 
sign, therefore, in a full development of the Muscular, the 
Fleshy, and a superabundance of the Abdominal form. 

FRANCOIS P. G. GUIZOT, a celebrated French historian, with vast 
retentative, speculative, and practical powers co-ordinated becomingly with 
inflexible resistance to what he considered wrong. 


O L .A.SS II. 





Great fulness of the forehead, immediately above, and 
close to the junction of a long nose with the forehead, evinces 
a desire to be guarded and sentinelled against danger. 

THE outward signs of this faculty are to be found in the 
expansion of the forehead, immediately above its junction 
with a nose of more than the ordinary length. This indi- 
cates the degree of strength which resides in that part of 
the facial conformant* set apart Tor watching over, or 
setting sentinels upon the safety and general welfare of the 
whole. It shows the amount of assistance afforded, and 
the degree of power accorded to the eyes, in the fulfilment 
of their duties of watching for, and recognizing the approach 
of danger. To augment the ocular power, an enlargement 



of the surrounding forces rnust take place, and this neces- 
sitates an enlargement of the bones, muscles, and brain, 
which are the main constituents of the surrounding and 
aiding forces, and it is thus we are enabled to estimate the 
amount of watching power or Sentinelitiveness present in 
the individual 



A long prominent nose, which rises high from the face in 
its upper part, is the very best evidence of large moral 

Morivalorosity Large Thomas Becon, 
formerly Professor of Divinity at 

Morivalorosity Small Thomas 
Molineaux, a brutal English 

This may be described as the higher phase of mere animal 
courage, and it exhibits itself morally in a dauntless reach- 
ing forward for what is good and pure, and a capacity for 


overcoming the obstacles which may bar the way on its 
onward progress. Courage of the common sort is positive 
activity, and moral courage is the same thing, only with 
the addition of a high moral sense. Positive activity, as 
we have already demonstrated in another part of the work, 
resides in the thorax, of which the lungs or breathing 
apparatus comprise a considerable part. The thorax being 
the sign of positive activity, and positive activity being 
a high moral courage or Morivalorosity, it is clear we must 
look for the outward sign of the latter in the degree of 
expansion of the facial breathing accessories, and accord- 
ingly we find that it has its seat in the nostrils, or breathing 
avenues. The breathing capacity is estimated by the 
widening out of the nostrils, and the amount of breathing 
capacity indicates the degree of development of positive 
activity, which in its turn is the indice of the amount of 
moral courage or Morivalorosity. The very essence of 
morality is a reaching forward for what is good; and when 
we find the nose expansive, and reaching forward, we may 
conclude that the aspirations and aims of the individual 
are in the direction of the moral and the good. 



The nose that stands well out, and up at the point, accom- 
panies the elevative disposition in men and animals. 

The desire and capacity for that species of energetic and 
overcoming action that carries an individual up an acclivity 
has a twofold origin, and the forces which act may be 



terra ed shortly, the force of strength, and the force of 
direction. The working of the former has already been 
explained under the head of Morivalorosity, and the other 
is the guiding or steering element, which regulates the 
direction that the force of strength or activity is to take. 

Elevativeness Large Lavater. Elevativeness Small Chinese woman. 

The direction of the character of the individual, whethei 
that be aspiring or grovelling, is measured by the direction, 
which is taken by the features in rising out of the plane of 
the face; and when the growth is outward and upward, 
we may assume that the proclivities are towards Elevative- 
ness in both mind and body. 



Long sharp noses invariably accompany great smelling 
or olfactory abilities. 

We may recognize a high degree of Olfactiveness when 
v*e see a long, sharp, straight nose; and the reason of 


this is not difficult to discover or far to seek. This 
kind of nose indicates a great surface for the operation 
of the olfactory nerves; and in the increase of strength 
with length, it bears a striking resemblance to the tele- 
scope, the reaching powers of which are increased in the 
ratio of the increase of the length of the inner barrel 
surface. The longer and larger is the instrument grant- 
ing, of course, that it is otherwise constructed on the 
requisite scientific principles the greater the power of 
reach : and in like manner with the nose the longer and 
wider the nostril the greater is the olfactory surface, and 
the more fully developed is the faculty of Olfactiveness. 



The elevated nose, short neck, and scowling brow are 
sure indications of the faculty of resistativeness. 

The lion, the tiger, the dog, and in fact the whole of 
the combative species, when in the act of springing upon 
any object that is placed in antagonism to them, whether 
for purpose of necessary food, or from more questionable 
motives, may be observed to draw back the head as into 
a sheath, and expand the chest with a full inspiration of 
air, with the instinctive object of contributing greater force 
to the impending blow. These acts unquestionably add 
greater power to the aggressive force which is about to 
be exercised; but that which would augment the power 
of aggression would equally lend force for resistance; and 


we therefore recognize in the short neck and scowling 
brow, displaying to the utmost the muscular action of 
that part of the body, the indication of a high degree of 
Resistativeness, and we might safely predicate a uniform 
muscular condition reigning throughout the entire body. 



The nose that stands out far from the face, in the region 
of the bridge or its centre, can safely be regarded as a 
certain sign of an AGGRESSIVE NATURE. 

The vicious, biting, and kicking horse is almost invariably 
found to possess a nose of the bow shape, and with no 
very remote resemblance to that build of the human 
variety that we designate the commanding nose. This 
peculiar conformation of the nasal organ is the natural 
result of the conformation within, which is the cause of 
the animal being cursed with a vicious or assaultative 
disposition. The same rule holds good in the human family; 
and it will invariably be found that, a man's Assaultative- 
ness can be measured by the degree of tendency which 
his nose evinces towards the form we have indicated. 



Anxious expression, uneasy manner, with full eyes and 
a rather long nose, strongly indicate this idiosyncrasy. 


Earnest and sustained watching quickly produces an 
anxious and careworn expression of countenance, this 
being the direct, inevitable, and natural result of the 
action of a watchful and vigilant mind upon the outward 
lineaments of the entire bodily structure, and we may 
take it for granted that most of the bodily signs are the 
outcome of the working of the mind inside. 



The visible evidence of suspicion is the length from the 
face, directly forward, to the point of the nose. The crow 
is one of the best examples of suspicion. 

Snspiciousness Small Owl. Suspiciousness Large Crow. 

The altitude or protuberance that any individual or 
animal assumes for the head and the forepart of the body, 
when they are apprehensive of the approach of any kind 
of danger, is a throwing forward in an advancing direction 
of the centre of the face, as if to carry that part of the 
body in which reside the active and watchful faculties 
that is, those lying in and around the eyes and nose as 


near as possible to the place from which the suspected 
danger is expected to proceed. This instinctive action is 
born of the desire for the greatest possible facility for 
surveying, recognizing, and guarding against the dreaded 



The faculty of locomotion manifests itself physiognomi- 
cally by a long and thin nose. The greyhound and stag- 
hound are fine eocamples of locomotive construction; while 
the sloth's nose indicates the opposite extreme, and the fact 
is verified by its motion being only a few feet each day. 

The long slim form of animals is accompanied invariably 
with great speed of motion, and vice versa in the case of 
the short thick form. Take the ravenous pike, for instance 
the fresh water shark, as he is called, and not without 
justice. His great length enables him to dart through the 
aqueous element with inconceivable speed. There is not, 
indeed, any animal whatever, constructed on the long form, 
that is not also endowed with swiftness; and by the same 
rule, all those built on the short and thick plan are slow 
of foot and sluggish in motion. The great length of the 
long animal gives a great extent for the action of the mus- 
cular power, and a proportionally long distance for the 
nerve fluid to act, and the result, as a natural consequence, 
is excess of activity. This lengthy distribution of the 
motary nerves enables the animal to exert its will suddenly 
and at once on a great expanse of surface, and to give 
birth at will to great efforts of locomotion. 




A long prominent nose and thin cheeks are evidences of an 
inquiring disposition. 

When the face assumes a wedged appearance, sharpening 
out into a long protruding nose, we may with safety con- 
clude that the delight of the possessor is to pry into, and 
minutely investigate matters that, to others of a different 
form, would appear trivial and childish, and that especially 
the individual with the round face, or possessing the round 
form, would pass by without arousing or wasting a thought. 
This is the natural consequence of the unalterable law of 
outward manifestation; and it would be idle to look for 
traits of character in antagonism to the natural constructive 
bent of the individual. The thin-faced, long-nosed man 
revels in close inquiry, while his short-nosed and round- 
faced brother rolls contentedly through life, uncaring for 
what does not concern himself. 



Thoroughly defined and well-marked features are nature's 
recorded evidences of a keen aim in life, and wide, grasp* 
ing, and far-reaching AMBITION. 

All the individual members of the human family seek 
assiduously after that for which, by reason of the particu- 


larity of their structure, they have the most proclivitiea 
Those who are ambitious of the possession and exercise of 
power are so in virtue of being built upon the plan of 
power. Such a man as Napoleon the Great, for instance, 
was eminently furnished with those peculiarities of internal 
structure, that have for their outcome an unquenchable 
thirst for dominion and sway over their brethren of man- 
kind. The evidence of a powerful ambitious mind is to 
be found in features of the coarse, strong, and well-defined 
character, joined with heavy jaws, large neck and chest. 
Features of this description are the natural indications of 
the presence of a large development of Ambitiousness, or the 
love of power, because they denote outwardly the inward 
power of the man, and power, like everything else in nature, 
has a tendency to assert itself and leave its mark. 



Carrying the head well back, and relatively great length 
from the point of the nose to the lower part of the chin, are 
indications ivhich belong only to those who fully appreciate 
their own merits, and in many instances overrate them- 
selves. Beau Brummel, the fop in the reign of George IV. 
of England, was intensely egotistical. Hence we have given 
his likeness as an illustration of large or exaggerated self' 
appreciation. Immanuel Kant, the eminent German philo- 
eopfter, was very deficient in self-appreciation. 

A high appreciation of one's-self is exhibited in the action 
of the mind upon the body in such a way as to draw back 


within itself, like a hedgehog, the whole of the Muscular 
system. The natural tendency of the mental part of man 
is to influence the body in the direction of the thing or 
series of things upon which the most of the love of the 

Autobegemony Large Beau Brummel, Autohegemony Small -Immanuel 
a noted fop and courtier of Geo. IV. Kant, a German Metaphysician 

and Philosopher. 

individual is lavished; and in this case, as the most dearly 
cherished being is the individual himself, the natural bent 
of the whole structure of the body is inwards and towards 
himself. A specimen highly endowed in this direction 
would display the trapezius muscle in the back of the 
neck, situated as if dragging the head backwards and 
upwards. This action would have the effect of lifting up 
the chin ; and as the direction of the force exercised by the 
depressor muscles is of a downward character, there would 
naturally result a lengthening out of the face from the 
nose to the point of the chin. The actual momentary force 
exerted by the muscle is certainly slight, and might be 
eet aside by unreflective investigators as comparatively 
unimportant; but when it is remembered that this force 


is being constantly exerted during the slow elapse of the 
years of a lifetime, we are compelled to concede to it an 
importance of no ordinary kind ; and we must admit that 
no inconsiderable change would be wrought upon the 
Physiognomy by the silent but unceasing working that has 
been indicated. 

BISHOP MATTHEW SIMPSON, an eloquent preacher, master of the 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German, and English languages, and one of the 
most profound thinkers of this century. A countenance indicative of 
veracity, industry, oratory, and chastity. His facile capacity for spoken 
language is manifested by his protruding and flexible lips, large moutb 
and jaws, but not by his eyes. 







The round form of the face and physique bespeak for 
the individual the ability to comprehend and produce 
natural time. 

Temporinaturalitiventss Large 

Temporinaturalitiveness Small- 
A 11 Indian of Callam Bay. 

THOSE mysterious orbs of heaven, that keep their unceasing 
journey around their respective systems of suns in a multi- 


plicity of universes, dazzling and bewildering to sublunary 
contemplation, afford us an apt and conclusive illustration 
in the elucidation of our science. Those planets comprising 
the members of our own system, and with which we have a 
more intimate acquaintance, such as the Moon, Saturn, 
Neptune, Pallas, and the rest, are all constructed on the 
round form, and all their motions are in circles more or 
less precise. They are essentially round in their confor- 
mations, and in the actions which they perform there is the 
unvarying principle of time which, if we may be allowed 
the expression, seems to be the paramount consideration, 
and one to which all others are secondary and subservient. 
This principle of the exact measurement of time, conjoined 
to rotundity of form and motion, give us the key to the 
fact, that humanity built on the round form is more adapted 
to the judging of anything in which time is an element, 
than are individuals of the other types. There is a beauti- 
ful harmony of design reigning throughout the entire 
domain of nature, and this is only one of the innumerable 
illustrations which present themselves to the intelligent 



The wide nostril, short neck, large thorax, and eyes set 
directly in front, instead of outside of the head, are indubi- 
table indications of physical courage; while timidity is 
physiognomically recognizable by a long slim neck; large 
eyes set on the sides of the head rather than in front; and 
narrow long ears. The rabbit and giraffe are fine examples 
of timidity 


Physiovalorosity Large John Broughton, Physiovalorosity Small Joseph 
a base pugilist of England. Justus Scalliger, who tilled 

the Chair of Belles Lettres in 
the University of Leyden. 

Physiovaloroeity Large A Lion. 

Physiovalorosity Small A Giraffe, 
taken from life in the Zoological 
Gardens of London. 


As physical courage is the direct result of large lung 
development, giving rise to a superabundance of the active 
forces of life, and as this form is invariably accompanied 
outwardly by nostrils expanding at their base, we find 
that the presence of physical strength, which is the natural 
result of these conjunctions, denotes also width of head, 
nose, jaws, and neck, along with depth of chest, the 
immediate causes of the widening out of the nostrils, which 
we have referred to. In the above cuts of Physiovalorosity 
large, there may be found an excellent illustration of the 
operation of this law. 



Sophistry shadows itself forth on the facial lineaments 
by giving them a smooth and round expression. 

Sophistry that consists of a false and misleading, though 
fair, promising, and specious style of reasoning is the 
natural outcome of a round, smooth, oily organization, 
adapted for rounding corners, wheeling and turning, and 
generally endeavouring to avoid coming to the point. The 
man of the straight or rough form is perforce compelled 
to perform all his actions in a straightforward manner, 
and to him falsity and deceit are foreign and uncongenial. 
These two kinds take as naturally to their respective 
modes of action as the young duckling, on breaking from 
the shell, takes to the water. The inborn nature asserts 
itself: and " what is bred in the bone cannot come out of 
the flesh," as the old proverb hath it. 





Fulness in the centre of the forehead, face, and every 
bone of the whole frame, indicates a playful nature. 

A small Osseous construction, combined with a large 
Muscular development, give this peculiarity to the bones, 
that they are most attenuated towards their extremities 

and attain their 
greatest fulness half 
way between those 
points. The natural 
tendency of the 
muscles is one of 
action, which action, 
when it is super- 
abundant and over- 
flowing, becomes 
playfulness, and 
consequently, in ac- 
cordance with the 
above peculiarity, when we find the frontal bone, or indeed 
any other bone in the body, attaining its greatest fulness 
in its centre, we predicate the predominance of muscular 
activity, which predominance is the index of proclivities 
of a sportive or playful character. 

Playfulness Large A Squirrel. 




INTERMUTATIVENESS, which is the ability to put one 
thing or person in the place of another, may be discovered 
by a general fulness in the centre of the face, from the hair 
to the centre of the chin inclusive. 

This faculty is manifested in a general fulness extending 
perpendicularly along the entire length of the face. This 
fulness denotes activity on the part of the muscular forces, 
and these forces subjected to the will are the conditions 
requisite for producing the tendency to Interrnutativeness. 
Fulness along the centre line of the face is always indica- 
tive of activity, while width of face or body shews the 
presence of mere strength rather than great activity. 



Vertical wrinkles in the forehead above the nose, and no 
oblique curved wrinkles starting near the top of the nose, 
or in the above wrinkles and curving outwards and up- 
wards over each eye, with full round cheeks indicate 
that you may feel assured that such individuals are 
inclined to have a home, with the desire to remain in it, if 

Locative habits have their origin in the protracted con- 


tinuance of a settled and uneventful life, combined with the 
action of two faculties. Consecutiveness large renders the 
possessor averse to change of any kind, and this form is 
always marked by vertical wrinkles above the nose, and 
the other conducive faculty, Acquiesciveness, superadds a 
mental condition of perfect contentment. The former espe- 
cially bars the way to any desire for change of place ; the 
latter gives tranquil contentment with the existing state of 
things, while continued habit ultimately welds the whole 
into settled and unalterable disposition and inclination. 



The round ear which stands well forward and outward 
from the head is well adapted to catch the fine or coarse 
sounds, and convey the wave motions to the tympanum 
of the ear, and especially musical sounds. An ear lying 
Jlat on the side of the head, or angular or pointed in form* 
is not adapted to receive and judge musical tones. 

Tonireceptionality Smaii- 
J H. Newman, D.D. 

Tonireceptionality Large - 


The only medium through which musical tones can pos- 
sibly reach the interior and lend their soothing, cheerful, 
or hilarious effects to the nerves of the brain, is that of the 
ear, and it is natural that the contour of this member 
should afford some unmistakable outward indications of 
the capacity of the individual for the appreciation and 
enjoyment of music. This faculty of appreciation and 

Tonirecepttonality Small 
The unmusical ear. 

Tonireceptionality Large 
The ear of Adelina PattL 

enjoyment consists in its power of collecting and conveying 
to the auditory nerve by the drum, the sonorous atmos- 
pheric vibrations of which music is made up, and in 
accordance with the degree of resemblance subsisting 
between the form of the ear and the round curving form of 
music, the individual is endowed with, or deficient in, this 
power of appreciation. The sound of music is essentially 
round and rolling. There can be no doubt of this. Othc'r 


kinds of noises are square, angular, rough, uneven, or of 
no describable form at all ; but musical tones are certainly 
round or wavy, and ears constructed on the round and 
wavy form are certainly better adapted for the reception 
and appreciation of music than those of the square or irre- 
gular type. 



Secretiveness may be known by thin closely compressed 
lips, hollowed and flexed hands, arched or cat-shaped foot, 
closing of the eyes, &c. The principle of this faculty is to 
hold on, its action affects all the flexor muscles of the 
organization. It may be seen largely developed in the 
feline species with the round face, and small in the goose 
or ox-foot. Flat feet are indicative of small secretiveness. 
Other signs of this faculty there are such as archness of 
look, and a peculiar shy and side-long glance of the eyes. 

To conceal is to hide and put away for the purpose of 
retaining it, any object or thought, and individuals with 
strong proclivities in this direction, will be found to possess 
great action in the flexor or closing muscles of the organiza- 
tion. When these muscles have an excess of development 
the entire system will be formed on the plan of conceal- 
ment ; and in this, as in all other cases, the actions of the 
individual are simply in accordance with the nature of hia 
bodily structure. 


Concealativeness Small Mr. E. F. 
Simms, Father of the Author of 
this book. 


Concealativeness Large Miss 
Stuart, of Portland, Oregon. 



The broad, square, full face, like Franklin's, is the 
physiognomical premonstration of economy. 

The inclination to frugal and economical management 
of affairs is found to be associated with a broad or square 
face, and is the result of the presence of a broad and sound 
judgment reflecting itself in the conformation of the face, 
as well as in a careful and judicious behaviour; the ever 
recurring feature of the spirit acting through, and leaving 
its impress upon, the Physiognomy. 




Relative width between the eyes, rounding face, limbs, 
ears, nose, and head, are indications of the faculty of 

Curvativeness Large Miss Harriet C. Curvativeness Small Jim, a 

Hosmer, the famous Sculptress. Piute Indian of Utah Ter. 

When an individual is formed upon the curved or 
circular plan, it will always be found that he is possessed 
of great aptitude for remembering and noting the curves 
and turns of rivers, roads, &c., as well as a capability of 
judging of them accurately, and with precision. The 
curved principle being inherent in his framework, he can 
do and judge outside of himself the same kind of work 
which goes to make up the structure within. 




Whenever the face is rather broad in the centre, and rather 
long, with a prominent nose, the individual will have the 
capacity, if well used, to accumulate. 

Accumulativeness Large- 
Commodore Vanderbilt. 

Accumulativeness Small- 
A squanderer. 

The natural law which manifests itself in the attraction 
that one kind of mineral has for an atom of another kind is 
every whit as active within the human organization as it 
is anywhere throughout the range of the universe. The 
individual into whose construction there enters a large 
proportion of earthy or mineral matter, is, as a matter of 
course, an amasser of riches; and where the proportion is 
abnormal to a large degree, we have the miser, who hoards 
up his gold, not for the love of anything that gold may 
purchase, but for the undisguised purpose of gloating over 



it, and feasting his eyes with it. On the other hand, the 
man of spiritual tendencies, being naturally deficient in earthy 
ingredients, has no undue fondness for acquiring riches, 
and remains poor without discontentment or grumbling. 
The signs of those abounding in material desires are given 
above under the head of Accumulativeness. 



The dove or round shape of the eye openings is the most 
unexceptionable evidence of large mating love. 

Monoeroticity Large Mrs. Margaret 
Fuller Osoli, who preferred to 
drown rather than to leave her 

Monoeroticity Small Brigham 
Young, the noted polygamist. 

The attention is riveted upon the being on whom we 
have lavished our love and affection, to the exclusion, for 
the time-being, of any other object that may be within 
the range of vision, and we find that a tendency to unity 



of affection is very generally allied to the possession of the 
round form of eye which, unlike the form which is long 
from side to side, and adapted for surveying a broad sur- 
face, is circumscribed in its range, and not likely to see 
many objects instead of one. We conclude from this that a 
tendency to unity of love is the result, not only of oneness 
of vision, but also of unity of structure, of which round 
eyes, limbs, form, &c., &c., are only the outward indications. 



Tlie ability of exercising the will, or of forming a pur- 
pose, may be known by the fulness of the posterior part of 
the neck, near the point of junction with the head. The 
neck of George III. of England indicated the strength of 
wilt, for which he became notorious, and was the primary 
cause of the freedom of North America. 

Voluntativeness Small A Chinese 
woman without optative power. 

Voluntativeness Larg 
George ILL 


This is embodied in an over-development of the Muscular 
department, in comparison with the sizes of the other com- 
ponent parts of the body. Now, as contrary action is an 
inherent principle in the movement of the muscles, the one 
with the other, an excess of muscular power is the infallible 
indication of an inclination to work at cross purposes to 
thwart and obstruct at every corner and turning of life, 
with his own will. The individual is constructed through- 
out his entire system upon the contrary; and will, or 
Muscular principle, and his pig-headed disposition is only 
the natural outcome of the peculiarity of the structure 



Wrinkles obliquely outwards and downwards from the 
eyes, open lips, and a round large forehead are evidences 
of large merriness. Mirth also gives an expression of 
half -smile and funny look, and an arch and knowing 
expression of countenance. 

An excess of indulgence in the merry inclinations will 
result in wrinkles stretching obliquely outwards and down- 
wards from the eyes, and these wrinkles will ultimately 
assume a fixity of form, and indicate a stratum of past 
hilarity, as well as give a foretaste of explosions in the 
future. By the same rule, the mouth of an inveterate 
laugher will ultimately assume the open form, as if to be 
prepared for an abrupt emergency, or a sudden outburst- of 
mirth, and to be ready on all occasions for the performance 
of its favourite duties. Much laughter also causes a rush of 
blood to the brain, and thereby gives an inclination to the 
round, large form of the forehead. The half-formet 1 smile 


and amused look lingering on the visage of the laugher, are 
the vestiges of previous outbursts of merriment. 

Merriness Large Thos. C. Halihurton, 
"Sam Slick." Humorous writer 
of Nova Scotia. 

Merriness Small Charles I., 
who never laughed after he 
became, kin g. 



Wide hips and full muscles are the distinctive signs of a 
provident person. When this characteristic is excessively 
large, it is accompanied with protrusion of the lower part 
of the face. 

Providentness has its origin in strength, guided and regu- 
lated by a coot and cautious judgment, capable of restraining 
and purifying passion and unbridled energy. The con- 
junction of wide hips with largely developed muscles 
demonstrate the allied presence of strength and judgment 


strength reposing in the muscles, and width of form bespeak- 
ing breadth of mind, as body and mind bear due proportion 
to each other. 



The capacity of Contrativeness exhibits its indices by 
width through the face, at the angle of the jaws. It i* 
large in the hog and the Hottentot. 

Contrativeness very Large Najxdeon I. Copied from a cast taken 
from his head after death. 

Contrativeness occupies the same platform with that of 
Voluntativeness, with this difference, that th* former is 


more moderate in action, and more considerate than is 
evinced in the exercise of pure will 



The amount of love for the opposite sex may be known by 
the fulness of the eyes, and its quality by the shape of the 
commissures, or opening between the lids of the eyes. When 
the opening is quite almond-shaped, promiscuous love 
prevails in that form ; if the commissure has great vertical 
measurement, the love is connubial. 

Polyeroticity Small The eye of 
Mrs. Margaret F. Osoli. 

Polyeroticity Large The eye of 
Brigham Young. 

tolyeroticity Large The head of 
a Hog (GemuSiu.} 

Polyeroticity Small the head of 
a Turtle-dove (Turtur Auritus). 


In the range of Physiognomy everything partakes of a 
lower nature when built upon the wide and low form, and 
as eyes that are wide or almond-shaped in their openings 
have a less vertical measurement than in cases where the 
round form predominates, we find the mind putting itself 
forward by broad channels, as it were, in search of objects 
of love, and totally regardless of worth in the unfastidious 
breadth of its grasp. This exhibition of love is more 
bestial in its nature, and has little in common with 
Monoeroticity, which is pure and angelic in its tone. 



Memory of names manifests itself by a forehead full in 
the centre, from the nose to the hair, and a pair of lips full 
ind flexible. 

A fulness of the lips bespeaks the power of catching up 
3nd reproducing sounds of names, &c., which the individual 
has heard uttered. A sharpness of the centre of the fore- 
head indicates the presence of acute sensations, and that 
there, whatever sensations are received are also faithfully 
retained. Those two combined (if the throat and the other 
vocal organs be well formed), endow the possessor with the 
faculty of faithfully retaining and reproducing the utter- 
ances which are given forth in his presence. 



A pale or miUc colour of eyes, and a livid, white hue to 


the skin, indicate a poor judge of colours. When we find 
all the boncz of the nose and lower part of the forehead very 
prominent relatively, as compared with the other portions 
of the face, the person with such features can readily judge 
colour. But, should the centre of the eyebrows be narrow 
and sunken backwards, the person will be partially, if not 
entirely colour-blind. Chromato-pseudopts are quite com- 
mon; as the late Dr. George Wilson, of Edinburgh, while 
investigating the subject, discovered. Out of 11 54 persons, 
whom he examined, he found that there were over five per 
cent, who were idiopts, or colour-blind. 

Chromaticalness Small Win. Ross, 
who is a chromo-pseudop, or 

Chromaticalness Large Antonio 
Allegri, or Corregio, a dis- 
tinguished Italian painter. 

The general law or principle upon which the human 
faculties are founded is well illustrated ia the matter of 
colour, and the power of judging and appreciating shades 
and hues of colour. The cadaverous, colourless individual ia 
entirely devoid of taste or judgment in the matter of colour, 
and he is so simply because, by the infallible law of nature, 


no man can judge, outside of himself, that which does not 
enter into his own composition. 



The loiv, flat nose, which is particularly wide where the 
wings of the nostrils join the face; the wide, short ear, 
broad foot, deep chest, large neck, heavy jaw, and low fore- 
head, are the signs uhich point out large destructiveness as 
unerringly as the shadow on the dial indicates the direction 
of the sun. 

Demolitiousness Small B. Gosse, Esq., 
of London, who gave indiscriminately 
to every object regardless of worthi- 
ness, and disliked to destroy any- 

Demolitiousness Large John H. 
Webster, a murderer ainl 
natural thief, confined for Ufa 
in the Penitentiary at Jackson, 
idichigyf,, since 1854. 


Demolitiousness Small Demolitiousness Large 

The head of a Hnre. The head of a Tiger. 

To produce the capacity of destroying, the chief element 
required is strength, and where there is an absence of 
strength, there can be no power of destruction. Now, to 
endow an organization with strength, it is absolutely 
necessary that that organization should be constructed on 
the wide plan, and therefore the wide form in all depart- 
ments of animal life shews the presence of strength and the 
faculty of demolitiousness. To contribute additional strength 
to a board of wood, the width would naturally be extended, 
while an extension of the length would only contribute 
to its weakness. Nature certainly conducts her operations 
with vastly more intelligence than man, and accordingly 
we find her producing strength by widening also, and not 
lengthening. The caraivora, or the animals that subsist on 
the flesh they have killed, require sufficient strength to 
overpower and kill their prey, and they are therefore built 
on the wide and strong plan throughout. This width is 
an indication of an excess of muscular power, and being an 
excess, it is unbalanced and unguided by a relative share 
of the other forms, and necessarily demands the slaughter 
to which it is addicted, on which to expend its superabun- 
dant Demolitiousness. Each form, in proportion to its 
degree of development, contributes its share to the proper 
and government of the whole, and iroui this 


general rule we may draw the conclusion, that the man is 
nicely balanced in his desires who has an equal growth of 
each form; and that the man who is powerfully developed 
in all is the most happily and usefully constructed. 



Watery or moist eyes, and lips thick in the centre, an 
Indicative of the love of children. 

Philonepionality Large A loving Italian m 
Costume dtlla Duitua di Marieniidla, 


The governing inclinations of any individual may be 
discovered by watching the individual while a certain pro- 
pensity is greatly exerted. The mother, bursting with 
tenderness for her child, passionately presses her lips to its 
tiny form. It would therefore be highly analogical to con- 
clude that love of offspring manifested itself in the lips by 
kisses, or pathognomy, as well as by physiognomical 
strength. To sift the laws of nature to their first origin, 
and demonstrate why she has placed the sign of Philone- 
pionality in a fulness of the lips, would be a divergence 
from our subject proper, and a raid upon the domain of 
metaphysics. Nature causes the production of fruit only 
when there is abundance of juice in the plant, and in like 
manner children can only be brought to life when there is 
an abundance of the vital fluids of life, and in conferring 
the power of producing young, she also gives the love of 
offspring, which is necessary for its preservation during the 
helpless years of infancy and youth. Nature makes provi- 
sion for the preservation of all her vast family during 
those early stages, when they can do nothing for their 
own maintenance in life, and this preserving care we 
see in the full lips, caused by the abundant juices, the moist 
eyes, and flowing saliva of the mother. 



Protruding and flexible lips, capacious mouth and jaws, a full throat, are determining evidences of large 
spoken language. 


Lmgtutiveness Large -John B. Gough, 
the eminent temperance lecturer. 

Linguitiveness Small A beau- 
tiful and intelligent deaf and 
dumb girl of Illinois. 

Speech is produced by the united efforts of mouth, 
throat, lips, teeth, tongue, and 
palate, and the relative sizes 
and flexibility of these parts may 
be taken as evidences of the 
power of uttering articulate 
sounds; because that which pro- 
duces should, and by a law of 
nature does, bear due relation 
to that produced in size, shape, 
texture, quality, power, elasti- 
city, &c. 

Lin guitiveness Large A Parrot. 




1 \ose who prize most highly sexual pleasures, and devote 
most time to their enjoyment, will have a thick under 
eyelid, which croiuds up upon the eyes, except in those 
given to indulge in intoxicating beverages, whose lower 
eyelids in age will fall away from the eyeball, as if tired 
oj their situation, or weary in assisting the eyes to such 
low desires; they turn away in disgust from screening 
the drunken stare of their degraded owner. 

Physiodelectatiousness Small 
Marchioness of Hertford. 

Physiodelectatiousness Large Henry 

Excessive indulgence in sexual or other physical pleasure 
causes the crowding upward upon the eyeball of the under 
eyelid, and the reason is obvious. During the performance 
of pleasureable acts, the under eyelids are drawn upwards so 
as almost, if not quite, to close the eye; and much indulgence 
of this kind has the tendency to cause the eyelid to remain 
permanently in the position into which it is forced, at a 
time when the whole system is wrought up into an intense 


state of nervous excitement Yet much nervous excite- 
ment will cause the under lids to fall away from tlia 
eyeballs in old age, as a result of muscular exhaustion, 
arising from over-excitement of the nerves of sensation. 

Oft repeated acts of the body have a tendency to cause 
the parts acted upon to assume permanently the positions 
into which they are so often forced. The habits of the 
individual become indelibly stamped in readable characters 
upon his exterior; and reflective people may well look to 
these as warnings or guides, as the case may be. 



The physiognomical evidences of this faculty are, strength 
of form and healthy vigour of constitution. 

To contribute to the health of others we must first be 
in possession of health ourselves, in accordance with the 
unfailing law of nature, that we cannot impart that which 
we do not possess already. When strong and weak come 
together, there is an imperceptible transference of vital 
energy or magnetism from the strong to the weak; and 
though the former may not be conscious of that loss that 
is soon repaired by the resources of a vigorous constitution, 
yet none the less does the latter derive benefits wherewith 
to assist in rebuilding the breaches that have been made in 
the constitutional wall. The signs of Curative-ness that we 
have given above are the signs of health and strength 
the panacea that the enfeebled most desire. 




Thin-skinned or red-lipped people are always sensitive 
to the opinion of others about them. The head turned a 
little to one side, the voice low and insinuating, courteous 
and obliging manners, are stable signs of a strong desire 
of approbation. 

When we find a brain large, joined to a thinness of 
skin, we may predicate with safety that the possessor is 
very sensitive to the influence of external circumstances; 
and if to these be added a fulness of muscular development, 
we have before us the organization most liable to feel the 
action of both things material and things immaterial, such 
as adverse opinions, &c. The man who is sensitive in one 
department of his structure is, by the operation of a natural 
law, sensitive in all ; and we consequently conclude that 
thin-skinned people as indicated by a redness of the lips 
are sensitive, not only to material touch, but to anything 
else having a tendency to disturb the mental equilibrium. 



A cross, inexorable look, an aversion to laugh, and a 
protruding under-lip beyond the upper, are unmistakable 
indications of an implacable disposition. 

This tendency limns out on the exterior of the Physiog- 


nomy, a striking picture of what is going on within, and 
the labour that is being performed by each and every of 
the faculties. A predominance of feelings of this kind 

Inexorableness Small Mary Inexorableness Large An Irish woman 
F. Scott Siddons. of Edinburgh. A gabbler. 

gives a cross-grained disagreeable appearance to the fea- 
tures; a studied avoidance of laughter, which has no 
sympathy whatever with anything of this kind. 



Perpendicular wrinkles in the forehead, immediately 
above the nose, and horizontal wrinkles, or a wrinkle, across 
the nose, near its junction with the forehead, are unfailing 
signs of large CONSECUTION. 


Consecutiveness Large Cyrus W. Field, a projector of 
the Atlantic Telegraph Cable. 

When the mind is riveted for a continuance of time upon 
one subject, or one set of subjects, the brow at the top of 

the nose is naturally 
drawn together by the 
contraction of the 
corrugator supercilii 
muscles ; and if this 
action be indefinitely 
prolonged, the final 
result will be, that the 
brows remain fixed in 
the positions so often 
assumed, with a 
wrinkle or two of a 
vertical kind dividing 
the series. This is the 
natural result of a 
oneness of action, in- 
dulged in without stint, and, like most of the characteristic 

Uonsecutiveness Large A selfish Cat, 
taken from life. 


signs, it is simply the superabundance of longj and oft 
indulged habit 



A full throat, large thorax, open nostrils, and protruding 
lips, with good length from the point of the nose to the 
point of the chin, and full cheeks, are faithful signs of the 
poiuer to give forth tone, if the ear be round and promi- 
nent, so that it can first receive the tone. 

Sonidiffusitiveness Small An Irish Sonidiffusitiveness Large Parepa 
peasant, who could not sound a Rosa, a celebrated singer, 

note correctly. 

The mouth being the only point of egress throughout 
the system from which it is possible to give forth sounds 
of a musical character, it naturally follows that in the 
mouth and its concomitants only have we any hope of 
being able to judge, from external appearances at all events, 
of the capacity of any individual for music. It is utterly 


useless to go elsewhere to look for the outward musical 
signs; and if desired to estimate the capacity of a water- 
pipe for the delivery of a certain quantity of water, we 
might as reasonably, for that purpose, measure minutely 
the size and dimensions of the nearest fence post, as to 

Sonidiffusitiveness Small A Duck. Sonidiffnsitiveness Large A Canary. 
The flat bill of the duck gives a The round beak of the canary 

flat unmusical sound. gives a round musical sound. 

investigate any other part of the body than the mouth 
for an idea of the musical capacity lodged therein. It is, 
therefore, by the mouth only and its surroundings, such as 
the throat, palate, teeth, tongue, &c., that we can judge 
of the extent of the development of the musical power. 



A full eye, accompanied by arching, thin, long eyebrows, 
are emblematic of decorativeness. 

Decorativeness is the faculty that delights in an arrange- 
ment of things S3 as to constitute an adornment that has 



a pleasing and satisfactory effect upon the eye; and it is, 
therefore, from the conformation of the eye that we must 
gather materials for estimating the decorative capacity of 

Decorativeness Large A Digger, an Indian, of California, 
adorned for the war dance. 

the individual, or his power of appreciation in regard to 
the beauties of decoration. That kind of eye that is 
adapted for taking in at a glance, and comprehending a 
large range of beautiful scenery, will be found invariably 
to stand out from its sockets, and by reason of this con- 
formation it can turn conveniently within a great visual 
range to take in as much as possible of the thing in which 
it takes the greatest delight. Thin long eyebrows, again, 
denote a fineness of organization capable of judging of, 
and delighting in, fine objects. We have already shewn 
that fullness of the under part of the forehead indicates 
the possession of strength of sight, and a conjunction of 
all of the above varieties allied to comprehension mark 
the able and artistic decorator. 




Some of the physiognomical records of this endowment 
are, fulness in the forehead, immediately above the top oj 
the nose, good muscular and bony systems, with the head 
carried well forward from the body. 

Unlike the dog, or, at all events, most of the canine 
species, we do not hunt after any object by the sense of 
smell, but invariably call in the assistance of the eye; and 
by one of her unchangeable laws, when nature invests any 
particular member with unusual strength, she strengthens 
the surrounding parts, as if to lend the 
greatest amount of countenance and 
assistance to the central figure. For 
example, a powerful knee is accompanied 
by a strong leg, and strength of arm is 
allied to breadth of shoulders and chest. 

So also, when an individual is gifted with 

i /. . , i Huntativeness Large 

a great and piercing range of vision, the _ The Chetah> s or 

eyes are found strongly reinforced by a hunting Leupard of 
fulness in the immediately overlying por- India and Africa< 
tion of the forehead, and as this conformation of eye and 
accompanying frontal development are the necessary attri- 
butes of a successful hunter, we may conclude that a fulness 
in the lower forehead, immediately above its junction with 
the top of the nose, is at least one sign of such an individual. 
Another requisite for a successful hunter is unwavering 
attention, and the exercise of close attention on the object 
in pursuit, having the immediate effect of carrying the head 
in a forward direction, as if to place it as near as possible 
to the desired goal. We may discern in this projecting 
carriage of the head an infallible sign of Huntativeness. 




The short, round neck is one of the natural accompani- 
ments of Sagacitiveness. Napoleon I. had an extremely 
short neck, his head apparently resting upon his shoulders; 
and all Europe learned, by sad experience, his overwhelming 

Sagacitiveness Large Thomas Parr, who lived to the rare old age 
of 152 years. At the age of 120 years, he married a second wife, 
by whom he had issue. 

The closer we approach the brain, or seat of sensation, to 
the heart and lungs, from which the blood is derived for 
the maintenance of that sensation; and the more capacious 
the neck and its arteries for conducting the supply of blood 
to the brain, the more vivid will be the sensations, and the 
sounder and more critical will be the prompt decisions of 
the judgment judgment being the coalition of strength 


Sagacitiveness Large A Chimpanzee, 
taken from life, in the Zoological 
Gardens of London. 

Sagacitiveness Small An 

8aiiat'.it"'n" Large An Asiatic Elephant. 


with acuteness of sensation, the one giving the strength 
and the other the precision for arriving at sound, prompt, 
and judicious conclusions. A large brain gives rapid and 
strong sensations ; large heart and lungs give strength; and 
accordingly, when brain and thorax are near each other, 
and connected by capacious and smoothly-working canala, 
we have the conjoint result of shrewdness 



A wide rounding jaw, plump, short, elastic, and 
springy person, always very active, are symbols of a 
trading tendency. 

1 radativeness Large Jacob Strawn, the great fanner and cattlt 
dealer of Illinois. 


Those who are formed on the muscular plan, with 
moderately sized bones that will admit of an easy change 

Tradativeness Large Mr. T. Glover, a dry goods merchant 
of Quebec. 

of place are adapted for the acquirement of money and 
other kinds of property, and are consequently the very 
people to succeed as merchants or tradesmen. A wide 
jaw indicates the presence of predacious energy, and this 
is an important element in the composition of a successful 



A long narrow chin that reaches well forward is the 
sign of appropriateness; and the individual possessing 
largely this disposition t will be a good judge of the adapta- 
tion of one thing or person to another. 


Adaptativeness Large Thomas Cook and Wife, who were well adapted 
to live together, for one was as avaricious as the other was miserly. 

When the chin stretches well forward, it will be found 
that in accordance with the law of correspondence the 
whole of the perpendicular range of the face will also 
have a projecting tendency, and as these parts of the 
face are indicative of sensation, on. account of the greater 
number of sensations being situated relatively in the 
centre of the face, as 'those of taste, smell, and sight; this 
portion, when full, would denote great sensational quickness 
which is requisite for determining the fitness of persons 01 
obiecte for each other. 

ALVAN CLARK, an American mechanician who formerly worked as a 
portrait-painter, but is chiefly distinguished as the telescope manufacturer, 
has a studious, thoughtful, and industrious face which is far more mechan- 
ical than artistic. 


.A. S S IV. 





The nose that seems divided at the point into a right and 
left part, and has a firm appearance, and a fulness of the 
lower brow, should not be passed by when looking for signs 
of discrimination. 

Discriiniiiativeness Large I/nnaeus, 
a celebrated Swedish Naturalist. 

Discriminativeness Small- 
A Chinese woman. 

THE first element of discrimination is the proper survey of 
the object by means of the eye, and it is in and around the 



eye, therefore, that we must look for the signs of discern- 
ment or discrimination of objects. Fulness over and around 
the eye denotes strength of comprehension A division at 
the tip of the nose indicates a double or very powerful 
organization in the direction of strength of mind, and the 
stronger the mind, the greater power does it possess of 
analysis and discrimination. 



Square faces with the bony form slightly in the ascend- 
ancy are the requisite physical indications of a good 

Strncturodexterity Large - James 
Watt, the celebmtecl Inventor 
and MecAmuai*. 

Structurodexterity Small P. T. 
Barnum, who said he never 
could whittle a barrel tap round. 


The main characteristics of mechanical labour are the 
manipulation of solid material into angles and straight 
lines, and it is therefore not surprising to find that those 
who are constructed on the straight or angled form, and 
into whose construction there enters a predominance of the 
hard or bony material, should prove t.he best adapted for 
work of this kind. As a general rule, the light-haired man 
does not succeed as a worker in iron, and this arises simply 
from the deficiency of iron ingredients in the composition 
of his frame; while, on the other hand, the dark-haired, 
swarthy man, in virtue of the nature of the construction 
of his body, is eminently adapted for such work, the iron 
which he receives into his frame from his daily occupation 
agreeing with him, and failing to produce the bad conse- 
quences which would accrue to his brother of the light- 
haired form, after a protracted continuance in work for 
which he is constitutionally unsuited. 



Compressed lips of medium thickness, regular and rather 
thin 'well-defined features, accompanied with a systematic 
and regular pendulation of the hands, as well as precision 
and regularity of step, are unmistakable signs of material 
order. The language of physical order is an impulse to 
arrange articles so that they may bear due and systematic 
relation to each other. 

Whenever it appears that nature has arranged in lines 
and orderly method the different parts of the body, so as 


to produce regular and systematic action throughout, the 
individual will be endowed with a large manifestation of 

Ordiniphysicality Large Edwin Booth, Ordiniphysicality Small A 
who is remarkable for the arrange- disorderly Flat-head Indian, 
rnent of material objects. 

Ordiniphysicality, in accordance with the law of nature 
which ordains that man must act in unison with the general 
character of his structure. 



Angular form of ear, nose, malar or cheek-bones, brows, 
knuckles, knees, and every part of the human structure 
cannot be mistaken by a natural Physiognomist as the 
hieroglyphics of Angularity. 

Large bones of an angular conformation naturally endow 
the possessor with a jubt understanding of angles and 



straight lines, whether manifested in fellow beings or in 
material objects; this law being in strict accordance with 

Angular! tiveness Small Edward 
V. of England, born 1470, 
smothered with his brother in 
the Tower of London in 1483. 

Angularitiveness Large An old 
Cardinal, who was quite eccen- 
tric and angular. 

the elements of correspondence and fitness, the principles 
on which the capacity rests. 



The long face joined to a receding forehead and a 
prominent nose, are nature's intimation of a naturally 
beneficent individual. Peter Cooper has the above form 
of features, and he annually educates several hundred 
children free of cost in the city of New York. 



Beneticentness Large Peter Cooper, 
the Founder of Cooper Institute. 

Jieneticentness Small An Austra* 
lian man. 

Before it is possible for an individual to do good, it ia 
absolutely necessary that he should possess the qualification 
of goodness himself; and an indispensable condition of the 
possession of this quality of goodness, is, that the nobler 
aspirations should predominate over selfish and animal 
desires. On the law, therefore, that elevation of mind 
bears with it elevation of features, we rest the principle of 
Beneficentness. See the signs of Beneficentness above. 





Prominent and well defined features, in connection with 
a large active Brain form, are nature's records in favour 
of decision of character. 

Decisiveness Large Montesquieu, a 
French philosopher and publicist; 
possessed of great decision and 
integrity of character. 

Decisiveness Small Louis W. 
Jackson, an ignorant hireling, 
who murdered a man in Illinois 
for five hundred dollars. 

The reason why prominent features, accompanied with 
a large active brain, are the index of the possession of 
decisiveness of character, is because, while the latter is 
adapted for receiving vivid impressions, and founding 
strong opinions thereon, the former denotes the element of 
strength and executive force, without which the formation 
of strong opinions is not possible. 



Full long arching eyebrows, which are lowered down 
dose to the eyes, are the visible physiognomical expression 


of a desire and capacity for observation, 
excellent example of large observation. 

Darwin is an 

Observativeness Large Mr. Charles Darwin, the Author of "The 
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection," and several 
other valuable works. 

In looking intently at any object of curiosity or inquiry, 
the eyebrows are drawn down and crowd around the eyes, 
in order to shut out more than the exact amount of light 
that is necessary. Long practice in action of this kind will 
ultimately have the effect of inducing the muscles called so 
frequently into action permanently to assume their eagerly 
observant position, and to be permanently ready for the 
performance of the duties to which they have been accus- 
tomed so frequently to recur. 



The body or ramus of the lower jaw, when long, may 


safely be considered the certain evidence of remarkable 
PERSEVERANCE. This faculty is large in the bull-dog, 
and small m the fox and wolf. 

Persistenacity very Large In 
confirmation of an examina- 
tion of this gentleman by the 
Author, he said, " I have 
lost thousands of dollars by 
my excessive Persistenacity." 

Persistenacity very Small- Johnny, who 
could not persevere in any under- 
taking sufficiently to succeed. 

The long under jaw indicates tenacity of purpose, inas- 
much as the formation shews the presence of great strength 

Persistenacity Small A prairie Wolf, Persistenacity Large A Bull-dog 
or Coyote. 

to hold on with the jaws when once they seize an object, 



and nature inclines the possessor to exercise whatever 
strength may be possessed. Whenever the jaws indicate 
that the disposition to hold on is good, that character 
will permeate every fibre of the entire being, as the faculty 
is general in that form. With this strength to hold on, 
there is also perseverance or persistency, sticking like a 
leech to any project until success has crowned the effort. 
A Kentucky negro once gave me a very good definition 
of this capacity of leech-like tenacity perseverance: his 
idea being that it was to "seize right hold and neber let 
go no more." 



Square bones, a bony chin, prominent cheek-bones, and 
eyes which are at right angles to the mesial line of the face, 
or which cut straight across the face, are signs of HONESTY 


Rectituditiveness Small John Tetzel, 
the dishonest face. 

Rectituditiveness Large 
Andrew Jackson, tbe honest face. 


Square find prominent bones conjoined to eyes that cut 
directly across the vertical line of the face, ai distinctive 
marks of Rectituditiveness ; and this is the case in virtue 
of the character of the structure; because, wherevev the 
square-boned form predominates, the individual is 

llectituditiveness Small Lizzie 
Smith, a notorious pickpocket 
of the city of New York. 

llectituditiveness Large William 
Tyndale, a translator of the 
Bible, and martyr for the same. 

pelled, by a natural law, to act in accordance with his 
structure, and go straight and clear at his object. He 
cannot arrive at anything by devious or crooked ways, that 
being a mode of action entirely foreign to his nature, and 
his bones being on the straight-angled plan, he must act 
in accordance. Rectitude is derived from the Latin, reel us, 
straight, and rectitude is therefore the capacity of going 
straight, and according to the recognized and open methods 
in common usage in whatever state of society the individual 
may be placed. 




Whenever we observe the outward extremities of the eye- 
brows running towards tlie top of the ears, or horizontally 
backwards, it is a sure sign of a quick, ready CALCULATOR; 
but when the external terminus of the brows curve down- 
wards to, or towards the malar bone, as in Lord Lyttleton, 
it is a trustworthy indication that the person thus facially 
marked sadly lacks the ability to perform accurate numeri- 
cal calculations. 

Computationumericality Small Lord Computationumericality Large 

Geo. Lyttleton, an eminent historian 
of England, who was unable to 
master the Multiplication Table, or 
any of the common rules of Arith- 

Thos. Allen, a scholar in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, the 
first Mathematician of his day. 

The instinctive drawing together and downwards of the 
interior portion of the eyebrows, as it is the facial position 
assumed when one is in close numerical thought, shews 
an inclination to a precision or exactness of thought which 


is indispensable to the study of Mathematics and the exact 
sciences; and when we find that long-continued habit has 
resulted in fixity of position, we may predicate of the 
individual that he possesses the capacity for this kind of 
3xact thought in a high degree. 



When density is large, it reveals itself by a firm, quick 
step, and a well balanced gait; and in the face it betrays 
itself by a quiet, steady, thoughtful expression of the eyes. 

The man who is built on the solid or compact plan, is 
naturally well adapted for judging of anything into which 
the elements of solidity and compactness enter; because, 
having a high development of these qualities within him- 
self, he can judge outside of himself that which he possesses 
inside, and the signs above given are only the expressions 
of a dense organization. 



The annexed engraving of Mr. Holcraft, of California, 
in which the septum of the nose is long at the place to which 
the index finger points, indicates an unusual amount oj 



When the nose is longer in the septum, or its central 
portion, than in the aleque nasi, or wings of the nostrils, 
we have the evidence of the presence of a desire of doing 
good, and here suggestion is only offering practical aid in 
thought and words. The forms that partake of the long, 

slim-like grass, or pine and 
fir tree, have for the aim 
of their existence the fur- 
therance of the good of 
others, rather than their 
own; whereas those of a 
short, squat, and thick 
build, live first and fore- 
most for self, although, in 
the days of their old age and 
repentance, they may take to 
charities, alms-giving, carl- 
tas, beneficentia, benevolen- 
tia, &c., for the still selfish 
purpose of squaring their 
accounts with Heaven. 
When the central range of 

the face is full, in a vertical line with the nose, the possessor 
will delight in succouring others; but when the sides of the 
face are full, so as to produce a general roundness, self is the 
sole passion of the individual. 

Suggestiveness Large Mr. Holcraft, 
of California. 




Prominence of the frontal bone immediately over the 
inner corner of the eye, together with a prominent and 


nose, are unfailing evidences of keen perception oj 

Characterioscopicity Large J. B. 
Porta, a learned mathematician 
and Neapolitan writer, author of 
works on Physiognomy, Natural 
History, Optics, Hydraulics, and 
Agriculture. He was the inven- 
tor of the Camera Obscura. Born 
at Naples in 1540, where he 
died in 1615. 

Characterioscopicity Large Rev. J. 
G. Lavater, a Swiss Poet, and 
author of several works on Physi- 
ognomy. He was a talented Divine, 
and became pastor of the Church 
of St. Peter, at Zurich. His works 
have been translated into several 
European languages. Born at 
Zurich in 1741, where he died in 

In order to possess the qualification in a high degree for 
detecting strength and weakness of character, it is necessary 
to inherit or acquire habits of close observation, and this 
endowment is indicated by a fulness of the frontal bone, 
immediately over the inner corner of the eye. The close 
observer must also have all his senses fully on the alert, and 
possess the essential element of caution, to avoid drawing 
erroneous conclusions, and this latter indispensable qualifi- 
cation is indicated by length of nose. A high development 
of the frontal bone, accompanied by sufficient length of 
nose, is therefore the index to power of reading and analys- 
ing character. 




A broad forehead and open eye are evidential of true 

Amicitiveness Large Mrs Lydia H. Amicitiveness Small Catharine 
Sigonrney, a talented authoress II., who possessed great intellec- 

and faithful friend to woman, tual powers, gross passions, and 

was void of amity. 

The forehead expansive and indicative of largeness of 
brain, is strong evidence of acuteness of sensation, whether 
that sensation be produced by friends or by other causes, 
and a man thus endowed is more capable of receiving strong 
sensations of friendship, and of recollecting friends for a 
longer time than in forms of a di.ierent nature. An open, 
fearless eye bespeaks an open communicative person, ever 
responsive to the genial influence of companionship, while 
concealment and reserve are to amicitiveness what sterility 
and drought are to vegetation, shrinking, withering, and 
shrivelling up the germs of life and vivacity. 





Coarse, large features, such as a large nose, well raised 
from the plane of the face, ample mouth, wide clieek- 
bones, and a strong look, rather than a fine and effeminate 
face, are indications of originality of mind. Professor 
Morse, th# inventor of the Electric Telegraph, was a good 
example of originality. 

Originativeness Large -Professor S. F. B. Morse, the inventor 
of the Electric Telegraph. 

To discover new modes of thought, and to strike out 
upon fresh felds and pastures new, require great strength. 


and the physiognomical indications which we have given 
above are only marks of this strength of mind which is 
necessary. To follow a beaten thoroughfare requires little 

Originativeness Small Geo. IV., a servile follower of fashions, 
and the practices of the demireps of his time. 

jffort and strength in comparison to the exertion necessary 
to break through hedges or forests, and establish a new 
route. This same requisition for strength is ever presenting 
ner demands upon him who ignores the old ruts, scales 
walls, and dashes across streams impassable to the weak, in 
quest of new fancies and original thoughts. 




A general fulness across the lower forehead, long eye- 
brows, with a bony and square face, are excellent assur- 
ances of capability in recognizing and judging of 
magnitude or distance. 

Mensurativenesa Large Mr. J. Q. A. Ward, Sculptor. 

To measure and estimate anything by observation re- 
quires great strength of observance, and it is in that part 
of the head near the eyes, and in the eyes, that this strength 
resides, and it is by the degree of this crowding around the 
eye that we are enabled to judge of the powers and accuracy 
of observation on the part of any individual. A preponder- 
ance of bony material in the face, conjoined to the frontal 
peculiarities which we have just mentioned, shew the 


capacity of accurate measurement by a glance, because the 
ingredients are already within the system, and strength ol 
eye is ready to assist the judgment. 



The power of OBSTINACY manifests itself by relative length 
in the limb of the jaw. 

Pertinaciousness Large Charles XII. 
of -'weden, the most stubborn ruler 
of Europe, called " the madman of 
the North." 

Pertinaciousness Small Ristori, 
a talented actress in the Italian 

The bone element being one of absence of movement or 
inertia, where largely developed, and under excitement, we 
have obstinacy, stiffness, or inertia of character. Now, 
length in the limb of the jaw being an unfailing accompani- 
ment of this form, we may take it as the true index of the 
amount of Pertinaciousness present 


Pertinaciousness Small The head 
of a hunting Horse. 

Pertiuaciousness Large The head 
of an Ass. 



Mechanical time is known to a physiognomist by <* 
squareness of the face, joined with a large numerical 
capacity (See signs of Computationumericality). 

Tempurimechanicality Small 
A Chinese girL 

Temporimechanicality Large The Duke 
of Wellington. Taken from a bust in 
the Gallery of Art in Edinburgh. 



Mechanical time is the result of the blending of two 
faculties, which produce a new faculty. A slight predo- 
minance of bony structure gives the mechanical element, 
and the round or circular form gives the quality of time. 
The conjunction of the two is termed Temporimechanicality 
a faculty of the highest usefulness to the possessor. 



Receding foreheads are never found except on persons 
of great PRACTICAL INCLINATIONS. Dr. John Hunter, 
whose genius, cultivated taste, and profound research have 
placed him among the most eminent philosophers and 
scholars of his time, had a low, receding forehead. He 
remarked that his first consideration of a subject was in 
regard to its practical usefulness, and that, if considered 
impractical, he abandoned it for ever. 

Practicalitiveness Small Thomas 
D'Urfey, a facetious and imprac- 
tical English poet. 

Practicalitiveness Large C. M. 
Wieland, an elegant and learned 
writer and poet of Germany. 


The brain being that part of the frame which denotes 
the capacity for sensation, it follows that that part nearest 
the visual organs would shew the strength of the sensa- 
tions most nearly connected with the departments of sight 
or practical life; and thus, by the fulness of the forehead 
over the eyes, we estimate the degree of approach to the 
practical form. 



A low coronal region, and a high superior front head, and 
eyes which naturally lurn upwards on meeting another's 
gaze, indicate large respect; but when they stare boldly into 
the eyes of fellow kind, and care not to turn their glance, 
and when it seems to require effort to do so, it indicates 
small reverence and no respect. 

No part of the human structure acts so obedient and 
submissive a part as the bony element. It has no wilful 
motion of its own to prefer to that which it receives and 
obeys from the other parts of the body. It is set in motion 
only in obedience to the high behests of muscle, brain, 
thorax, or abdomen, and while life exists it never refuses 
to act upon the impulses which are received from these 
centres of action. Submission and respectful obedience to 
the will of God or laws of man being the sum and substance 
of Reverentialness, arid the bones being that part of the 
bodily structure which most strictly embodies that action, 
we conclude by analogy that a predominance of bone is 
an indication of the presence of diffidence, dependence, and 
respectful submission, which cause the eyes to turn upward 


or away from the rude stare of another. We have power* 
ful auxiliaries to this reasoning in the facts that there are 
no animals so submissive to man as the large-boned ones, 
such as the horse, ass, ox, camel, &c. ; while, on the other 
hand, none are more aggressive and less submissive than 
those of the largely developed Muscular form, such as the 
lion, tiger, leopard, panther, puma, lynx, rhinoceros, hippo- 
potamus, all of which have muscles in abundance, rounding 
off every bone in contradistinction to the horse kind, which 
exhibit the hip and other bones standing out in salient 
points, and which are generally submissive and obedient 
to their owners. The feline, with the pachydermatous 
species already mentioned, display no weak reverence for 
man, but will savagely stare him in the face, with an 
impudence and a ferocity which is as much removed from 
the respectful attitude of the other species, as night is 
removed from day. We have thus conclusive evidence that 
the bony form is essentially the form of Revereutialness and 
respectful submission. 

HUMBERT L , King of Italy, may be classed among the few rulers who 
are popular with their poor subjects. 


S S V. 





Mental order gives its indication in Physiognomy by a 
square head and forehead, with a, prominent, straight 

Oiiliiiiutentality Large Ambrose 
Pare, the most celebrated of 
the old French surgeons. 

Ordinimentality Small 
Prince of Madagascar, 

To be capable of arranging and classifying our thoughts 
and impressions according to system and method, it is 


absolutely necessary that harmony of arrangement should 
first exist in our bodily structure; because the mind and 
body through which those thoughts and impressions require 
to be elaborated and perfected must stand in harmonious 
relationship the one with the other, the one being 
the instrument of the other. A man having an auger 
wherewith to bore a hole in a piece of wood cannot, 
by any possibility, accomplish the boring of a hole larger 
than the diameter of the auger he is using; and in like 
manner he cannot accomplish anything which his instru- 
ment, the body, is incompetent to perform, however much 
he may yearn and long after greater results. If the struc- 
ture of the body is arranged witli harmony and system, the 
mind is capable of harmonious and efficient action, in 
proportion to the extent to which these qualities are 
developed in his body, and no further. If the bodily 
structure is deficient in these desiderata, it is idle to 
strive after anything not in accordance with thU deficiene/ 
of structure. 



Prescience is most readily discovered by its producing 
a dreamy eye, and bending the entire body /awards, imme- 
diately at the armpits. 

Prescience is the faculty of arriving at accurate con- 
clusions regarding the events looming in the future. The 
dreamy eye indicates the disposition to gaze inquiringly 
into the future, and as in those cases the waking dreams are 
generally about as shadowy and evanescent as the visions 


superinduced by sleep, a protracted waking indulgence in 
reverie ultimately gives a permanent dreamy expression to 
the eye. Another indication of a propensity for peering 
into the future, is the form bent forward from the armpits 
upwards, as if to advance that part of the body in the 
direction to which the thoughts are continually tending; 
and this position is assumed quite as naturally as that 
assumed by trees, in obedience to the breezes with which 
they are fanned. The mind being the master and con- 
troller of the body, the latter may be warped by the former 
into any position by continuance and recurrence of action 
in one direction. Men who attain a weight of years in 
the incessant contemplation of things to come invariably 
assume this posture of anticipation in advance. 



Large eyes, sharp features, quick step, with sudden move- 
ments of the head t indicate an excitable nature. 

Susceptibleness Small Charles Susceptibleness Large John Elwep, 
JamesFox, a distinguished Eng- a miser of London, who died worth 

lieh statesman and orator. half a million sterling. 


A large Brain and highly developed Nerve form are indis- 
pensable to a high degree of susceptibility, because these 
are the seats of the higher powers of sensation, without 
which it is impossible to be to any great extent suscep- 
tible to external influences, and it is necessary also to have 
the Bone form large and angular in shape, so as to produce 
a framework angular and easily excited. 



Superior width across the top of the forehead, when com- 
pared with the rest of the face, can safely be considered an 
indication that tJiat person desires to copy, and is capable 
of IMITATING the INTELLECTUAL and worthy efforts of 

Mentimitativeness Large Mentimitativeness Small 

Elizabeth Canning. Mary Squires, the gipsy. 

To estimate the capacity of power of sensation, we take 
the width and size of the brain in its upper part as com- 
pared to the remaining facial development of the individual, 
und as it is impossible to imitate a thought unless we have 


the powers of receiving a vivid impression of it, those who 
have a large development of the form indicated above, 
alone have the power in any great degree of imitating 



A long thin neck in mankind will ever testify as indi- 
cative of AFFABILITY; while a short-necked person v4tt 
care little for grace or affability of manners. 

AfTableness Small Rulof, 
\iung at Binghamton for 
mirder in 1871. 

Affableness Large Mrs. Josephine A. 
Prosch, a talented elocutionist of the 
city of New York. 

Affability is a desire to be pleasing to others, with the 
view of producing in them a like state of feeling, a/id so 


contributing to the enjoyment of the first by the reflex 
action of his own affability. Self-sufficient and indepen- 
dent people have short necks as the outward sign of their 
deficiency in affability, and by reason of this they are not 
prone to bowing or rendering themselves agreeable by 
demonstration of this kind; while on the other, those of 
an opposite disposition are furnished with longer necks, 
which naturally adapt them for obeisance and submission 
in the prtjsence of others. 



" True wit is nature to advantage dressed; 
What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed." 

A face very wide in the upper portion, and tapering 
dowmvards like an inverted pear or pyriform, always 
denotes the very witty person, provided the health is good 
and no bad habits exhaust the vitality. 

The face of expansive width in its upper, and narrowing 
proportions in its lower hemisphere, shews the predomin- 
ance of vivid sensations, which are forced by natural 
pressure, and with increasing vivacity downward to find 
an outlet at the mouth, or still farther downwards through 
the arm and hand to the pen. Those condensed currents 
comprise the thing we call wit, and the happy and joyous 
surprises which its exercise affords in others is only the 
reflection of the vivid reality having its origin within 


Salitiveness Small Ute Indian, of Salitiveness Large Mark Twain, 
Salt Lake, aa witless as a dry ai'thor of " Innocents Abroad," and 

stump. several other amusing works. 



This quality or faculty of the mind largely abounds in 
a fine organization in 'which the upper portion of the 
face is larger and wider than the lower. Also the towering 
form, if well cultivated mentally, indicates nobleness of 

Alone of all the animal kingdom man maintains a 
posture erect and towering to heaven; and he alone is 
capaHo of lofty aspirations and of ennobling contemplation. 
Argiv -g a priori, we naturally conclude that the form 


which is large in the upper portion and relatively small 
below, is the most capable of dwelling upon the more 
exalted themes, and of rearing his soul upwards free from 
the grossness of material existence ; and by the same 
reasoning we find, that where a man is formed upon the 
opposite plan with his richest development in the grosser 
portion of his body, his character is upon a par with the 
structure of his body. Like the hog, which he resembles 
in form, his mind never soars far above the gratification 
of his selfish desires. The grossness of his body seems 
to crush out and annihilate anything better that would 
else take root, and by continued and close association 
with the mere interests of vulgar matter, the body ulti- 
mately becomes the envelope of a grovelling mind, alike 
dead to decency and worthy ambition. 



The stooping form, thin chest, wide and high top head 
and upper face, narrow superior and inferior maxillaries 
or jaws, thin and well-defined nose, and a thin ear, are 
palpable indications of a desire for future life. 

As many are floating down the dimstreamof the future 
before us, with vague and fear-laden notions of the here- 
after to come, when we have shot the cataract of death, 
the thoughts of many of us arj irresistibly riveted on 
the shadowy confines of "that bourne whence no travellers 
return," but to which we all are hastening. A constant 
turning of our thoughts in advance of time, quite naturally 
has the effect on the upper part of the body of making 
it incline permanently to an advance of position, and as 


it stoops forward and the thoughts ascend, the top ol 
the head and the upper part of the face widen out, while 
the lower part becomes narrowed down; and it would 
appear that purity of thought has the effect of purifying 
and thinning the features as if by the extrusion of the 
grosser ingredients. 



A high or prominent nose is nature's evidence of a love 
and appreciation of the beautiful. 

.Estheticalness Small Kettle, a selfish 
and cunning Indian Chief, of Wash- 
ington Ter. 

uEst heticalness Large Charl e- 
magne, a great warrior, and 
zealous promoter of thesciencea 
and the arts. 


Love of the beautiful is a rising of the mind above 
ihe region of common-place and common-looking or vulgar 
things, and soaring into a contemplation of the beau- 
tiful, whether to be found in material objects or in the 
brighter emanations of the higher conceptions of the 
individual. The capacity for rising above the common 
order of things is evidenced outwardly by a somewhat 
high development of the nasal organ rising well out from 
the general plane of the face, and this being the evidence 
of the possession of strong power of sensation, we have 
the fundamental reason of large ^Estheticalness 



The palpable manifestation of caution is a long nose. 
TJie elephant is the best example of this, as his nose extends 
to the extreme end of his trunk. 

The immediate function of the nose being to protect the 
mouth, lungs, stomach, &c., from foulness, rancidity, or 
other elements of danger arising from gases or putridity; 
and being constantly in the exercise of the greatest of 
care and watchfulness for arriving at the requisite con- 
clusions, we may predicate from the length of the nose, 
which will also give the extent of surface on which the 
olfactory nerve has to act, and the degree of efficiency 
which accompanies the performance of its functions, the 
extent of the development in the individual of the faculty 
of Carefulness. 



Carefulness Large Flavins Josephus, Carefulness Small Thomas Hnd- 
an eminent and illustrious Jewish son, a very careless man, wh 
Historian, who was an exceedingly was ever blundering into mis- 
careful and correct author. fortune!. 




Spiritual hope may be known as large when we see a 
large open eye and high forehead, with great comparative 
measurement from the point of the nose to the ftair of the 

If the relative measurement of the face announces the 
undue development of any part of it, we may accept the 


fact as evidence of the undue growth and power of a par- 
ticular desire, according to the particular part shewn by 

Spementality Small James Fisk, Jr., 
of Erie Railroad notoriety. 

Spementality Large John Milton, 
en illustrious English poet. 

measurement to be unduly proportioned. Spementality 
or mental hope being simply the sensation of desire after 
a future life, and the high spiritual welfare of humanity, 
and the power of sensation being always in full accord with 
the size of the brain and nerves, whose exclusive offices 
are to receive sensations, it follows tliat a high forehead, 
being the index of large development of brain, must indi- 
cate the amount of spiritual hope, or in other words, the 
amount of desire after mental and elevating sensation. 
Large comparative measurement from the point of the nose 
to the beginning of the growth of the hair on the upper 
part of the forehead is another indication of the faculty 
under treatment, because, ra addition to the brain, it 
includes great length of nose, having for its office the 
special sense of smell. A large eye is always indicative of 
the presence of the faculty, because it denotes largeness 



of the optic nerve, in which there resides great capability 
of sensation, and they are all usually in harmony with 
desires of a sensational nature. 



A clear, bright eye, a broad, high forehead, evenly devel- 
oped lips, with a refined and intelligent countenance, are 
wme of the signs of purity of mind. 

Puritativeness Small A 

Puritativeness Large Lucretia Mott, 
a Quakeress preacher. 

Like all other variations of character, purity of mind is 
faithfully imaged on the exterior of the body, and that 
with no less exactitude than is a material object reflected 
upon the surface of a good glass. The mirror cannot pos- 
sibly reflect any object which does not occupy the requisite 
fronting relationship to it; and equally impossible is it for 



the facial mirror to reflect faculties which have not their 
abode within. The faculties permeate through every par- 
ticle and fibre of the body, and wherever purity of mind 
exists, it must perforce make patent its existence by 
means of its allotted facial peculiarity; and as purity of 
mind consists in those things which have a tendency to 
enlighten and ennoble, the outward effect will be an expan- 
sion of the forehead, and the overspreading of a " spirituelle" 
expression throughout the entire countenance. 



The signs of the FACULTY OF INTUITION are a high /ore- 
head, with large, open eyes. 

Intuitiveness Small Simon Eraser 
Lovat, a Scottish chieftain aud 
rebel, who was beheaded. 

Intuitiveness Large Giuseppe 
Mu/./mi, a talented Italian 

The faculty of arriving at a seemingly instantaneous 
recognition of truth without ratiocination, or, at all events, 


without a degree of ratiocination large enough to bo 
capable of appreciation, must have its abode in the sensa- 
tional parts (Brain and Nerves of sensation) of our nature, as 
these alone are equal to approximately instantaneous acts, 
and it is therefore in the forehead that we must look for 
the development of high sensational susceptibilities or 
powers. A large and open eye is indicative of largeness of 
the optic nerve, which in its turn demonstrates a high devel- 
opment of the Nerves of sensation upon which this faculty 
depends, and with which it is immediately associated. 



A full broad high forehead, with a pyriform face, are 
signs of excellence in written language. 

Literativencss Small Mr. Thomas 
Hogerson, a very poor writer. 

Literati veness Large John Buskin, 
a brilliant author and art critic. 


A full high forehead, with a pyriform face, shew love 
of, and ability for, literary writing, when these are accom- 
panied with education. Vivid and strong sensations are 
necessary to the success of a writer, and these are indicated 
by the broad high forehead which denote intellectual 
imitation. The presence of these qualities are also indicated 
by width in the front top of the head (see signs of Men- 
timitativeness). These structural provisos being granted, 
Education and experience are alone required to produce 
an able and accomplished literary writer. 



Fine hair, as in the rabbit, is a, sure sign of NEATNESS; 
while coarse hair, as in the hog, may be known as nature's 
testimonial of a dirty animal. 

Cleanness Large The Duchess of Kent, 
the mother of Her Majesty, Queen 
Victoria, The Noble Queen, 

Cleanness Small Nathaniel 
Bently, the dirtiest man in 


Cleanness. Dirt has been well expressed as " very ordi- 
nary matter in the wrong place," and such it is when it 
is allowed to accumulate on the person or on the clothing. 
Where there exists a high organization, the individual 
be he man or animal is endowed with a greater or less 
elevation of nature, and in virtue of this he recoils from 
the useless contact with inorganic matter, or organic matter 
of a very low type. This feeling springs from the natural 
law which attracts like to like. On the other hand, where 
the organization of the individual is of a low type, as 
evinced by coarse hair, skin, &c., there is no great 
revulsion against close association with dirt, because there 
is a large proportion of the grosser materials in the com- 
position of his frame, in comparison with the amount of 
soul he is able to boast of. The hog being essentially 
coarse in his structure with little of the spiritual essence 
in his composition, lives uncaring and contented surrounded 
by filth and dirt. The dainty rabbit, on the other hand, 
having fine downy hair and a highly nervous form, is 
miserable unless allowed to perform regular ablutions and 
keep itself thoroughly free from the hateful dirt 



An eye that looks upon an object with lingering softness, is 
an evidence of large PITY. When this quality is strong it bows 
the head forwards, and softens the manners. 

The essence of the action of pity is a softening of the 
higher feelings, and a melting of the virility of the 
individual upon whose soul the angel-like influence is at 


work The eyes, quickly responsive to the mysterious 
pj'eading that wells up from its compassionate depths, 
become eloquent in nature's language, and advocates the 

Pitifulness very Small Nero, one 
of the most cruel Emperors of 
Rome. Copied from the bust iu 
the British Museum. 

Pitifulness very Large Miss Gontta, 
of London, England, th jes* 
compassionate lady of tb.e present 

cause which is thrilling throughout the inmost recesses 
of the frame. This is only the operation of the great 
natural law which ordains that mind must control matter, 
and in this case an outlet of manifestation is found in 
the eyes, which are ever the most active in the cause of 
pain and suffering. 



Remarkable intelligence evinced by facial expression 
denotes vivid imagination 


Tliis faculty is born of largeness of Brain form, as compared 
with the ether proportions, and it indicates the capacity 
for Tiaperior sensations. Imagination is simply this power 

Imaginativeness Large Lamartine. Imaginativeness Small A babbler, 
a celebrated French poet and aii ignorant Irish woman of Edin- 

historian. burgh, 

of sensation developed in an extraordinary degree, and this 
subtle power acts directly from an elevating cast of Brain 
upon every part of the face, in expressions of intelligence 
nnd refinement, which are the outcome 01 a hignly sensa- 
tional organization. 




Memory of incidents and general affairs manifests itself 
by general fulness of tlie forehead. 

Factimemoriativeiiess Large -Frederick 
H. A. Baron vou Humboldt. a dis- 
tinguished German philosopher and 

Factimemoriativeness Small 
Miss Catherine Dunn, whose 
weight is 425 pounds. 

The reception of facts is accompanied by sensation of a 
more or less intense character, according to the amount of 
interest for the hearer, which each particular fact bears 
with it: und as f he more intense sensations are those which 
grave the deepest mark upon the mind, and are most 
enduring in consequence, and most readily recalled , it is 
clear that to determine the capacity of any individual for 
receiving and storing UD impressions and facts, we must 
examine the front portion of the br>n as that i<* the region 


assigned tc the sensations, while the back part contains 
the Nerves which regulate the motary powers. It is there- 
fore in the front part of the forehead that we must expect 
to find the material for estimating the comparative activity 
of this faculty. 

Under this faculty we introduce numerous accounts of 
remarkable facilities of recollection, interspersed with advice 
regarding the care, cultivation, and improvement of the 
memory. After retiring to rest every night, think over 
all the transactions and incidents of the preceding day; 
read the works of Cuvier, Leibnitz, Goethe, Humboldt, 
Lyell, Agassiz, Liebig, Sir Walter Scott, Prescott, Alison, 
Maeaulay, as well as other scientific and historical writers, 
and at least once every day repeat all the events of import- 
ance which have tianspired during the last twenty- four 
hours, and business negociations, as well as every ordinary 
incident of life. Commit condensed portions of history to 
memory ; impress all leading incidents firmly on the mind, 
by giving intense and concentrated attention to them when 
they come to your notice; associate much with those of 
superior memories. Employ the memory, and it will give 
you retentive power. The Greeks continually exercised 
their memories by treasuring in their minds the works of 
their poets, the instructions of their philosophers, and the 
problems of their mathematicians; and such practice gave 
them vast power of retention. Pliny informs us of a Greek 
called Charmidas, who could repeat from memory the 
contents of a large library. One should write out every 
speech or whatever it is desired to retain. This practice 
is recommended by Cicero and Quintilian. Memory is 
facilitated by regular order and distributive arrangement 
of facts, and by conversing on the subjects you wish to 
remember. Themistocles, Csesar, Cicero, and Seneca were 
possessed of very great memories. Themistocles mastered 
the Persian language in one year, and could call by their 


names all the citizens of Athens, when its population was 
20 ; 000. Cyrus knew the name, of every soldier in his 
army. Julius Caesar was able to dictate to three secre- 
taries at the same time, and on perfectly distinct subjects. 
Portius Latro, as Seneca informs us, remembered every- 
thing that he committed to writing, and wrote very rapidly. 
Hortentius attended a public sale, which occupied the 
whole day, and gave a full and particular account in the 
evening, from memory, of every article that was sold, as 
well as the name of each article, with the name of the 
purchaser, and when compared with the notes of a clerk, 
it was found perfectly correct. 

Themistocles possessed such powers of retention, that 
when one offered to teach him the art of memory he 
rejected the proposal, and remarked that he had " much 
rather he would teach him the art to forget." Justus 
Lipsius was able to repeat every line of Tacitus' Works 
memoriter. Josephus Scaliger committed Homer's Iliad 
and his Odyssey entirely in twenty-one days, each being 
about the same length, the Iliad containing 31,670 
verses. Seneca could repeat 2,000 names in the order in 
which he heard them, and rehearse 200 verses on different 
subjects after once hearing them read. Mithridates, the 
celebrated King of Pontus, ruled twenty-two countries, and 
was enabled by his faithful memory to converse with the 
various ambassadors in the proper language of the countries 
which they respectively represented. St. Austin's Works 
are sufficient to fill a large library, and yet Dr. Reynolds 
mastered them all, being able to repeat any portion of 
them from memory. Dr. Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, could 
repeat anything he had written by once reading it, and 
never forgot a line of what he read ; but his astonishing 
memory he attributed to '.ndustrious cultivation of that 

Jerome, of Prague, who was martyred for the Protestant 


religion by a sentence of the Council of Constance, was 
famous for An excellent memory, of which Poggius, in his 
Epistle to Le<jnardus Aretinus, gives the following occur- 
rence in illustration : " After he had been confined 340 
days in the bottom of a loathsome tower, where he was 
wholly without light either to see or read; yet, when he 
was called to trial, he quoted so many testimonies of the 
most sagacious and learned men in favour of his own 
principles, as if all that time he had been immured in a 
good library, with all the conveniences of studying." This 
is a remarkable example, especially if we consider the 
afflictive circumstances of his case, and how sadly trouble 
weakens and impairs the memory. A young Corsican, 
while in the law school of Padua, in Italy, could repeat 
forwards or backwards 36,000 names, and a year after, 
could repeat anything remembered. He instructed Fran- 
ciscus Molinus, a nobleman of Venice, who had a very 
poor memory, in less than eight days, to repeat 500 names 
in any order he pleased. Mr. Thomas Fuller possessed a 
memory sufficient to remember all the signs on both sides 
of Cheapside and several other streets in London. Instances 
could be related of other memorists, equally noted but 
the limited space of this book will not permit an extensive 
article on this subject. Sickness, fright, or slothfulriess 
may seriously impair the memory, as the following instances 
may shew viz., the orator Messala Corvinus forgot his 
own name caused by sickness. Artemidorous, the gram- 
marian, having been frightened by a crocodile, the fright 
caused an entire loss of his learning that he never after- 
wards recovered. Calvisius Sabinus, from the habit of 
slothfulness and neglect of his memory, became so forgetful 
that he could not recollect the names of Ulysses, Achilles, 
and Priamus, yet he knew those men as well as one man 
can well know another. Germanus, who was a clerk under 
the reign of Frederick II. having been bled, lost the entire 


use of his memory, yet one year subsequently having been 
bled again, he recovered the full use of his former memory. 
Many examples could be enumerated, wherein forgetfulness 
could be attributed to the fact of not cultivating arid pro- 
perly employing the memory. 

The mathematician, Wallis, while in bed, and with his 
eyes shut, extracted the cube root of a number consisting 
of thirty figures, not making a single mistake. Dr. Timothy 
Dwight, of Yale College, was in the habit of taking seven 
texts, and at the same time dictating to seven amanuenses 
seven distinct sermons. A celebrated London dramatist 
laid a wager that he would, after once reading a page of 
advertisements in the Times, repeat them verbatim, and 
in order; and he won the wager. He also undertook to 
walk along one of the main business thoroughfares, the 
Strand, in which every house on each side has an elaborate 
signboard and number, and to repeat the names, numbers, 
and businesses of each, taking in both sides, as he walked 
along only once. Mr. Miller, a talented lawyer of Keokuk, 
Iowa, who was formerly member of Congress, has a remark- 
ably retentive memory. He has been known to write out 
in full an entire sermon, without taking notes; arid when 
the bishop who preached it called upon him and observed 
that Mr. Miller had changed only one word, in reply, 
he mentioned the very word, and gave as his reason for 
the change, that the word used by the bishop was incorrect. 
The bishop thanked him, and pocketed the paper in which 
the reported sermon appeared, the morning after it was 
delivered. Mr. Miller remarked to me that it was by his 
concentrated and earnest attention at the time of hearing, 
that he was enabled so unfailingly to remember. A Miss 
Foster, of London, has also this remarkable retention of 
memory. A clergyman, of local note for his terse, epigram- 
matic style f sermonizing, was asked by his congregation 
(A) print aua publish one of his telling, cogent discourses; 


but on his assuring them that he could not reproduce 
accurately what he had preached, Miss Foster, then about 
sixteen years of age, proffered to write it out verbatim, and 
did perfectly to the preacher's satisfaction. Dudley Waller, 
a boy in the American States, when entering his teens, 
learned long lectures by hearing them read once or twice. 
He has been known to repeat accurately half a newspaper 
column, and tell where the punctuation points appeared, 
as he had been told them when hearing it read. Writing 
out one's thoughts gives tenacity to the memory. Then 
write out your own thoughts, as well as what you learn 
from books, teachers, and conversation. Keep a diary or 
note-book, and at the end of the day note down in chrono- 
logical order every transaction that occurred within your 
cognizance during the whole day. 

Special care should be taken, however, in the exercise 
and cultivation of memory, not to overtax it. It is a fact, 
well attested by experience, that the memory may be 
seriously injured by pressing upon it too hardly and con- 
tinuously in early life. Whatever theory we hold as to 
this great and wonderful function of our nature, it is 
certain that its powers are only gradually developed ; and 
that, if forced into premature exercise, they are impaired 
by the effort. A regulated exercise, short of fatigue, is 
improving to it; but we ought carefully to refrain from 
goading it by constant and laborious efforts in early life, 
and before this wonderful, godlike faculty is strengthened 
to its work, or it decays in our hands. 

The following interesting incident, related by James 
Beaty, may serve as a warning to those having the care of 
the young. A boy, whose over-zealous and indiscreet 
mother obliged him to commit sermons to memory, lost 
his other faculties and became stupid and idiotic. Jjet 
us ever keep in mind what Coleridge, in his rapturous 
appreciation of this power, exclaims, " Memory, bosom' 


spring of joy." Then BasiU, " Memory is the cabinet of 
imagination, the treasury of reason, the registry of con- 
science, and the council-chamber of thought." 



PRUDENTIALITT partially closes the eyes, which are 
usually also found somewhat settled in the head, but it is 
wanting in persons with very short noses Hence children, 
who almost invariably have short noses, are very impru- 
dent. Open mouths are also evidence of natural im- 

Prudentiality Small A restless, loqua- 
cious, ignorant, and saucy boy of 
Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Prudentiality Large John Sher- 
man, U.S. senator from Ohio. 

A fulness of practical wisdom or prudence, gathered 
during the course of a lifetime, will, in old age, when 
caution and prudence become the first, if not the only 


consideration, cause the eyes to settle back in the headi 
long practice and experience having taught them that in 
this position there is greater convenience for thinking; 
thinking cautiously and carefully carried to its ultimate 
results being prudence itself. The position has been 
adopted first, from an instinctive sense of fitness and con- 
venience, and it has become permanently fixed by the 
natural law of use and wont. 



Tlie eyebrows, when elevated far above the eyes, and pre- 
sent a large intercilia'ry space, as in Harvey, are certain 
signs of large faith. 

Credulousness Small Voltaire. Crc<lulousness Large Wm. Harvey, 

M. D., who published bis discovery 
of the circulation of the blood in 

Credulous people take for granted the truth or accuracy 
of any statement that may bo put before them, being quite 


incapable, it would appear, of separating the wheat from 
the chaff, and the probable from the improbable. This 
easiness of reception for all and sundry must arise from the 
undue openness of the avenues which conduct the informa- 
tion to the sensorium. Those avenues of reception are the 
eyes, the ears, the nose, the mouth, and the nerves of sensa- 
tion. When the eyes are well open, the brows will be 
drawn well up on to the forehead, there being no other way 
of admitting of the open gaze. The ears are capacious, and 
seem to turn their tips forwards, as if to be prepared to 
receive and adopt anything, however strange, that may be 
addressed to them. The nose is furnished with expanding 
nostrils, and admits everything without much scrutiny as 
to quantity or quality ; the mouth stands agape and mutely 
asks for more; the head is large in the front part where 
lie the powers of the sensation, and the whole is the well- 
known picture of a superlatively credulous person. 



This winning power of outward attractiveness manifests 
itself in fine features, high open forehead, graceful form, 
and a large, animated, and prominent eye. 

It is impossible to carry a courteous and conciliatory 
bearing if the individual has a tendency in any direction to 
extremity of form. He must be capable of being "all 
things to all men," and for this purpose it is necessary that 
he be constructed on a medium plan, and with no rough 
or abrupt corners in his character which might mar his 
attempts at courtesy. He must occupy this medium stand- 


pnint, and, at the same time, be endowed with sufficient 
elasticity to admit of his meeting half-way the denizens of 
either extreme; for if built on an extreme himself, he could 

CoYirteousness Small D. Fernando Courfceousness Large Count D' 

^ 7 1I., a tyrant, who started the Orsay, the most polite man of the 

Inquisition, and was devoid of world, 
fine feelings. 

not possibly deal with those so far away as the opposite 
end of the range. The signs given above are those denoting 
mediocrity of character, and consequently the ability of 



ATTENTIVENESS when large, carries the head forward in 
the same manner that one bends forward when thoroughly 
interested in a new book, held in the hand, as shewn in 
the engraving of Hugh Miller, Scotland's talented Geologist. 


The exercise of attention naturally inclines us to bend 
forward the visual organs in the direction of the object 
we are desirous of examining. This instinctive act carries 

Attentiveness Large Abbey Kelley 
Foster, an able advocate of the 
abolition of American slavftry. 

Attentiveness Small His Majesty 
Pomare, King of Taheite. 

the head, with its group of sensations, into closer proximity 
to the object, as if instinctive reason had concluded that 
greater proximity would enhance the observing and noting 
capacity; and, therefore, like the sunflower which lovingly 
follows the sun for the rays which keep it in life, the head 
is projected to the object of attention for greater inspiration 



A long narroiu face, with full lips, are testimonies of 
true and heart-stirring SYMPATHY. But besides these there 
are several other signs, such as a long head, from forehead 
to crown; long and slim fingers, &c. 



To enter into and make our own the joys and sorrows 
of others, requires subtle powers of sensation to enable us 
tc analyze and understand the feelings 'jf others, and the 
presence of this high power of sensation is indicated by 
largeness in the upper front of the head After arriving 

Sympatheticalness Small Robespieire, Sympatheticalness Large Eustache, 
an implacable, sanguinolent, aiid who saved his master and others 
truculent tyrant. from massacre. 

at a correct estimation of the feelings of others, a fine- 
grained organization is absolutely necessary before we can 
sympathize with, and appropriate those feelings. All the 
finer feelings, as pity, purity, cleanliness, love of the beauti- 
ful and the sublime, &c., depend for their existence upon 
the fineness of the individualized material. 


.A. S S 





The apparent structural form which accompanies graceful 
movements and manners is the slim and pliable structure 
that bends with apparent ease. 

Gracefulness Large A Swan. 


The harmonious combination of several of the elements 
entering into the construction of the animal frame, has the 
direct result of producing an ease of motion, and an absence 
of constraint in the Muscular action, which comes under 
the comprehensive term of Gracefulness. More than the 
proportionate quantity of bone, results in awkwardness and 
ungainliness ; while a preponderance of the nervous form 
runs to the opposite extreme, and gives rise to angularity 
of motion, fidgetiness, and feverish and ungraceful haste 
in action, and so on with disproportion in every other 

Gracefulness Small A male Hippopotamus, taken from life, in the 
Zoological Gardens in London. 

form, which in all cases is fatal to that nameless beauty of 
comportment and behaviour which we call grace. The 
conditions necessary for the production of a high degree 
of grace, are, a fair share of Muscular force with an equal 
endowment of the Abdominal powers, while the other three 
Balient forms must be balanced, the one with the other, 
with the utmost nicety, without any of them possessing 
more than half the degree of development which has been 
allotted to the Muscular and Abdominal powers. Harmony 
of structure gives well-balanced and harmonious curves of 


motion displayed in every movement of limb and muscle, 
and this motion is the foundation of all Gracefulness. 



The curved line running round the corners of the mouth, 
while those corners are depressed or indented, is natures 
stamp or trademark on the visage of a person who has 
succeeded, or can do so in some department of life. 

Prosperativeness Large Julius Caesar, Frosperativeness Small AKyast 
the Dictator, who, as a Commander, Banian man, of Surat, in 

was eminently successful. India. 

To insure ultimate prosperity, there must not be any 
very weak or vulnerable points in the make-up of the bo<Jy, 
such ill-armed points would certainly nullify and prevent 




the success of any efforts; and expose the entire fortress to 
betrayal and destruction. For the possession of the requi- 
site general strength, a fair development is necessary of 
thorax, abdomen, muscles, bones, and brain, and when this 
proviso is granted, the signs above given will be apparent 




When one part of the body is equal, in due proportion, 
to every other part in strength, and no feature seems to 
dominate the others in size, and all are rounded, the indi- 
vidual who is so happily framed, so essentially harmonious 
throughout, should feel grateful, and endeavour to assist 
others to like harmony in their natures. 

Physioharmonitiveness Small Cut 
Rose, an Indian, who, in the 
massacre of 1862, in Minnesota, 
murdered 18 women and children 
and 5 men. 

Pbysioharmonitiveness Large O. 
F. Handel, a talented musician, 
whopf life was occupied in pro 
moting narmony. 


By this felicitous condition of body is implied the round- 
ing off and dovetailing of all the different faculties, so as 
to form a mass whose principal distinguishing feature is 
that of oneness, or the presence of a harmonious combina- 

Physioliarmonitiveness Large Sarah and John Eovin, aged respectively 
164 iUid 172 years of age. 

tion of material, and the absence of all ingredients not 
having a tendency to act in accord with the others. The 
harmony of music is the result of compatibility and fitness 
existing between the different tones, and combining their 
various powers of strength and richness, so as to produce 
an aggregate of delicious harmony; and the parallel 
between the two is much closer and more exact than one 
would at a first glance be inclined to suspect. The above 
signs will receive their full signification when taken in 
connection with these remarks. 




The physiognomical manifestations of Proportionate- 
ness are a due symmetrical proportion of one feature to 


another joined in a body, whose parts and features are in 
harmonious accord, producing beauty of form. 

Proportionativeness Large Proportionativeness Small A Flat- 

Petrarch Zortan, 185 years Head Indian, of the south-east coast of 

of age. Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

This word is sufficiently explicit and comprehensive to 
indicate the quality, or combination of qualities, of which 

Proportionativeness Large Dr. John Proportionativeness Small A 
Hunter, one of the most distin- Quatsino Indian, from the north- 

guished surgeons of modern times. western coast of Vancouvei 



it is the appellative. For the production of a high degree 
of Proportionativeness there must reign throughout a rela- 
tive fitness of parts one part having exactly that degree 
of strength, and no more, which puts it on an equal footing 
with the strength and powers of the other parts. Where 
these conditions are not maintained, the faculty cannot 
exist, except perhaps in a half-strangled form, which is not 
entitled to be classed under the name, Proportionativeness. 



In the human Physiognomy, the deductive faculty dis- 
covers itself to the observer by a well-dejined and prominent 
nose and broad face. No person has been ever known as 
an original and correct reasoner who had a low flat nose 
like that of the Chinamen. 

Deductivenesa Small Foolish Sara. Seductiveness Large John Locke. 

This faculty more than any other appertaining to 
humanity, demands a rigidly even and harmonious dis- 


tribution of the different elements in the conformation of 
the structure, attended by no ordinary degree of strength 
of development in each. To be able to deduce inferences 
from premises with accuracy and correctness requires abili- 
ties of no ordinary character, and the deducer must be 
thoroughly well balanced and strengthened in his structure 
throughout, to produce the soundness of judgment which 
is required to carry on mental analysis. Strength is the 
main element here, and this strength is evidenced by the 
presence of the broad high face which attends the broad, 
high, and harmonious form generally. Again, well main- 
tained equilibrium in the constituents of the human frame 
or organization is the invariable concomitant of a robust and 
overflowing condition of health, and this latter element is 
one which is almost indispensable to protracted processes 
of deduction. These are the principles underlying this 
faculty, and the signs given above must be apparent on 
the form, to the exact extent oi' tne development of the 
faculty in the structure, as vidtus est index animi. 

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, an eminent American author, whose novels 
and promiscuous writings display unbounded imagination, critical analysis 
couched in language and style, clear, forcible, graceful, and elegant. 


MEN have changed so much, and embodied so many varieties 
of features, that it would be impossible to represent any 
one individual that should fairly or approximately give 
an idea of the whole human family. We will give, how- 
ever, a representative man of the nation, tribe, and family, 
to shew that it would be neither truthful nor just to give 
one man as the true type of a race. The Europeans, who 
are considered bv many writers to oe a branch of the 

King William of Prussia, a specimen of European. 


Caucasian race, and who are supposed to have coine from 
the mountains of Central Asia, may be divided thus: 

English, Celtic and Saxon. 

Scotch, Highland or Celtic and Teutonic. 

Russians, or Sclaves. 

Germans, or Teutonic. 

Hollanders, or Dutch. 

French, or Celts. 

Irish, or ,, 

Welsh, or ,, 

Danes, or Scandinavians 

Spaniards, or Iberian and Celts. 

Now, let us take those brothers, so-called, and see how 
varied are the types of men, and how impossible it would 
be, if we so desired, to represent all of those nationalities 
by one man. Of Jate, much discussion has arisen among 
Anthropologists as to whether mankind should be classified 
in one, or many races, hence there are two schools, Mono- 
gen ists and Polygenists. 

The following i 1 lustrations, from the so-called Indian 
tribes, . will fully satisfy any observing person that a single 
copper-coloured face but ill represents the many varieties 
to be found in America at the present time, saying nothing 
about those which are entirely extinct 

American or Indian race represented by a Digger. (See 
cut of a Digger Indian on page 251.) 

A Hat Head Indian a irouc ana side view. 



Among the Snakes, we have seen some who resemble 
the Oneidas, others look like Pottawottomies, while others 
bore a favourable comparison with the Omahas, and yet 
many individuals of this tribe were surprisingly unlike 
any other. 

Catlin, in his celebrated work on the Indian races, pre- 
sents many drawings from life of the varieties, in form, 
shape, and feature, of the red men of the American con- 
tinent. Some are tall, well-formed, graceful as Apollo, and 
beautiful in feature; others are short, squat, crooked- 
limbed, and entirely destitute of beauty or grace. Some 
have been described as generous, noble-hearted, and truth- 
ful; while others were crafty, c/uel, and revengeful. This 
tribe delighted in manly sports, were abstemious, mirthful, 
and enjoyed purity of domestic lite; while that was morose, 
gluttonous, gloomy, ana sensual. Then how futile to 
attempt the representation of a race by an individual-^- 
natioris cannot be picturec bv isolated cnaraeters. 

A Quatsino, of the north-western coast 
of Vancouver Island. 

Cut Nose, a murderous Indian, 
of Minnesota. 

The French and Scotch, said to have sprung from the 

A Digger Indian, of California. Eating worms, grasshoppers, and aoorna 
is a luxury often indulged in by the Di 


same bratwh, are entirely dissimilar. The Englishman or 
Russian would never be suspected of being an Irishman, 
abroad or at home. The flat-bottomed, broad, short Dutch- 
man, who has been first flattened by the dead level of his 
country, and then has impressed his squat ideas in similar 
shape on his heavy-sterned sailing vessels, his dumpy 
copper tea-kettles, and even on his short-legged sheep and 
cattle, will never be confounded with the tall, haughty 
Spaniard, or supposed to be descended from some old Bur- 
gundian baron, who once held sway over hia present 
inheritance. Yet these anomalies among Europeans are 
classified in a lump as one race by many authors. But 
why call all nations which may happen to be white one 
race? As we find quite as much variation among different 
nations as between so-called different races, why not call 
every nationality a distinct race ? This same law of reason- 
ing will apply to all races, nations, tribes, or families of 
people who inhabit the earth. In our humble opinion, 
thousands of races and tribes have peopled the earth which 
are now entirely extinct. 

In glancing over history, in various languages, we are 
forced to believe that the earlier races were far larger than 
those we find now upon the earth. They were undoubtedly 
coarser, stronger, and larger men, physically, than men are 
at present, but not so highly organized mentally. Cultiva- 
tion and climatic influences, as well as those resulting from 
incestuous marriages, have sadly injured the physical 
stature and powers of man; while sensational excitants 
and education have enlarged the brain, and given intellec- 
tual force and knowing power, which are the great levers 
of progress and civilization. These last remarks are 
intended to apply only to the white races, as their history 
is the one we have studied the most fully. Among all 
white races men are growing smaller and weaker bodily, 
nd becoming more active and useful mentally. The 


following account of giants is evidence from other authors 
that in past ages men were much larger than those of the 
present day. 

" In an excavation, made by William Thompson and 
Robert Smith, half a mile north of West Hickory, they 
exhumed an enormous helmet of iron which was corroded 
with rust. Further digging brought to light a sword 
which measured nine feet in length, and after some little 
time they discovered the bones of two very large feet. 
Following up the lead, in a few hours time they unearthed 
a well-preserved skeleton of an enormous giant, belonging 
to a species of the human family which probably inhabited 
this part of the world at the time of which the Bible 
speaks, when it says, ' and there were giants in those days.' 
The helmet is said to be of the shape of those found 
among the ruins of Nineveh. The bones are remarkably 
white, the teeth are all in their places, and all of them 
are double, and of extraordinary size. These relics have 
been taken to Tionesta, where they are visited by large 
numbers of persons daily. The giant must have stood 
eighteen feet in his stockings." * 

In one of his recent lectures, Professor Silliman, the 
younger, alluded to the discovery of an enormous lizard 
of eighty feet. From this the Professor inferred, as no 
living specimen of such magnitude has been found, that 
the species which it represents has become degenerated. 
The verity of his position he endeavoured to enforce by 
allusion to the well-known existence of giants in olden 
times. The following is the list upon which this singular 
hypothesis is based: 

The giant exhibited at Rouen in 1630, the Professor 
says, measured nearly eighteen feet. Gorapius saw a girl 
that was ten feet high. The giant Galabra, brought from 
Arabia to Rome under Claudius Caesar, was 10 feet high. 

* From the Oit City Times, Pennsylvania, December 31, 1SC9. 


The giant Ferregus, slain by Orlando, nephew of Charle- 
magne, was twenty-eight feet high. In 1814, near St. 
Germain, was found the tomb of Isorant, who was not 
less than thirty feet high. In 1850, near Rouen, was found 
a skeleton whose skull held a bushel of corn, and who was 
nineteen feet high. The giant Baeart was twenty-two feet 
high; his thigh bones were found in 1704 near the river 
Moderi. Fannum, who lived in- the time of Eugene II., 
measured eleven and a-half feet. The chevalier Scrog, in 
his voyage to the Peak of Teneriffe, found in one of the 
caverns of that mountain the head of the Gunich, who 
had sixty teeth, and was not less than fifteen feet high. 
In 1623, near the castle in Dauphine, a tomb was found 
which was thirty feet long, sixteen feet wide, and eight 
feet high, on which was cut on gray stones these words: 
"Keutolochus Rex." The skeleton was found entire: 
twenty-five and a fourth feet long, ten feet across the 
shoulders, and five feet from the breast-bone to the back. 
Near Palermo, in Sicily, in 1316, was found the skeleton 
of a giant thirty feet high, and in 1559, another forty-four 
feet high. Near Mazarino, in Sicily, in 1815, was found 
the skeleton of a giant thirty feet high. The head was 
the size of a hogshead, and each of his teeth weighed five 

The numerous allusions which are found in classical 
authors, to the fact of human beings of gigantic size having 
ruled and fought for empire in the ages past, are also some 
proof that the present race has degenerated in size. It 
seems to be the natural tendency of all animal life to 
become smaller, or else its place is filled by creations of 
less bulky proportions possessing more intelligence and 
vsefulness. The places of the mighty saurian, among 
reptiles, and the mammoth mastodon, among animals, havo 
long since been supplanted by the crocodile and lizard, tho 
horse, dog, ox, and sheep, each of which is more useful, a* 


well a? more intelligent, than those mighty creatures whose 
past history is written and revealed to us in that unerring 
book of nature the solid rocks. 

As nature gave an immense number of species of animals, 
so she produced an untold variety of races of mankind. 
Some writers on Ethnology divide humanity into five 
distinct races, namely, the Caucasian, Mongolian, Malay, 
Negro, and Indian, but a multitude of authorities disagree 
on this point. Virey acknowledged but two races. Jacque- 
not and Cuvier divided them into three. Kant gave his 
opinion in favour of four. Blumenbach divided them into 
five the common theory. Buflfbn deemed them to be six. 
Hunter and Pritchard gave seven. Agassiz thinks there 
are eight. Pickering, eleven. St. Vincent enlarged to 
fifteen. Desmoulins said there must be sixteen races. The 
celebrated Morton, twenty-two. Crawford's observation 
found sixty varieties, and Burke noted sixty-three. Very 
much may be written on this subject of races, and in a 
subsequent work we propose to give our views at length 
on this interesting department of natural science. The 
origin of the various races is a most interesting and puzzling 

Many a beautiful, yet fabulous, temple of theory has been 
set up by philosophers of the past and present regarding 
the origin of man, and yet when the winds of investigation 
blow upon them, they vanish like the dew of the early 
morning before the summer's sun. 

We have numerous evidences in history, as well 
.s the testimony of bone and rock, that the men of 
^revious ages were much larger than at present, so that, 
;aking these facts to reason from, we can come to no other 
conclusion than that man is physically degenerating and 

The early history of Great Britain gives full assurance of 
the low mentality and barbarism which existed in that 


country in ages past. Yet the strength of those rude 
warriors was amazing. There are spears and shields in 
the Tower of London which an ordinary man of the present 
day could not handle. The suits of mailed armour are 
enormous in weight; and the sword of Richard I. (Cceur 
de Lion), which that monarch wore in battle, is enough for 
any common soldier to carry, without using it for warlike 
purposes. Compare this with the condition in stature, 
intelligence, and cultivation of the people in England to-day. 
They are shorter, lighter, and weaker, physically, but far 
more active mentally ; and ten thousand times more work 
is accomplished by the machinery contrived by English 
minds than was ever done by the strong muscles of their 

Our opinion, founded on these observations, is that 
originally man was a little lower, mentally, than the lowest 
type of the wild Australian savage or New Zealander, and 
the first specimen of the genus homo was rather uncouth 
and clumsy, but strong enough to care for and defend 
himself against the wild animals by which he was sur- 
rounded. We know positively that man has grown very 
much in brain-power, but how low he was in intellect at 
the time, or soon after his creation, remains an open 
question. Yet we are firmly convinced f,hat he was always 
a man of some kind. 

What are the operating causes which go to reduce tho 
physical size and strength of mankind? We answer, that 
nothing wields a more powerful influence over animal life 
than climate, and its effect can be more readily discerned 
than all other inclining forces. In the northern hemisphere 
of America, we find that of late the seasons are growing 
colder, the earth is becoming drier ; while in England it 
is the reverse, and this change affects animal and vegetable 
life as well as man. The same specimens of trees grow 
much larger in tropical and temperate regions, than in the 


frigid. The pines, which grow upwards of a hundred feet 
high in North Carolina, are small enough in Spitzbergen 
to be enclosed in a letter, without doubling the postage. 
The oak, in the Arctic regions, rarely reaches twenty feet, 
while in Alabama and Mississippi it is five times as tall. 
Heat expands all substances in nature, and cold contracts, 
water when converted into ice being the only exception. 
The Laplanders and Esquimaux, inhabiting a cold region 
in the north, are about four and a-half feet high, while 
similarly half savage tribes, living in the warmer lati- 
tudes of Africa and Asia, are as tall as the best speci- 
mens of Europeans. This change in climate is probably 
owing to the Earth changing its poles, and tends constantly 
to contract the bodies of men in America, and expand those 
of England, and to dry up the lands of America, while 
England continues moist; and this cycle changes alter- 
nately in heat and cold in each country every few years. 

Some attribute the lack of rain to the clearing of our 
American forest lands, while, in fact, it is owing to the 
increasing coldness, which is antagonistic to moisture. We 
often hear the well-grounded assertion, that it is too cold 
to rain. Those lands in Southern Illinois, denominated 
swampy, and for that reason given by the United States 
to that State thirty years since, are now all tillable. The 
bed of the Mississippi is rapidly filling up, and very much 
less water is discharged through this mighty river than 
even twenty years ago. Actual surveys of Niagara Falls 
evince the fact that less water, by several inches in depth, 
runs over the Falls to-day than did thirty-five years ago, 
or when Father Louis Hennepin, during the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, made the first survey of that 
sublime cataract. The oceans are receding from the land, 
and do not wash so high upon their shores as they did 
two hundred years ago. Herodotus, the great Greek his- 
torian, who wrote over four hundred years before the birth 


of Christ, tells us, that when Mones, the first sovereign who 
exercised dominion over the whole land of Egypt, ruled, 
his territories were not very extensive, for all Lower Egypt 
was a morass. In California are found the fossil vertebra 
of whales, high up in the gravelly bank, which is not now 
reached by the salt waves of the Pacific. It is true that 
volcanic power could have lifted this bank, or sunk the bed 
of the ocean, causing an apparent lessening of the waters; 
but our opinion, formed from this and other facts, leads us 
to believe there is less water on the earth's surface than 
there was twenty, fifty, or one hundred years since. 

The water is gradually being taken up in the process of 
building the vegetable world, and thus converted into solid 
substances. Hydrogen, the basis of vegetable life, is one 
of the constituents forming water, by a union with ox} T gen, 
and these two elements largely abound in vegetable and 
mineral substances. Great changes are taking place on the 
surface of our globe through the agency of electricity and 
chemical action, and all these changes tend to lessen the 
general bulk of the atmosphere and the oceans, by 
converting them into solids. Thus, things which are 
seen are constantly coming from those things which are 

Electricity appears to have been a primal agency in 
moulding the visible universe into its present rounded form. 
The lightning currents passing through the coil of an electro- 
magnet, obtains increased power and intensity by taking 
the round or spiral direction, and if a sufficiently strong 
current can be produced, solid masses of iron may be sup- 
ported within the centre of the electric force, apparently 
isolated from all surrounding bodies. 

The telescope has revealed the fact that many of the 
distant groups of nebulas partake of the same circular 
or spiral form; and whether we watch a tiny mote float- 
ing in the sunbeam, or a mighty star sailing through 


immensity, the same law of circles seems to prevail and 
govern both. To Electricity, then, we attribute the cause, 
in the Creator's hands, of all the forms of matter which 
surround us, and to its continued action may we assign 
the changes which are at present occurring on the surface 
of the earth. 

During the revolutionary war in America, we are told 
the average weight of officers in the army was 200 
pounds; and during the late civil war, the average amounted 
to but 149 pounds. This is a decrease of 51 pounds in 
about eighty years, and if reliable, is certainly a striking 
proof of the gradual decline in physical strength of the 
people of the American continent. 

The average height of the corn stalks in Illinois is 
decreasing, while the size of. the ears of corn diminishes 
in a similar ratio. The grasses are likewise much less in 
height than formerly. All this is owing to a lessened mean 
temperature of the atmosphere, and a consequent lack of 
humidity, which is the right hand support of all vegetation. 
How do we discover that North America is becoming 
colder? There are many evidences, a few of which we 
will offer: At that geological period, known as the Car- 
boniferous era, when the vegetable matter which' forms 
our vast beds of coal was growing and being deposited 
in successive layers, there were ferns and other specimens 
of Cryptogamous plants growing in the north temperate 
zone more than 120 feet in height: now, the largest ferns 
in the same region are but samples of vegetation. The 
coal-forming era required much greater heat for the main- 
tenance and rapid growth of those rank pulpy mosses 
which have no existence at the present time. The atmo- 
sphere held a larger amount of carbonic acid gas, and was 
therefore more dense, supplying the necessary food to 
those swift-developing vegetable forms. The rapid decay 
of the falling vegetation would cause partial combustion, 


which in itself evolved a great amount of heat. The fossil 
remains of animals are found in the rocks of temperate 
regions, which now only inhabit the warm regions near 
the equator. The habits of those creatures were fitted 
for, and their food could alone be obtained in very warm 
climates, yet their remains are found imbedded in the ice, 
far to the north, in the region of perpetual snow. It is 
evident, when they were alive, this cold climate was then 
much warmer. 

Again, the strong assertions of old men, who are now 
living, that the seasons are far colder of late years than 
when they were young, is another substantiation of this 
fact. The cause of our Indian summer may be partially 
explained by the combustion of the dropping leaves in 
the fall. This combustion warms the atmosphere. As the 
forests are removed, the amount of falling foliage is lessened, 
consequently our Indian summers are gradually vanishing 
or less apparent. The cause being removed, the effect 
disappears. The application of those facts to the causes 
which have operated, and are still operating, in producing 
varieties of race among men are very clear. Given, a 
change of climate, food, and surroundings, and man changes. 
The Duke of Sutherland imported some very fine specimens 
of pure merino sheep into Scotland some years since. When 
those animals reached their new home, their wool -was long 
and silky. They were carefully kept separate from Scottish 
sheep, and watched and fed by attentive shepherds, yet in 
three generations their wool was as short and curly as that 
of any Highlander's flock in the country. 

Another instance. Some fine thorough-bred hogs were 
shipped to the Cape of Good Hope for the purpose of 
replacing the long-nosed, slender-bodied chasers, common 
to that part of Africa. Notwithstanding all the care taken 
to preserve the purity of the breed, a very short time 
was sufficient to change all their characteristics, and their 


descendants were more like kangaroos than decent hogs. 
Climate had done its work. So with man, the varieties 
or races vary as he moves east or west, north or south. 
If the temperature of the earth's surface changes, he must 
conform to the change, and obey nature's mandates. The 
laws of nature are immutable, but their operations are 
constantly producing variations in the form and character 
of every living creature within her boundaries. 

" TRUGANINI," native of Tasmania, with features representing igno- 
rance, imprudence, stupidity, loquacity, and cannibalism. Her large, 
prominent forehead does not, white her infantile face does, show her 
mental weakness. 


IN looking back over the records of history left by ancient 
races in their traditions, monuments, and language, we see 
indications of varying colour in tribes and races of men. 

Some of the ancient marbles, recording the triumphs 
of the old Assyrian kings, portray light and dark races 
chained as prisoners of war to their cars of triumph. 

The Gothic tribes, from which sprung many of the 
present European nations, were a fair-skinned, light-haired, 
and blue-eyed race ; large of lirab and tall of stature. 

The Celtic race are said to have been short, small, and 
swarthy in complexion. These facts are enough to prove 
that a variation in colour, &c., existed many thousands of 
years ago; the Assyrian nv .bles being estimated to be 
5,000 years old. 

The entire period of human History contributes to prove 
that the light-haired, blue-eyed races are capable of the 
highest degree of civilization, and this race is produced 
and flourishes only in the temperate zones. There was 
a period when blue-eyed persons were rarely seen, and 
to-day, seven-eighths of the world's inhabitants have dark 
eyes. Varying circumstances, and the intermarriage of 
different races in temperate climates, will in time change 
the colour of any race and produce blue eyes. 


By transporting the African to the temperate regions 
of the United States or England, great changes may occur, 
but 1,000 years would not be capable of making him into 
an Anglo-Saxon or Celt, Greek or Roman. 

Classical authors have described some of the barbarous 
Germanic races as having been xanthous, and others as 
melanic in complexion. 

Tacitus, for example, thus describes the Germans as fierce, 
with blue eyes and red hair, having large and powerful 
bodies. " Habitus quoque corporum, quanquam, in tanto 
hominum, numero idem omnibus truces et cerulei oculi, 
rutilee comae mayna, corpora, et cerulei, oculi impetum 

Horace makes mention of the fact that there were many 
blue-eyed youths in Germany " Nee fera ccei^ulea domuit 
Germanica pube." 

Ausonius and Lucan each called the Germans yellow- 
haired and blue-eyed. 

The ancient Danes are spoken of as light of hair and 

Diodorus, Silius, Livy, and Strabo, each mentions that 
some of the Celts and Gauls had red, yellow, and golden 
hair, or flavus and retilus. Yet it is generally acknow- 
ledged that the Celtic race were swarthy and dark-haired, 
with very few exceptions. 

With the above historical proofs, we will proceed to offer 
a scientific basis for this variation in colour, &c. The law 
of progress develops itself only amongst the variegated 
races, as those having different colour of hair, eyes, and 
complexion. This law of variation has its origin in the 
Caucasian race, and the fact of variety in one race proves 
it can be brought to a great degree of perfection. 

It is a curious fact, that all the animals domesticated 
with us, which are of any benefit to mankind, had their 
origin in the mountains of the Caucasus, and the same law 


of variety in colour, which proves man capable of a high 
order of civilization, also finds its counterpart among 
animals. Wherever we discover colour unchangeable in 
animals, from parent to offspring, there we have inability 
for domestication, or uselessness. 

The black bear, the zebra, the tiger, are all animals 
untamable, resisting all efforts of man to subdue them, 
and their colours are as fixed as their natures; they never 
change in stripe or spot, more or less. 

On the contrary, the domestic animals are constantly 
vaiying in colour, and their progress in usefulness and 
gentleness of character is steadily advancing. 

The dark races, where the universality of colour prevails, 
are as perfect as they will ever be while remaining on the 
plane where the Creator has placed them. 

Take the Indian as an example, he is perfect in the 
place in which we find him, and every thing he has about 
him is just as perfect, as it has more than one entire office to 
perform. Examine, if you please, the Indian's frail canoe. 
All the science of naval architecture cannot contrive a more 
perfect thing. It is constructed of the lightest possible 
material, carries the heaviest burthen, draws the lightest 
draft, and is propelled by less power than any other pro- 
portionate vessel. He paddles it up the smallest streams; 
he comes to falls; takes it out and carries it round, and 
sets it afloat once more upon the stream, and it goes wher- 
ever his will or discretion may chance optate. 

The cool shadows of the night gather in the valleys, 
and he draws his canoe on shore, turns it over, and a pro- 
tecting roof is afforded. 

His modes of warfare are adapted by nature to his wants 
lie cuts his bow from the first tree, while another furnishes 
the arrow; the sinews of the deer supply the string, and, 
thus equipped and armed, he is ready for war or the chase. 
It is well known that the bow and arrow, in the hands of 


an Indian hunter, is not inferior, as a means of securing 
the buffalo or bear, to any instrument used by civilized 

The Indian, with his well-trained mature muscle, will 
draw a bow which a white man cannot bend, and will 
drive an arrow like lightning through the tough hide of a 
buffalo as large as an ox. Yet this same powerful and 
dark-skinned race cannot withstand the influences of 
civilization, and ultimately fades away before them like 
dew before the morning sun. 

It is only a few years since the North American Indians 
inhabited that continent from ocean to ocean. But the 
effect of civilization, in the short space of two centuries, has 
driven them to the base of the Rocky Mountains, and into 
the deserts of Mexico, from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 

The commercial enterprises of the fair-skinned races have 
well-nigh obliterated those once powerful tribes. 

This Indian transmits the same colour of hair, skin, and 
eyes, to succeeding generations without a single variation, 
and he cannot be domesticated; while the Caucasian has 
DO assurance that his children will bear the same com- 
plexion, shade of hair, or colour of eyes as himself or wife. 
In his family, both parents may be blue-eyed, and half 
the children may have eyes that are black or gray, yet 
the whole family are capable of the highest mental, 
moral, and social culture. 

Reasoning from analogy, the whiter anything is, the 
more pure and perfect it is likely to be of that species. 

The Guinea negro being the darkest of all races, is the 
most impure and imperfect; but the negroes in America 
are far removed from the Guinea type; while, in con- 
trast with these, the white races move in the highest 
plane of social life, and are foremost in the march of 

Look at this from another point of view. Take the 


various kinds of wood, and we shall find the white the 
most perfect. 

The oak, which has proudly braved the storms ; of this, 
the black is the poorest, then the red is a little better, the 
yellow still superior to the former two, but the white oak 
is the most perfect of its species. 

Then, again, suppose you wish to select a stone ; there 
is the dark blue slate, or a better one, the gray granite, 
or still better, the white marble; but the most perfect and 
durable is the diamond, which is the whitest and most 
valuable, being pure crystallized carbon, standing at the 
head of the mineral kingdom. 

Thus, reasoning from all nature, darkness and barbarism 
are synonymous terms. How much purer is silver than 
copper or iron; and platinum, which is white as silver, is 
the purest of the gross metals. 

Sugar, when not refined, is dark brown, yet afterwards 
becomes white. 

Coal oil, as it comes from the well, is black, but after 
being distilled becomes red, then yellow, and finally, with 
thorough purification by refining, it assumes the trans- 
parency of water, and is colourless. 

Many other illustrations of the theory may be found in 
God's great laboratory nature. Take a sheet of common 
white paper, how much more pure it is than when it was 
rags. Chloride of lime, pure water, and the mechanical 
ingenuity of the manufacturer, unite to make it white 
and pure. 

Let us once more turn to the animal kingdom. We 
shall find the offspring of all birds or animals are untam- 
able which shew no variation in colour of hair or feathers. 
Instances have been known where the bear, fox, leopard, 
or tiger have been supposed to be tamed or domesticated, 
having been taken when young ; but, as their nature 
matured, they have seized a child, and tearing the help- 


less creature in pieces, have then returned to their savage 
companions in the forest. Those animals never vary in 
colour from their parents. 

The wild goose and turkey, after months of domestic 
life, betake themselves to aerial flights at the first oppor- 
tunity, preferring a free wild life to a domestic one. 

The horse, dog, sheep, pig, and cattle, are ever varying 
in colour from the original stock. The black sheep in a 
family is sometimes found in the human one, as well as 
in the woolly flock. 

All the fruits and vegetables which flourish well in a 
state of culture, are those which vary in the seedling, as 
the potatoe, turnip, apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, &c., &c. 
These all had their origin where the white race flourished. 

We must conclude, therefore, that colour is the banner 
under which nationalities and types are to be classified, 
as far as regards their susceptibility of improvement. 

The following comparison from nature will shew how 
she colours her different departments. All things corres- 
pond ; nothing is out of proportion or disarranged. 

In spring everything is green, the skies green or blue 
to correspond. 

In summer there is some haze, and the sun in rising and 
setting gives off a golden expression, so the fields reflect a 
yellow light. 

The autumn presents a more mellow appearance; the air 
is balmy, the fruits give forth their odours, the smoke and 
haze of fall takes off the sharpness of the keen sunlight, 
and softens the purple and brown tints upon the hill sides 
into glorious landscapes of richest hues. 

Then comes cold, cheerless, and cloudy winter, with his 
snowy mantle enveloping all nature in white folda The 
chill winds drive back life's scarlet flow, until the cheeks 
of human kind vie with the colourless surroundings. 

There are hares (Lepus timidus) in Central New 


York that are white in winter and gray in summer, and 
weasels, or more correctly stoats (Mammalia carnivora), 
which exchange their summer gray for winter white. 

These facts only prove that nature keeps in harmony 
with herself in all her different departments. 

Nature being our sole true teacher, we should take 
lessons from her in choosing the colours of our garments 
for different seasons. Each period should have its dress 
to correspond, and humanity should display as much 
sense of appropriateness in apparel, as other portions of 
animal life. 

In winter, in snowy regions, we should wear white; or, 
if heavy clouds shade and darken the land, we should wear 

In spring, something green would harmonize with nature, 
and in summer, lighter colours, such as blue and buff would 
accord well. 

When the fall comes, browning the foliage and vegetation, 
the lesson taught is, to wear brown or gray, and such flowers 
as are of a dark colour. 

In spring, the flowers worn should be bright, like the 
blossoms of earth. As each season has its garb to be in 
harmony with it, so we should adapt our colours to its 
prevailing tints, that we may appear to belong to that 
world of which we are all a part. 

The colours of races would be adjusted in accordance 
1 with the same natural law. Cold white countries would 
have animals of the same complexion, and people who 
would correspond with their surroundings. 

But, we suppose that the different periods of the world 
have produced varying colours of races; for the Indians, 
whether found in warm or cold climates, are dark and 
coppery. The deductions to be made are these : The 
carboniferous era produced dark animals, dark people, and 
dark earth formations, and as the earth grew colder, the 


people became lighter who had their origin at a later 
period, and thus was the earth peopled. 

We find everything corresponds with this deduction. 
The oldest inhabitants should be the most degraded, and 
the latest production the most enlightened; and such is 
the fact. The dark races are fading away. We believe 
the dark races inhabited the whole world at one time; 
then came the lighter or coppery race, who peopled the 
earth and flourished for a time. Then, at a later period, 
the white races made their appearance, and with them 
came great advances in progress, which surpassed all former 
growth, each class of the white race being superior to 
that preceding it. 

We think this will be found to be the true solution of 
the problem, the cause of the production of lighter races 
in succession being, because nature, with her unerring laws, 
demands a correspondence in colour, as well as in all other 
characteristics. The white races are advancing, and indeed 
all races move from the coarser to the finer texture, from 
the physical to the spiritual. 

The Indian is a superior being to the Negro, and the 
white man is superior to them both. Thus we find that 
in the creation, as we rise in intellect, the animal tribes 
and man are possessed of more complicated organs of 
thought, and, as a result, of more intelligence. 


"Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth." GEN", ix. 1. 

NATURE has placed in all vegetable and animal life a 
principle of reproduction, of which the cardinal character- 
istic is, that like produces like. The theory of spontaneous 
generation denies this characteristic, by asserting that, 
under favourable conditions, inert matter can give rise to 
what is so essentially different from itself, as vitalized or 
moving matter. The & priori argument is, however, so 
strong against the possibility of that which is dead origi- 
nating that which is living, that I consider it much more 
reasonable to suppose that, under those circumstances which 
are falsely conceived to favour spontaneous generation, 
veritable living germs are developed into a size and 
activity which, for the first time, bring them within the 
range of human cognition. This theory of spontaneous 
generation has actually been carried to the extreme hypo- 
thesis, that the earth, of her own inherent energy, produced 
the first human beings, in other words, the proposition 
has been broached, that matter could give rise to mind. 
Even the Greek mythologists, in their fanciful account of 
the origin of man, escaped this materialistic tendency, for 
while, according to the fable, Prometheus succeeded in 
fashioning clay into the human form, he was yet obliged to 
obtain from heaven the divine fire the ethereal flame by 


which alone he could inspire his creatures with life and 

But although the thing produced always bears a clearly 
marked resemblance to the producing agent, it cannot be 
an exact copy of the parent stock, unless it is generated 
under exactly the same circumstances. Those variations of 
type which are the result of the varieties of circumstance, 
have been referred by Mr. Darwin to what he calls Natural 
Selection, and still more lately described by Mr. Spencer as 
the Survival of the Fittest. The causes of variation in the 
structure and functions of the successive generations of a 
species are, in some instances, clearly discernible; but in the 
vast majority of cases they elude discovery. It sometimes 
happens that the variations of structure fail to keep pace 
with the changes in circumstance. For example, a recent 
English writer has pointed out a number of organs in the 
human system, such as the spleen and the pineal gland, 
which at one time doubtless served some purpose in the 
animal economy, but having now survived their usefulness, 
continue to exist only as the mysterious representatives of 
past conditions of human life. 

The generative propensity is the subtle source of a 
powerful attraction to the opposite sex; but those who 
are deficient in this regard have at least this compensation, 
that they find it comparatively easy to preserve the modest 
reserve of their manners and the virtue of their character. 
This appears, when we consider that a great capacity for 
generation induces a strong inclination to sexual connection, 
for it is a law of nature, that those who are liberally 
endowed with any capacity are always prompted to its 
liberal using. Those animals with large mouths are natur- 
ally large feeders, while those which possess dilated nostrils 
are gifted with a keen scent, and a strong disposition to 
use it. If a man ia largely endowed with the numerical 
faculty, he will so delight in its use that he will almost 


involuntarily count the telegraph poles on his way, or the 
planks in the bridge which he crosses. The generative 
capacity is no exception to this rule; hence it always 
gtimulates desire, and renders self-restraint difficult. 

Human beings differ greatly in their productive capacity ; 
some persons being blessed with very large families, while 
others appear incapable of generation. The desire of off- 
spring the wish to stamp one's nature, as well as to 
transmit one's name and fortune is one of the most natural, 
general, and useful of human passions. The Jews, in 
common with most ancient nations, considered a large 
family a great social distinction; and the Romans rewarded 
the parents of many children with civic honours. But in 
these days of luxury and selfishness, children are too often 
considered a nuisance, whose birth is to be prevented, if 
possible, and whose rearing is to be transferred to ignorant 
and irresponsible servants. 

Girls are usually trained to believe that animal passion 
is ; among women at least, a sign of coarseness, whereas, in 
either sex, it is the invariable accompaniment of a perfect 
physical organization. Generation transmits the essence 
of life, and the generative impulse shews, therefore, an 
abundance of the life force. Washington and Jackson were 
childless, but the life-element of these great men was 
employed in loftier and more useful exercises than the 
mere multiplication of the species. The inferiority of the 
children of great men has been often and justly remarked, 
yet the rule is not without exceptions, as we see in the 
case of the Adams family in America, and in the Pitts 
and Foxes of England. In the latter country, the sons of 
Mrs. Trollope, Disraeli, and Bulwer, and the daughters 
of Thackeray have all achieved literary distinction; and 
in France, the sons of Paul de Kock, Alexander Duinas i 
George Sand, and Victor Hugo have been equally cele- 


The importance of generation in the economy of nature 
is plainly manifested by the assiduous care with which it 
is guarded. In the vegetable kingdom, the seeds are 
wrapped until fully ripe, and often long after ripening, in 
a protecting envelope. They are, moreover, placed in that 
part of the flower or fruit where they are least likely to 
be broken or prematurely dispersed, as in the apple, peach, 
&c. In like manner, in all animal life, including the human 
species, the organs of generation are so located as to be 
most effectually protected from external injury. Here, as 
everywhere, we have occasion to trace the wisdom and 
goodness of the Creator, and to acknowledge, in silent 
adoration, the perfection of His orderings. 

" Even if I would, I could not ; 
Even if I could, I would not 
Turn the course of Time's great river, 
In its grand majestic flow; 
Grapple with those mighty causes, 
Whose results I may not know. 
All life's sorrows end in blessing*, 
As the future yet shall show." 

We find by observation, that the most prolific animals 
are of a round form. The turtle, which lays from sixty to 
one hundred eggs per season, is nearly as round as a ball, 
and the domestic hen is of a similar figure. Those human 
beings who are remarkable for their generative capacity 
have this same round build. They are also distinguished by 
the prominence and width of the face in the region of the 
eyes. The desire of coition, which is an attempt at pro- 
duction, is the invariable result of all ardent love for the 
opposite sex. Hence the eyes, which are one of the signs 
of love, are placed in juxtaposition with the sign of the 
generative propensity; for whenever nature assigns a similar 
function to any two parts of the body, she always places 
them in close local connection. The face of the rabbit 
which bears more young at a single birth than most 



animals, is widest at the eyes, from which point it rapidly 
narrows above and below. Hogs are rather wide and 
full at the eyes; and they bear several at a birth, and 
sometimes bring forth two, and even three litters in a 

The multiparous animals, such as the cat (Felis domes- 
tica), and the rabbit (Lepus cuniculus), all measure wide 
across the head at the eyes. Those which are biparous are 
narrower in this region, while the uniparous species are the 
narrowest of all. The cow, which usually brings forth but 
one calf at a birth, and never produces but once in a year, 
is as large or larger at her horns than across her eyes. 
Among human beings, hollow temples and sunken eyes 
are the invariable signs of unfruitfuluess. Jackson's face 
is remarkable for its narrowness in the region of the eyes. 

I append a brief and incomplete list of those animals which 
may be considered peculiarly typical of the uniparous, 
biparous, and multiparous zoological groups: 


African Elephant, . . . Loxodonta Africana. 

Indian Elephant, .... Elephas Indicus. 

Indian Rhinoceros, . . . Rhinoceros unicornis. 

Rhinaster, or Borele, . . . Rhinoceros bicornis. 

Keitloa, ..... Rhinoceros Keitloa. 

Kobaoba, Rhinoceros Oswellii. 

White Rhinoceros, . . . Rhinoceros Simus. 

Hippopotamus, or Zeekoe, . . Hippopotamus amphibiut, 

Tapir, ...... Tapirus terrestris. 

Kuda Ayer or Malayan Tapir, . Tapirus Malayoniu. 

Zebra, Asinua Zebra. 

Quagga, AiditUis Quagga. 

Dziggetai or Koulan, . . . Acinus Onager. 

Ass, Asinus Bulgaria 

Buffalo, ..... Bubalus bujfrlus. 

Cape Buffalo, .... Bubalus Caffer. 

Banteng, or Javan Ox, . . . Bibos Banteng. 

Bison, ...... Bison America nua, 

Aurochs, Bison Bonaxsus. 

Camel, . . . Camelus A rabicus, 

Bac Irian Camel, . . Camelua Bactrianut. 


Alpaca Llama, .... Llama Pacoi. 

Ox, Domestic. 

Zebu Bos Indicus. 

Horse Wild and domestic. 

Roebuck, ..... Capreolus Caproea. 

Reindeer, ..... Tarandus Rangifer. 

Stag or Red Deer, . . . Cervus Elaphus. 

Fallow Deer, .... Dama Vulyaris. 

Sheep, ...... Oris Aries. 

Goat, Hircus Aegagrus. 

Giraffe, Girajfe Camelopardalit. 

Eland, ...... Orcas Canna. 

Ibex, ...... Capra Ibex. 

Koodoo, ..... Strepsiceros Kudu. 

Hartbeest, Alcephalus Caama. 

Brindled Gnoo Connochetes Gorgon. 

Rock Kangaroo, .... Petrogale pencillata. 

Woolly Kaiigaroo, ... Macropus Laniger. 


Brown Bear, .... Ursus Arctos. 

Syrian Bear, .... Ursus Isabellinus. 

American Black Bear, . . . Ursus Americanua. 

Grizzly Bear, .... Ursus Horribilis. 

Seal, Phoca Vitulina. 


Lion Leo Barbara*. 

Tiger, Tigris Begalis. 

Newfoundland Dog, . . . Canis familiaris. 

There are over forty varieties of dogs all belonging to this C'last. 

Wolf, ...... Canis Lupus. 

Hog, Su# scrofa. 

American Fox, .... Vulpes fulvus. 

Opossum Didelphys Virginiana. 

Hedgehog, . . . . . Erinaceus Europoeus. 

Racoon, Procyon lotor. 

Rabbit, Lepus cuniculus. 

Hare, ...... Lepus timidus. 

Pole Cat, ..... Putorius foetidus. 

Skunk, Mephitis varians. 

Cat, Felis domestica. 

Marmot, Arctomys Marmotta. 

Mink, Vison Lutreola. 

Musk Rat, or Ondatra, . . Fiber Zibethicus. 

Squirrel 8. Vulgaris, and 8. CaroUmnix* 

Rat, ...... Mus decumanus. 

Mouse, Mu musculua. 


AN acquaintance with Physiognomy enables us to surround 
the young with such attractive influences, in the shape 
of education, that their future paths of life lead onward 
to virtue, wealth, and honour. " Train up a child in the 
way he should go," while it is a profound axiom in morals, 
has also an obverse side; for the child is frequently trained 
in the way he should not go so that in age a departure 
from the wrong becomes as impossible as from the right. 

We can never over-estimate the importance of right 
training in childhood. 

The highest aim of the best civilization is to produce good 
and useful men and women ; and as goodness and usefulness 
are increased or diminished by health or disease, it follows 
that the preliminary to all true moral growth is a body 
physically sound. As the end of life is to be good and true, 
the beginning of life must be a preparation for it. " Take 
no heed what ye shall eat or drink, or wherewithal ye 
shall be clothed!" may have been an excellent motto for 
the early teachers of Christianity in a world then, as now, 
devoted to shows and shams, but it is not applicable to the 
rearing of children. Indeed, the first question to be asked 
should be, " How shall we clothe the new born infant? ' 
Thousands of helpless little creatures are annually slaugh- 
tered through ignorance of parents on this all-import')*! I 
subject. We frequently find newly born children with 


their tiny arms and chests exposed to the cold air, or 
covered with a flimsy piece of cotton, as an apology for 
protection to the delicate and sensitive network of blood- 
vessels just commencing to carry their minute streams of 
heat and life from the heart to other parts of the body. 
Instead of thin cotton, they should have soft wool or 
canton flannel on the legs, arms, and chest, and should 
always be thoroughly covered, as warmth is of equal 
importance with food in this early stage of life. Some 
parents, with the best motives, wash very young children 
in cold water at least once a day, while they would shiver 
at the thought of being forced themselves to the same 
ablutions. Infants require warmth under all circumstances, 
for at least some months after birth; and the mournful 
wailing too frequently heard from their throats, which 
should early learn to sing, is caused by chilliness, inducing 
indigestion and difficulty in breathing. As cold is unfa- 
vourable to the circulation of the blood, so absence of 
growth follows in its train. The puny arms of children 
are so many mute appeals against this pernicious custom 
of covering them with thin clothing. When the body is 
comfortable, the nervous action is harmonious, and instead 
of irritation and crying, the child manifests pleasure 
by infantile smiles and peaceful sleep. Wool and silk are 
better non-conductors of heat than cotton, and for this 
reason more suitable for children's clothing ; in fact, a proper 
amount of clothing in a variable climate is a great preserver 
of health for persons of all ages. We have no right to 
introduce children into the world without making proper 
provision for their food, clothing, and education; and the 
time may come when society will pass a law fur the pro- 
tection of children in these respects. Statistics prove the 
unfortunate fact that the poorest districts in large centres 
of population sheW the largest number of children ; but the 
same tables also shew that some prolific families have a 


much greater number of deaths, clearly proving that the 
ignorance and other ills incident to poverty are disastrous 
to the lives of the young. Next in "importance to cloth- 
ing comes the question of food. Nature has wisely pro- 
vided against mistakes and ignorance in this matter, by 
causing the mother to become the source of the child's 
nourishment. Too frequently, however, through previous 
unfortunate training, or ill health, the mother is unable to 
supply proper food to her child. When this source fails, 
the next best resource is milk direct from the breast of 
another woman, who is in good health, and of an amiabla 
disposition. The moment we step outside natural con- 
ditions, responsibilities begin to increase ; thus, the selection 
of a good nurse is of the highest importance. The blood 
of a virago imparts ire to her milk and acrimony to her 
suckling. The milk of sin cannot nourish righteousness. 
A child put out to nurse with a woman of ugly disposition 
became wholly unmanagable at four years of age, and was 
sent to a house of correction at the age of five, while the 
remaining children (three in number), who were nursed by 
their own mother, possessed mild and amiable tempers. 
No other cause could be assigned for the difference between 
this child and the others, but that of the vicious food which 
it drew from its improper nurse. Next to human milk, 
that of the cow comes first in order, and if the animal 
be not sprightly and good tempered, her milk is not fit for 
the child's food. After a certain period of growth, the 
teeth begin to make their appearance, which is an indica- 
tion that other descriptions of food .are then required. What 
shall it be? If we enter any of the tens of thousands of 
country dwellings scattered over the west, in nearly all of 
them maybe found young children; and if we chance to 
sit down at meal time with the family, we shall observe 
the baby of one year old seated in its Mgh chair at the 
table, where smoked bacon, rank coffee, sour bread 


vegetables cooked in fat, are the sole dishes for use, unless 
a tough-crusted, dried apple-pie happens to be added by 
way of extras, and yet not one of those articles named 
is fit for that child's stomach, and, we might almost add, 
fit for those of mature years. But so it is, day after day, 
and year after year, if its constitution can bear it, such 
food is forced into the stomach; and the result is, a young 
heir of immortal strength and beauty, a little lower than 
the angels, becomes transformed into a being of coarse 
features, still coarser passions, and the world sits down 
to count her loss. Those articles of food which retain the 
vital principle, such as wheat, corn, and vegetables, are 
the best suited to build up a healthy organism. We think 
what we eat. The tiger and lion, which destroy and 
ravenously eat their red-blooded feast, respond to its 
nature in cruelty and savageness, while the domestic cattle, 
like the sheep and cow, shew the results of a diet of grain 
and grass in lives peaceful and contented. Wheat contains 
especially the two ingredients necessary to build up bone 
and muscle in the human frame. Meat is like chaff, or 
the fibrous straw, not the soul or essence that lives. 
"The life of the flesh is in the blood" so say the Scrip- 
tures. When the blood is drawn out in slaughtering the 
animal, the meat that is left contains only a small amount 
of nutriment, and it takes large quantities to b sufficient 
to nourish the human system. The wisdom of using 
Graham or unbolted flour for bread consists in the fact 
that the outside of the grain holds the lime or calcareous 
matter, while the interior furnishes the starchy substance; 
those two build up the muscles and bones, and are found 
in wheat in better proportion than in any other cereal. 
To make the genuine Graham bread from this flour, 
follow the directions given below. Take of unbolted flour 
sufficient to make the desired quantity, and mix with cold 
water to the consistence of pancake batter, add a little 


salt. Then have a griddle with sufficient scallops to hold 
ten or twelve, or more of the size of a biscuit each; grease 
the griddle that the biscuit may not stick. Heat the oven 
and griddle as hot as possible below red heat, then ladla 
the batter into the griddle, place it quickly into the oven, 
and when well baked, it can conscientiously be placed 
upon the table as the most healthy, nourishing, and the 
sweetest of all kinds of bread ; having never been soured to 
raise, yet it is very light. Large loaves may be made of 
Graham flour, with hop yeast, as white bread is made, by 
adding a tea-cup of molasses to a good-sized batch of dough. 
Careful housekeepers will remember the secret of success 
lies in following closely the directions given. Ripe fruit, as 
an article of daily food, is one of the best that can be given 
to children; its effect is to keep the liver in an active 
healthy condition, by which means digestion is thorough 
and perfect. Pork should never be placed on the table 
before the young, as it tends to feed their animal nature 
too much, rendering the blood sluggish, and destroying that 
delicacy of taste which is the especial privilege of youth. 
Tea, like pepper, spices, and vinegar, is wholly unfit 
for children, creating in them an appetite for stimulus, 
and this grows with more mature years, demanding more 
and more excitants, until the desire has become so strong 
that the answer is only found in rum, brandy, and whisky. 
By this means parents throw around their boys the influ- 
ence of the grog-shop and gambling house, and the mother 
wakes up too late to find her son surely on the road to ruin. 
His downfall was commenced in his father's house by 
setting daily an intemperate table. Place before your 
children plain diet, throw out of the door or window your 
spices, pepper, and teapot, and then your child may grow 
up a temperate and honourable man. Tea contains Theine, 
which is a poison, and coffee, caffeine, also a poison; both of 
these are extracted or drawn out in the process of making 


(pa and coffee, and ignorant people drink it, believing 
it does them good. The effect of coffee is also to thicken 
the blood, inducing torpidity of the liver; consequently we 
invariably find that regular coffee drinkers are liable to 
"bilious attacks," frequently resulting in bilious fever, 
ending in death. Inactivity of the liver induces fever 
ague, dumb ague, jaundice, and its effect on the brain is 
to produce mental obtuseness or stupidity. Tea, by stimu- 
lating the nervous system, often produces mental imbecility 
and nervous derangement of a serious character. 

After food and clothing, the next important step with 
regard to the young is education. The effect of proper mental 
training is so great, not only upon the physiognomy of the 
growing child, but on the future conduct of manhood, that 
too great stress cannot be laid upon its vast importance. 
The world is to be regenerated alone by the advances and 
improvements made in the education of the rising "genera- 
tion. Every day a certain number of worn-out bodies 
die, while an equal number of young men step into their 
places. If they are wiser and better than those whose 
positions they fill, the world is just so much the better, and 
vice versa. An extended summary of the method and 
results of education will therefore be tolerated by every 
thoughtful reader. The capacity for civilization, or educa- 
tional influences upon a race will vary with the time their 
ancestors have been subject to them. Those who have 
been in the path of progress only a fe\v years, are not 
susceptible of more than small attainments. This prin- 
ciple is demonstrated in the schools of the south in the 
American States to-day, in the islands of the Pacific, 
and indeed among all uncivilized tribes, where missionaries 
have been. This theory may appear novel to the general 
reader, but not to those who have, through years of urn-e- 
mitted observation, paid attention to the subject. 

When I gave my first course of lectures in Boston, this 



white boy was brought to me for an examination, and in 
no instance have I seen a better example of a high sensa- 
tional nature, intensity of organization, and a true type of 
" Young America." Such children need rural life, plain 
food, and complete abstrusion from books and school. This 

White Boy. Orison J. Stone, of Boston, who 
learned his letters at three years of age, 
and could repeat a large book from memory 
when three years and six months old. 

Negro Boy. 

negro boy, with his feeble intellect, which meagreness he 
inherited from his forefathers, who cultivated only their 
animal passions and motary powers, can accomplish very 
little; while the white boy's ancestors were among the best 
educated families in the world, and he inherited a large 
brain and intense sensations from those who had used and 
enlarged their powers of sensation before him. He is 
cognoscitive, and known to be capable of much mental 
labour. The negro boy, after many years' schooling, can 
hardly write his own name, or solve the plainest problem 
in arithmetic. The white boy is an adept in memorizing 
and retention. 


The first lessons, and the most important ones in the 
education of the child, must come from the mother; there 
are no others so valuable and lasting as her influence, and 
that of home. Fanny Fern once said, " A mother's time 
can in no way be better expended than in talking to her 
boy." I deem this the greatest truth ever told by any 
person in modern times. Those early impressions stamp 
the coming man or woman for intellectual eminence and 
honourable fame, or for disgrace and infamy. Short moral 
lessons, which any good mother can give, are the moulds 
into which the rectitude of her child is run. How vividly 
come back in late years the impressions made upon the 
mind while in childhood we lingered around the loved 
mother's footsteps 

" I love to wander back at times, 

Through memory's faded halls 
And gaze upon the cherish'd scene* 
That hang upon its walls. 

' Friends, playmates those of days gone by- 
Come thronging into view; 
The good, the loved, the beautiful 
Fair forms that round me grew. 

" Upon the hill the schoolhouse stands 

Embowered 'neath the trees, 
Where, every morn the bell's sweet tones 
Ring out upon the breeze. 

" Beyond, the peaceful crystal stream 

Flows languidly away, 
While on its banks a happy group 
Of merry children play. 

" Thus, scenes, bright scenes to memory dear, 

Come crowding o'er each other ; 
But the dearest one of all to me 
Is the fond face of my mother." 

As those impressions are ever fresh, how wonderful is 
their value to us. Hence the transcendent importance, 


that the mother's teachings should be faithful and true 
to her highest convictions of right and duty. The delicate 
impressible mind of the child can go no further back than 
those first of home persuasion and discipline. 

TO A CHILD, because, when old enough to do wrong, it is 
sufficiently old to correct. Were all children taught to 
obey and respect their parents, much sorrow would be 
saved to age and silvery locks. How true are the words 
of that " sweet singer of Israel," who said, " The fear of 
the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." Observe, not the 
middle or end, but the beginning, thus obedience is the 
first prime lesson inculcated. 

LOVE FOLLOWS OBEDIENCE, and here again we may be 
permitted to quote that old book where it says, " Perfect 
love casteth out fear," and when love is established between 
parent and child, obedience grows therefrom, and the future 
steps forward become surer and easier. Love is the centre 
around which revolves the whole affectional nature of man. 
It is the lever which moves the social circle, and it becomes 
the mother's duty to lead aright and preserve in purity 
the affections of herself 

" Keep thon love's purity, 
To God leave the rest, 
Know then in surety, 
Thy care will be blest" 

The love of a tranquil home enters into a child's soul 
like sunshine into the rosebud, slowly but surely expand- 
ing it into beauty and loveliness. The cultivation of the 
affections and the development of the bodily senses begin 
together. The first effort of the intellect is that of indivi- 
dualization, and next, is to associate in the mind the names 
of objects with the sight of them. 


GREAT VALUE, and the method of object teaching is the 


most effectual plan, because the eye and the ear correct 
and criticise each other's impressions, leading to an accurate 
appreciation of the various objects with which the child 
comes in contact. As the mind becomes more capable of 
judgment we may commence to teach principles, but it 
is necessary to explain the reasons clearly and definitely, 
or the cbild will begin to resign itself to authority, and 
time in this way is worse than wasted or thrown away. 
The memory may be improved by increasing credulity, 
without adding an iota to the stock of real knowledge, 
and this prepares the mind for any kind of slavery which 
knaves or superstitious people may choose to impose upon 
them. If we assist the young to attend to the result of 
every action, to adjust their little deviations while giving 
free exercise to their observation and reason, they will 
gain facts, and educe principles, which no later influences 
could controvert. Those evidences of truth would be food 
for reflection which temptation would fail to remove. By 
such a system of training, the young mind would ultimate 
in the forming of a person who would fulfil the high destiny 
for which he was created, making himself and others 
around him happy. There are plenty of schools in our 
country to give the proper training to youth in mental 
studies, but none to teach him how to conduct himself 
after he leaves that school. This is the real and important 
work of home, but unfortunately it is left very frequently 
to circumstances good or bad around in the community 
where his lot? is cast. 

element by which success and honour are obtained. It 
should be an object with all parents to teach their children 
true politeness. This lies not in a bow or simple "Thank 
you," but in a feeling of unselfish desire to make others 
happy. The Golden Rule which Thales, the Greek Philo- 
sopher, Confucius, the Chinese Lawgiver, and still later, 


Jesus, the Galilean, taught, of " And as ye would that men 
should do to you, do ye also to them likewise," the founda- 
tion of all true politeness, and when put in practice will lead 
us on the road of philanthropic good manners to all mankind. 
Children should be taught to give a pleasant bow and 
smile to those they meet, and especially to acquaintances. 
How winning is a smile, how little it costs, and yet how 
readily and largely it sells. One simple heartfelt smile, 
with courteous manners, may make your fortune. Those 
whose politeness has its basis in selfishness, will appear 
polite only when it appears to their interest to be so, 
but when that is not at stake, their manners are boorish 
and repulsive. 

BOYS; their boisterous sports may conduce to make them 
wild, but it is a sure sign of a superior mind to see a 
youth of twelve or fourteen give evidence of the influence 
of a kind and tender mother. There can be no possible 
objection to a boy being playful, but roughness of manners 
is twin to ugliness of person, and either are great defects 
in the young, but readily subdued by good sense and kind 
wishes for others. 

PATIENCE is A RARE VIRTUE, so rare, that patient men 
are like showers upon the desert, rarely seen, but always 
gladly received. A patient boy is a " rara avis." If any 
of my young readers will consider a moment that the letters 
that go to make us those words were each set up separately, 
and that many men worked days and even years in con- 
triving and perfecting those wonderful steam printing 
presses, which readily throw off 20,000 newspaper impres- 
sions every hour, they will comprehend something that 
can be accomplished by patience and perseverence. The 
constant action of the rain and frost crumbles away the 
mighty mountain, so will your patient efforts in time 
remove mountains of difficulty from the journey of life. 


Cultivate patisnce, then, to promote your own happiness 
as well as that of others. When we give way to flights 
of bad temper, it becomes at last our. master, and we are 
held in ignoble slavery. Every time we lose self-control 
the harmony of our lives departs, happiness flies away, and 
the pleasant face of the world, reflecting our own image, 
wears a frown, which is destructive of peace and content- 

COMMINGLING OF THE SEXES. The advantages of an 
education where boys and girls occupy the same room, 
and where the lessons are pursued together, are very great. 
Socially, intellectually, and morally, those children are 
better than if educated separately. Do we not see how 
polite and careful, as well as gallant the boy of sixteen 
becomes when in the presence of his young lady friends. 
When a troop of boys go nutting in the woods, how rough 
and savage they often are ; but how subdued in demeanour, 
how gentlemanly they become when their female compan- 
ions appear. This purifying influence of the sexes upon 
each other, it is impossible to over-estimate. It restrains 
solitary vice, cultivates self-respect, induces a generous 
rivalry in noble paths, and builds up true men and women 
calculated to benefit themselves and those around them. 
Like the sun in spring-time, it produces a rapid growth 
of the moral nature. 

honourable means of support. Franklin said, " He who 
has a trade has an estate." Every young person, male or 
female, should learn a trade, or have some specific occupa- 
tion. You may be the son or daughter of a rich man 
to-day, but to-morrow you may be homeless and dependent 
upon your own exertions. The fluctuating and evanescent 
condition of wealth is such, that its permanence cannot be 
relied on except in very few cases. There are thousand* 
of families in this country, now poor and needy, who once 


possessed wealth sufficient to gratify every whim and 
caprice. In the midst of their prosperity the storm or 
fire came and swept off all, leaving them to the cold uncer- 
tain charity of the busy world. When the reverse, or 
poverty comes, the first question that arises, is, " What shall 
I do for a living?" You ask your feet, and they say, I do 
not know." You question your hands, and the answer is, 
" I have never learned to do anything." The head is then 
interrogated, and a mournful voice responds, " I was brought 
up to be supported, and consequently know nothing of 
getting a living." There is but one man who can befriend 
you under such circumstances, and that is the sexton. To 
avoid such a miserable fate, let every one fit himself for a 
vocation in life. Read for the sake of learning something. 
Study with an aim to be self-reliant and self-sustaining. 
If you cannot be a lawyer, be a carpenter, a shoemaker, or 
a blacksmith ; the latter will likely bring you independence, 
and preserve personal honesty. If you are adapted to a 
farmer's occupation, do not try to practice medicine. Many 
men run their heads against the gospel desk, who would 
have been of more benefit to the world had the} 7 learned 
to pound the anvil instead of the pulpit. Others try to 
plead law, who are better adapted to mining in quartz 
rock than in Blackstone; and numbers of merchants are 
more qualified by mechanical gifts to make cloth than to 
sell it. Every individual should be examined by a prac- 
tical and competent reader of human character, in order 
to learn to what calling, trade, or profession he is most 
naturally fitted. The motto placed over the grottc of the 
celebrated Oracle of Delphos, was, " Man, know thyself." 
Its importance to-day is as great as it was three thousand 
years ago. To acquire that knowledge is worth mor,e than 
any other, as it is the key-note to all true growth. By 
learning something of our original constitution, our excel- 
lencies and defects, our capacity of reasoning and persuading. 


and by studying the methods of self-government, we may 
in the end unite our own good with that of others, and thus 
benefit the world in the right way. 

PERSEVERE IN ONE THING. There are many young 
persons who, after choosing aright their trade, relinquish 
it because they meet some unpleasant things connected 
with their labours, vainly hoping to find some occupation 
where all is easy and all delightful ; such will learn they 
can never rise to excellence or become prominent in the 
world. The pre-eminent great men of all ages are those 
who have toiled, hour after hour, day by day for successive 
years, with unswerving perseverance. Murillo, the great 
Spanish painter, spent three weeks in painting the handle 
of a broom. George L. Brown, artist, served an apprentice- 
ship of twenty years in Rome. Bierstadt was similarly 
industrious. Michael Angelo, the great Italian painter, 
sculptor, and architect, gave twelve years to the study of 
anatomy ; and when he was seventy, he said he had much 
yet to learn. 

In every trade and avocation in life, there are unpleasant 
duties to be performed, and obstacles to be overcome in all 
callings. The successful ones " take off their coats and roll 


up their sleeves," conquer their prejudices against labour, 
and manfully, as our forefathers did, strive to bring back 
the soil to productiveness and fertility. Whether you are 
in the shop, the factory, or the forum, let your motto be 
perseverance and industry, for these alone can conquer the 
world. In summing up the foregoing remarks, we may 
say that the character of clothing affects the features. 
Climate makes smooth, or shrivels and dries the skin. 
Varieties of food feed various features; for instance, pork 
nourishes the sides of the lower part of the face ; beef 
puffs out the cheeks and rounds the nose ; vegetables 
feed the eyes and their surroundings, while the grain 
cereals nourish the forehead and brain. The effects of 


education are, to give sparkle to the eyes and definitenesa 
to the nose ; to light up the whole countenance, and chase 
away its gross character ; it lines out the forehead, eyelids, 
and lips, sweeps off the cobwebs of passion, and intro- 
duces symmetry and harmony. Note well the difference 
between these two physiognomies; the one a m?u of intelli-- 
gence and education the other without tie fastening 
influence of culture. 

Educational Type. John Wyckliffe, " the Morning Star of the 
i te formation. " 

The lessons of obedience learned in childhood have thei' 
due weight in marking character on the countenance, 01 
" Phiz." Let us pen picture two boys. The one has 
practiced obedience to his parents, and is respected and 
loved by all who know him. The other, through neglect 
or natural ugliness, is the mosc wilful, disobedient little 
rascal one can imagine. When tu!J to go to school, he 



went in the opposite direction, either fishing, loafing, or 
doing mischief; would steal, and lie, with no apparent 
remorse of conscience. For 
examples of a representa- 
tive boy of each of the 
above characters see the 
Cuts on page 292. 

Love, whose influence 
has been chanted and sung 
by poets of all ages, has 
the power to change a 
demon into a saint, and 
its effect upon the physi- 
ognomy is to make it 
bloom like spring flowers; 
to refine the skin, to fill 
out the chin, and to give 

warmth and joy to the Ignorance. John Broughton, a blood- 
thirsty pugilist. 

whole expression. 

Politeness and good manners ever win their way in this 
world of appearances. If coming from good feeling in the 
mind, as all true politeness most assuredly does, then it 
will ennoble every feature, give tone to facial curves, and 
touch with sublimity each lineament. Gentleness carries 
an attraction which lends gracefulness to thought every- 
where; it retains the balance of relative proportions in 
outline, and its effects rest upon the countenance like the 
mellow light of the setting sun. Patience is the root of 
all civilization. It supports the spirit of industry ; chastens 
every virtue; and enfolds, like a mother, every child of 
reform. By patience man has contrived to spread the 
sails of commerce on every sea. It furnishes mechanical 
horses and carriages for the travellers of all lands; it 
rolls the produce of the mighty West to millions of con- 
sumers in the East; despatches messages of business or 



afiection on the wings of the lightning; and spreads the 
news of Europe in a few minutes to every city and hamlet 
in America, while we return to them the tidings of our 
western hemisphere. Patience is, indeed, the helm of every 
enterprise. To have a simple aim in life is tantamount 
to the possession of a sane mind. The Bible says, "A 

Love and Obedience. 

Hate and Disobedience. 

double minded man is unstable in all his ways," and when 
we have two or more occupations, they so distract and 
divide the attention that we become vacillating and almost 
untrustworthy. Unwearied patience and persistence will 
accomplish what talent will grow faint with the considera- 
tion of; the look of a man who has perseverance will be 
more intense and solid than those who are wavering and 
unsteady. Systematic exercise has an all-powerful influence 
in causing the youthful countenance to tell truths of char- 
acter. We often meet faces which ten years since were 
beautiful and full of generous aspirations, but a life of 
idleness for ten, or even five years, has changed the happy 
light of youth into the cloudy gloom of insipidity and 


coarseness. Young children should early learn to do 
"chores," to induce habits of industry. At ten or twelve 
years they should have their allotted hours of labour, this 
will develop not only their bodies, but will also make them 
practical and sound in mind. About the age of puberty 
active labour will prove very beneficial, by leading the 
rapidly expanding energies of body in the road of useful 
occupation. In later years to be constantly employed will 
be a safe-guard against the vices of fashionable life. Well 
directed earnest labour is tfte only honest path to happiness. 
Whisky drinking, with its attendant vices of tobacco using, 
gambling, slang, and idleness, have filled our jails, insane 
asylums, poorhouses, and tens of thousands of suicidal 
graves. There is one other thing which sadly mars the 
life of young people in the present age. I refer to the 
sinful practice of self abuse. Many begin it before they 
become aware of its terrible injury to the body and mind, 
and when self-control is lost, they grow weak physically 
and mentally through a continuance of the habit. This 
vice paints its deformity on the countenance of its victims, 
but for the sake of their feelings we refrain from giving 
the signs which are indicative of this soul and body destroy- 
ing evil. If any of my readers have thus fallen, let me 
entreat them to make an effort to release themselves from 
its degrading influence, and they may eventually rise once 
more into the sphere of a better life. Children are the 
flowers of virtue, scattered by the wayside of life. Alas! 
how many of them, like the seed of the sower, fall into 
poor or thorny ground, where they either perish from lack 
of healthy surroundings, or the thorns of vice spring up 
and choke them. It is a disgrace to modern civilization 
that more than one half of the children born, die before 
thuy are seven years old; it is a still greater disgrace to 
know that a healthy, well-fed, well-educated child is the 
exception, and that unhealthy, ill-mannered, vicious chll- 


dren are the rule in many communities. The students, 
scholars, teachers, and scientific young men are few; the 
drunkards, gamblers, idlers, and useless ones are many. 
Tliis ought not to be so in the United States, the country 
that boasts of free schools, free government and free land ; 
or in Britain, which is the centre of commerce and civili- 
zation. May we hope that what we have written will 
tend to develop a better and happier condition, by leading 
parents to consider deeply the importance of a wise and 
proper training for youth. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, a famous American inventor and electrician, 
whose miraculous originality and rare fertility of constructive power is 
worthy of historical commemoration. 


To those who desire to understand human character, the 
connection between its various parts is of vast importance, 
and to master the subject, considerable research will be 

The following plan may be pursued in investigating this 
department of Physiognomy. Examine the lower animals 
in order to discover their peculiar developments. The lion 
has much magnanimity in his disposition, and fears no 
other animal; he is king of the forest and jungle. He 
would disdain to injure a mouse or small animal, unless 
in extreme hunger. Look at his face, and observe what 
confidence, dignity, and self-reliance he manifests, as much 
as to say, I would not stoop to a mean act. It is a fact 
that such traits of character are possessed by this particular 
species of animal. 

Next, observe his anatomical peculiarities. We find 
that he possesses large lung power, and that its attendant 
avenues of breathing are both .large and wide. The cheek 
bones stand out prominent, the hips are small, but the 
shoulders are broad, with heavy mane. Wherever we find 
this connection, of breadth of shoulder and breadth of 
cheek or malar bones, we shall discover great capacity 
of lung power, and the attendant character or disposition 



is the same in both men and animals. The lion gets in 
a rage in a moment, and regains his tranquillity the next; 
so it is with men who are of similar form. 

The elephant is as wide at the hips as at the shoulders, 
and experience has shewn that this animal never forgets 
or forgives an injury. He has been known to remember 
an insult for twenty years. His anger is less evanescent 
than the lion's rage. 

The elephant has a large stomach, with a wide mouth, 
and either indicates retaliation, that is, where the mouth 
is wide from side to side of the face, or from one corner 
to the opposite extreme of the mouth. The abdominal 
viscera are connected with that department which supplies 
it with work, and the mouth is the place where food first 
begins the process of digestion. Large width in this region 
indicates strong digestive apparatus. 

The hog has a large mouth. The turkey also, that is, 
by measure round from one corner, outside, to the other, 

Excellent powers of Digestion. David 
Hume, who could partake of a 
hearty meal and apply himself to 
study immediately after, without 
the least inconvenience. 

Feeble of Digestion. Gnstavus 
III., whose happiness wat 
poisoned by dyspepsia 


taking the longest circumference of its opening. The 
turkey and hog have remarkable digestive power. 

Chickens grind up pieces of bone, lime, glass, &c., with- 
out inconvenience. 

The whale is another animal of wonderful digestive 
power, and we shall find wherever this width and depth 
of mouth exists, in animals or men, that strength of 
digestive apparatus invariably follows. 

Observe a man with large mouth, full cheeks opposite 
the mouth, long deep heavy chin, and wide from the chin 
to the mouth, and we readily discover evidences of superior 
digestion, and a strong or good stomach. 

A good Digestion. Viteilius, A sensuous gourmand Emperor of Rom* 

All men who shew these peculiarities of build, possess 
the disposition of the animal that has the same condition 
of body. The low monads or polypi have each large 
mouths, with full surroundings to the mouth, and they 


possess the most powerful digestive tract of anything 
known. These illustrations might be extended indefinitely, 
but, to use a homely proverb, " Enough is as good as a feast." 
A few good illustrations, well drawn, will convince the 
candid mind, while men, who are sceptical about every- 
thing, are so thick-headed that a tenpenny nail would 

A poor Digestion. Charles VI., Emperor of West Austria, 
who died of dyspepsia. 

find hard work to penetrate their brains with a force of 
fifty pounds to drive it. 

Wherever we see men with a hollow or narrow portion 
of the face on the inferior maxillary, under the third 
molar tooth, there is no surer indication of weakness of 
the kidneys. The face being wide on the jaws at the 
point indicated in the annexed cut, of Vitellius, manifests 
excellent power to throw off the urea of the system, and 
a narrowness in this part of the face will be found in 
unison with weakness in the small of the back. Hencei 
we reason that a connection or intimate relation exists 
between those two parts of the body. 


There is a close connection between the eyes and the 
sexual organs; this is illustrated more in women than in 
men, and in the female, among animals, more than among 
the males. The reason is, they have more activity or 
work in that department than the male. 

The eyes are watery in certain periods, as seen in the 
cow and mare during heat. The eyes are glassy during 
pregnancy, and this fact is conclusive proof that cannot, 
and will not, be contradicted by any careful observer. 

Those animals that possess the strongest sexual instincts, 
like the boar, have a peculiar eye, that gives a sensual 
expression to the face. It is long, from side to side, and 
narrow from the upper to the lower part; and such eyes, 
whether they are found in man or animals, are evidence of 
a sensual character. 

Eyes that are round, as in doves, evince a love of hug- 
ging, kissing, or fondling. 

Horses enjoy each other's company; dogs the same, and 
play with each other for hours together; but hogs are 
gruff, thej r fight and grunt while doves are billing and 
cooing, and kittens are fondling, and playing, and licking 
each other, very often. 

All animals with round and well-arched upper eyelids, 
are affectionate in their disposition, and their love is more 
platonic than animal. Old Erasmus had the pig-like eye, 
and despite all his learning, he was one of the most piggish 
of men. 

He possessed very low and ardent love, and he loved and 
cherished only base passion. While another man is nearly 
always kissing the girls, and yet they all place implicit 
confidence in him; and such men are worthy of entire 
trust, and bear it honourably, as their natures are loving, 
but not brutish, or hog-like. 

The love-birds of Australia have eyes as round as bullets, 
and those we have seen in California were always together, 
and appeared very fond of each other. 



" Talk not to me of the eyes of blue, 
That never change with a smile or a frown: 
You may call them bonny, and tender and true. 
But give to me the eyes of brown. 

soft sad eyes! 'iieath your melting mood 
My heart-throbs thrill with a glad surprise : 

1 yield my power, as a woman should, 

To the mystic charm of those soft brown eyes. 

" I seek the gaze of the tender blue, 
Till my thoughts are rife with the worlds afar; 
I view, in the flash of the sparkling black, 
The meteor-light of the wandering star : 
But a want scarce told, and a pleasure pain 
Sweeps o'er my soul like a saddened strain ; 
And all my hopes are lost in sighs, 
As I mourn for the love of those dark brown eyes.** 


" Black eyes most dazzle in a hall ; 
Blue eyes most please at even fall ; 
The black a conquest soonest gain; 
The blue a conquest most retain. 
The black bespeaks a lively heart, 

Whose soft emotions soon depart; 
The blue a steadier flarae betray, 
That burns and lives beyond a day. 
The black may features best disclose; 
The blue may feelings all repose. 
Then let each reign without control 
The black all mind the blue all soul." 

The authors of the above lines we do not know; but the 
verses serve to shew that they consider the eyes love's 
medium. O. W. Holmes says 

" The bright black eye, the melting blue, 
I cannot choose between the two; 
But that is dearest all the while, 
That wears for me the sweetest smile." 

And Charles F. Hoffman 

" Yet with that eye could flash resentment's rays, 
Or proudly scornful check the boldest gaze, 
Chill burning passion, with a calm disdain, 
And with one glance rekindle it agaiu." 


Or Byron 

' ' Soft eyes looked love to eyes that spoke again.* 

" Give me the eyes of black or blue, 
Ever round, loving, faithful and true; 
Heaven's round orbs, love vigils keep, 
Half-open cptics reveal the brute asleep." 

All eyes possess love, but in a different manner ; one has 
strong animal passions, that give a piggish look, while the 
pure filial love sparkles with all the tender emotions of a 
mother or wife. 

Much can be said about the eye and its colour, as that 
has great significance; but the colour does not destroy the 
principle of the shape of the organ, as we shall find the 
same rulo to hold good through all variations of colour in 
the eyes, as in the colour of the skin. Nations, whose colour 
remains unchanged, have the eyes alike in colour, and they 
are non-progressive. 

Dark races, like the Indian and Negro, are naturally 
revengeful, like the elephant; and black eyes evince more 
or less a revengeful disposition. This law of nature carries 
itself through the various shades of the black races, and we 
shall find that they are everywhere more revengeful than 
the light race or races. 


FOOD is that which, when taken into any living animal 
organism, makes blood, bone, muscle, integument, hair, 
brain, life, &c. On food all animals are dependent for living 
existence ; without it there would soon be universal death. 
But that is not all: not only are animals dependent on 
food for life, but the character of that life is dependent upon 
the kind of food on which they feed. According to the 
nature of the food eaten, will be the idiosyncrasies of the 
eater. The turtle dove, for example, feeds on seeds, and 
seeds being the highest and most essential part of plant 
Jife, produce in the dove the highest type of animal life, 
viz., love-mating. Indeed, so prominent is this kind of 
life in the dove, that the expression, "gentle and loving as 
the dove" has become proverbial among men; although it 
is only here and there that you will find a man who has 
taken pains to find out the reason or ground of the dove's 
disposition and character. Only life can produce life; and 
as all seeds and grains contain within themselves the germs, 
not only of bare life, but life of the very highest kind 
possible to plants, that the dove, which feeds on seeds and 
grains, should possess correspondingly the highest kind of 
animal life, ought not to be considered an arbitrary arrange- 
ment, but in beautiful harmony with reason. An effect, 


philosophy tells us, must partake of the nature of its cause; 
and food being at least the occasioning cause or support of 
all animal life, whatever kind of life the food indicates 
primarily, will be imparted to, and engendered in the 
animal into whose organism it is taken. The hog eats 
animal food of all kinds, clean and unclean, snakes, offal; 
indeed, nothing is too filthy for its stomach, and everybody 
knows that it possesses only the lowest form of animal life, 
and has become the most gruff and unlovely of quadrupeds. 
The same thing is apparent also in children. The trans- 
mission of hereditary influences has much to do in the 
formation of character; but it is impossible for an observant 
mind to be in sensible to the fact, that many of the charac- 
teristics of the young are traceable to diet. Body affects 
mind, that cannot be denied ; and in early years, when 
growth is rapid, and food is taken into the system and 
retained in large quantities, and more frequently than in after 
life, the truth of what we asserfc is most apparent. The 
child that sucks the milk of the mother who bore it will 
nfnturally take on that mother's moral characteristics; while 
the orphan, compelled to take in the milk of an animal, will 
reveal in its character some of those idiosyncracies peculiar 
to that animal. This is not a visionary statement; it is 
founded on fact, and can be testified to by those who have 
paid any attention to the subject. An illustration of what 
we mean was found in 1870 in the family of Captain P. M. 
Choutea, of Kansas City, Mo. In the captain's family there 
was a little girl, five years of age, who had been deprived 
of a mother's milk and nursed on the milk of a goat, and 
when she grew up and was able to run about, she gave 
unmistakable evidence of the truth of that law for which 
we contend. She had a strong and very unusual desire 
for climbing. She would mount rocks, fences, and go to 
the tops of houses, and, in fact, jump about in every 
respect like the animal whose milk she had sucked. Nor 


when in her climbing moods did she manifest any tokens 
of fear; and these peculiarities became apparent in hei 
as soon as she was able to move about. Having had 
occasion to converse at one time with the captain on the 
tendencies and disposition of the girl, he very readily 
admitted the powerful influence of the goat's milk on her 
character, and told us that she was the most remarkable 
girl in the respect just noticed that he had ever seen. He 
said, moreover, that the go'at became so much attached to 
the girl, that she never cried but it ran to her. and if 
windows were in the way, it would jump through them 
as if they formed no obstruction, and on reaching the child 
would bend over her, and in its own way would endeavour 
to induce her to draw its milk. Similar to this is an 
instance mentioned by Evelyn, on the authority of Seotus 
(See Numismata, p. 312), of a boy who, having been 
nursed on the milk of a goat, manifested, as he grew up, 
the leaping and climbing propensities of that animal. And 
the same author mentions the case of a boy who, after being 
fed on the milk of a sow, could never be reclaimed from 
running into ditches, wallowing in puddles, &c., all of which 
traits of character are peculiar to the unclean animal from 
which he had drawn his sustenance. Again we say, there 
is nothing arbitrary in this. You cannot bring that which 
is clean out of that which is unclean, nor, conversely, can 
you bring that which is unclean out of that which is clean. 
As the fountain is, so is the stream. If the one be pure, 
the other will be pure, except, of course, in the case of those 
streams which, having left the fountain, are fed by impure 
tributaries. The child who is nursed with the milk 
of a wicked, immoral mother, will at a very early age 
manifest immoral and wicked characteristics. No man can 
study character, as revealed in our large cities, in low streets 
and alleys, where drunkenness and debauchery prevail, 
without noticing this. " He is a chip of the old block," a 


saying common among us, is just an illustration of the law 
we are seeking to enforce, although in many cases the words 
are uttered heedlessly, in ignorance of those principles on 
which the proverb rests. If you place a kid under the 
nursing of a sheep, you will find that when the kid becomes 
a full grown goat, it will have lost much of the goat's 
natural propensities for climbing, will be more gentle and 
quiet than other goats, and its hair will be of a finer tissue. 
And so, again, if a lamb be nursed by a goat, it will be 
found, when it becomes a matured sheep, that it will mani- 
fest less of the quiet gentleness of other sheep, and its hair 
will be of a more wiry nature than it would have been had 
it been nursed by a mother ewe. Giraldus Cambrensis 
speaks of a sow fed on the milk of a hound, which, when it 
grew to maturity, hunted deer equally well with an ordi- 
nary hound. And what is true of the lower animals is 
equally true of man. Like creates like. Dion tells us that, 
when Caligula was a babe, his nurse put blood on her 
breasts that he might suck it, which accounts for the blood- 
thirsty, inhuman nature of the man when he held the 
destinies of Rome in his hand. His parents, it is said, were 
well-disposed and loving, but that blood which he sucked 
in his childhood counteracted the antenatal influences, 
robbed him of true human feeling, and converted him into 
one of the greatest and most detested tyrants the world 
ever produced. 

It must be added that he was sensual and gluttonous in 
his mature years ; and the immense income he derived 
from the Roman Provinces was largely expended on the 
pleasures of the table. "We are told that he dissolved 
in vinegar some of the largest and most costly pearls he 
could procure, and that he drank the solution with apparent 
relish. Pliny, to whose work on "Natural History" (1. 9, 
p. 257) we are indebted for this fact, records a similar one 
concerning the famous Cleopatra, who, after a sumptuous 


repast, drank a solution in vinegar of two of the most valu 
able pearls then known, valued at 100,000 sesterces, equal 
to 800 or $4,000. "We mean not to say that these draughts 
had any moral influence on the constitution, or that they 
were anything else but wanton displays of wealth in persons 
abandoned to sensuality. 

Napoleon I. was extremely fond of roast pig ; and per- 
haps his preference for the most selfish and quarrelsome 
of all our food -animals may have nurtured the pugnacious 
disposition of the unprincipled Corsican. 

Animal food doubtless supplies more physical force than 
a purely vegetable diet ; and men who work hard as labor- 
ers in the open air may thrive well on plentiful supplies of 
animal as well as vegetable food, especially in cold climates. 
But flesh meat stimulates the passions ; and all persons of 
in-door employment, especially those engaged in mental 
labor, will find a purely vegetable diet more conducive 
both to bodily health and intellectual vigor. Undoubtedly 
the most valuable thoughts, those most truthful and scien- 
tific, those which are most nearly allied to purity of heart, 
and valuable for aiding the souls of men to rise above all 
that is low and base, are the thoughts generated in a frame 
nourished by vegetable productions, as cereals, fruits, and 
nuts, which seem to be the very highest type of soul food. 

Accordingly, some of the most distinguished men have 
been vegetarians during the most active years of their intel- 
lectual labors. 

Benjamin Franklin was for many years strictly a vege- 
tarian ; yet he possessed uncommon physical strength as 
well as philosophic and inventive genius. 

Crates, an eminent cynic philosopher of Thebes, and a 
disciple of Diogenes, was asked what use philosophy was to 
him. lie replied, "To teach me to be contented with a 
vegetable diet, and to live exempt from care and trouble." 

Swedenborg lived on bread, milk, and vegetables. 


cartes, the celebrated French philosopher ; Shelley, the Eng- 
lish poet, and Junius Brutus Booth, actor, were all vege- 
tarians. We have read somewhere a similar account of Sir 
Isaac Newton, that during most of the years of his intel- 
lectual labors he lived principally on fruit and vegetables. 

G. Rondelet, a talented French naturalist and also a 
learned physician, the author of several medical works, 
abandoned the use of wine and flesh at twenty-five years of 
age, and took to fruit and pastry. 

In Thomas Crowell's edition of Lord Byron's "Works 
(New York, p. 14) there is a description of the poet's meals, 
and we find it includes no kind of butcher's meat ; he ap- 
pears to have used only vegetable products, even to tea and 

Anthony Benezet, a philanthropic Quaker, born in France, 
was distinguished for his beneficence to the needy and suf- 
fering, wherever he found them. lie relinquished the use 
of animal food, prompted by the motive of abhorrence to 
the pain inflicted by the butcher on the innocent victims of 
his craft. (See Appleton's " Cyclopaedia of Biography.") 

Henry David Thoreau, an American naturalist and an 
oriental scholar and author, ate no flesh, drank no wine, 
used no tobacco. (See Atlantic Monthly, vol. ii., p. 81.) 

William C. Bryant, an American poet, ate sparingly of 
flesh and fish, partaking generally of cereals, oatmeal por- 
ridge or hominy, milk, and fruit, but using neither tea, coffee, 
tobacco, nor wine. (Scribner's Magazine, vol. xvi., p. 495.) 

The Duke of Wellington used rusks and bread with his 
tea, but never meat or eggs. (" Bric-a-brac," C. Knight, p. 

Francis Newman, an eminent Latin scholar and teacher 
in London, is a vegetarian ; and Isaac Pitman, with whom 
the writer is personally acquainted, has not touched fish, 
flesh, or fowl for upward of fifty years. He was born in 
1813, and when the writer last saw him (1889), in his pub- 


lishing office at Bath, England, he was as active as a boy. 
He is one of the most constant workers of his years, and is 
well known in England as the inventor of the best system 
of short-hand writing, as well as a less used system of 

Joseph Ritson, an English antiquary and extensive au- 
thor, had a horror of animal food. (" Bric-a-brac," Constable, 
p. 141.) 

Hundreds of other lesser lights could be referred to in 
order to prove that the highest type of intellect can be sus- 
tained on vegetable food ; and we are of opinion that a 
variety of fruits, nuts, cereals, and other vegetable sub- 
stances are more favorable to original and inventive 
thought than carnivorous diet ; while no one that has 
studied the subject will attempt to gainsay that animal 
food feeds and inflames the lower passions of human nature. 

We have never heard of a strict vegetarian committing 
murder, theft, or other crimes requiring violence. So, like- 
wise, the lower animals that subsist on the flesh of other 
animals are far more liable to kill than vegetable-eating 
creatures. Dr. Veitch, on this point, says : " I am per- 
suaded that it will invariably be found true that those who 
are living on animal food are more impetuous in temper 
than those who live on vegetable aliment;" and Phillips 
adopts the satne opinion. (See " History of Cultivated Vege- 
tables," 1822, vol. i., p. 5.) 

A certain quantity of half-cooked beef is used by pugilists 
when training to batter each other into insensibility, this 
diet, no doubt, tending to nourish the bull-dog disposition 
needed for the encounter, just as swine's flesh will give the 
soldier better courage for the battle-field than plum-pud- 
ding, rice, or apple-dumplings. Those savages who subsist 
chiefly on animal flesh, and occasionally take a meal from 
the remains of a human being, are certainly more blood- 
thirsty than those who consume only vegetable matter. Mr. 


Lawrence holds, and on tenable grounds, that as men rise 
in the scale of civilization they consume more vegetable 
and less animal substance. He also denies that the bodily 
strength is deteriorated by this upward progress. (See " Lect- 
ures on Man," 1844, pp. 144-147.) It may here be re- 
marked that the animals most useful to man, and those of 
the greatest endurance in bearing or drawing heavy loads, 
are vegetarian, as the reindeer, the camel, llama, horse, 
mule, ox, elephant, etc. ; whereas the useless quadrupeds, 
as the lion, tiger, lynx, hyena, and all that ilk, are wholly 
carnivorous, and they are not only unserviceable to man but 
are vicious and treacherous. Then as to bodily strength. 
Is not the horse or the ox strong enough for any eight or 
ten men? And as for the elephant, which never takes a 
mouthful of aught but vegetable food and water, does he 
not keep strength enough for half a regiment ? 

Charles Darwin says that in Central Chili he saw men 
working in a mine four hundred and fifty feet deep, and 
carrying two hundred pounds of ore by rough ladders to 
the surface. They lived entirely on boiled beans and bread. 
(See " Naturalist's Voyage Eound the World," New Ed., New 
York, 1871, p. 266.) He also states that these men worked 
from break of day till dark, with only a few minutes for a 
mid-day meal. Could meat eaters do more at any labor re- 
quiring physical strength ? On page 60 of the same book we 
find Darwin thus speaking of the general working popula- 
tion of Central Chili : " The laboring men work very hard. 
They have little time allowed for their meals, and during 
summer as well as winter they begin when it is light, and 
leave off at dark. They are paid one pound sterling ($5) a 
month, and their food given them. This, for breakfast, con- 
sists of sixteen figs and two small loaves of bread; for din- 
ner, boiled beans ; for supper, broken roasted wheat grain. 
They scarcely ever taste meat, as with the 12 per annum 
they have to clothe themselves and support their families." 


As the letters of the alphabet are the elements of written 
language, and when we understand their combinations, we 
have a key to unlock the treasures of knowledge contained 
in books, so the various lines, the convexities, the con- 
cavities of the human face are as so many letters by which 
those who understand them can read at a glance the intel- 
lectual and moral character of those in whom they appear. 
But this facial expression is a language not quickly mastered ; 
it is a study to last a life-time; for ever and anon there 
are, and will be new marks to discover and interpret. 

There are, however, several distinct varieties of general 
structure, which produce corresponding characteristics and 
facial expressions in all. For instance, the bony structure 
produces the rough and homely, not to say ugly face. 
But to me these plain countenances appear like countries 
whose mountains and ravines reveal nature in features of 
sublimity and grandeur. Level or slightly undulating 
landscapes are called pretty, so are smooth faces. But 
the mountainous country is that which conceals treasures 
of gold, silver, precious stones, and useful metals; so the 
rough faces indicate solid character and sterling worth 
powers which, like the mines and quarries of mountain 
ranges, are worth woi king, and will yield a rich return. 
Witness Michael Angelo, Galileo, Julius Caesar, Christopher 


Columbus, Andrew Jackson, Sir Robert Peel, and Abiaham 
Lincoln, all specimens of the bony type. 

The rounder lines of the muscular structure are the 
result of physical exercise, and stand as a register in 
nature's account book to the credit of the individual or 
race whose industry traced them there. 

I shall now describe particularly the lines that belong 
to each of the five kinds of structure. 

1. The Abdominal. This make appears conspicuously 
in aquatic animals. In the human subject, it gives short 
horizontal lines on the forehead, as here indicated. These 

Aulus Vitellius, a licentious and cruel Roman Emperor. 

lines or wrinkles are straight in some persons, while in 
others they _are irregular and broken, in mature years, 
however, they are always short. This structure also pro- 
duces wrinkles running round the neck and ears. It gives 


a certain roundness and smoothness to the whole body, 
with a few well-rounded lines, usually including a curved 
one about the mouth. It gives, especially in childhood, 
circular creases more or less deep about the wrists, elbows, 
knees, knuckle-joints, and across the chest. The lines of 
the face are less marked, owing to the adipose tissue which 
fills it up, and produces dimples rather than wrinkles. 
What lines you discover are not sharp at their inward 
or bone direction, but are round in their deepest part. 
These are pretty sure signs of eating, sleeping, and enjoy- 
ing animal life. Those who exhibit them usually possess 
excellent organs of assimilation, and their secretions are 
carried on quite freely. When the abdominal structure 
is greatly predominant, we have an individual more animal 
than intellectual; fond of the pleasures of the table, and a 
trifle selfish. 

2. The Thoracic structure evinced by a broad chest, 
large nostrils, wide cheek-bones, full and capacious throat. 
It abounds in electricity, and produces fewer lines than 
any other; for it is the fresh, youthful make of active, 
impulsive natures, not steady enough at any one pursuit 
to acquire the wrinkles which, as we shall see, are the 
product of continued application. 

3. The Muscular and Fibrous structure abounding, as 
its name imports in muscle, and evincing itself by physical 
force. Here will be found perpendicular wrinkles in the 
lower forehead just over the nose, and running nearly 
parallel with the facial muscles. (See cut of S. Judas 
Thadeus on page 61.) In that cut, observe a well-marked 
example of muscular wrinkles on the face. They run up 
and down the cheeks, neck and arms, in correspondence 
with the facial muscles; but it is to be noted that the 
orbicular muscles are not thus marked, being light and 
thin they are not apt to form wrinkles unless they are 
formed transversely to the direction of the muscles. These 


muscular lines are deeper than any other, and are con- 
spicuous when the individual is strongly under the influence 
of grief or joy. They generally indicate pacific and good- 
natured people; for a man who is unusually strong is 
generally peaceably disposed. Such are likewise labour- 
loving people; for whenever any natural form or make is 
strongly predominant, there is aji instinctive desire to 
exercise and increase it. 

4. The Osseous or Bony structure remarkable for forma- 
tive power. It has curved lines, but not so deep as those 
of the muscular, and their general tendency is to be longer 
and more angular. People having this class of wrinkles 
will love to ride better than walk, as they thus exercise 
the bones rather than the muscles. 

5. The Brain and Nerve structure is indicated by long 
lines about the forehead, long also from the eyes down- 
wards. People of this make are not generally desirous 
of money, or anxious to accumulate property, but they 
intensely love study; they want to read and think. Nor 
only so they have thought closely and deeply before 
those long lines could be fully developed. You cannot 
find them in the youthful face; they are the tokens of 
long application, close study, and great mental power. 

No disposition or exercise, whether of body or mind, 
produces such long wrinkles as this thoughtfuluess. You 
cannot find a man who has for years been a deep and close 
thinker, but he shews long and continuous wrinkles across 
the forehead; also lengthened and well-marked lines pro- 
ceeding outwards from the eyes. There will usually be 
well-marked eye-lids, and a tendency to form wrinkles 
parallel with the attachment of the lower eye-lid to the 
face. So, whenever you see a man with a great head, 
large eye, long nose, and shrivelled appearance of the skin 
about the upper part of the face, be assured that his has 
not been a life of ease or sloth; for these tokens bespeak 


intense, consecutive thought and mature understanding. 
Long wrinkles indicate what is meant by a " long head" 
a far-seeing mind, made so by nature at first, but developed 
and matured by years of thoughtfulness. 

It is important distinctly to understand the wrinkles 
peculiar to each form or structure ; but sometimes you find 
several of these blende^ or mixed in one individual; and 
the study thus becomes more difficult. When the Brain 
and Nerve form is combined with the bony, it will produce 
more wrinkles than any other structure, or combination of 
structures; but the wrinkles will be less perfect, and there- 
fore less easily recognizable than in the pure Brain and 
Nerve type. 

If we find the whole five types pretty evenly balanced 
in one person, the lines can scarcely be found unless the 
constitution has been abused. This harmony, this equi- 
poise seems to efface the lines belonging to each peculiar 

An observation or two on the general lines of the face 
may suffice in conclusion. 

Facial lines or wrinkles are the roads over which time 
has wrought his experiences, and those who possess them 
have always been hard workers, either for good or evil. 

The smooth face denotes ease, indolence, and pleasure. 
The possessors of such are seldom thoroughly honest, and 
are not often found arriving at eminence. The men and 
women who have made their mark on other minds, wher- 
ever they have been, have been ploughing their own faces 
with lines never to be erased; but such lines are not found 
in the children of ease and idleness. 

The lines produced by the workings of scorn, grief, joy, 
mirth, happiness, pain, disappointment, mark the counten- 
ance only for a time, except where the condition is long- 
continued. If a person has been in bad health for years, 
the entire face will display wrinkles, but not of the regular 
characters we have described above. 


If a person is of gloomy disposition, the lines will run 
downwards like the feelings within; while the opposite 
will be the case with an individual full of hope and healthy 
life. In joyous subjects the lines run upward ; but if out- 
ward and downward, there has been much sorrow. The 
downward curves of a gloomy countenance are seen in the 
imprisoned convict; the upward ones in the blooming, 
thoughtless youth, with whom life is in its freshest con- 

The lines which run straight across the forehead are 
indifferent evidences of moral worth ; while those that dip 
in the middle are good signs, found only on persons of 
estimable character. 

The lines, the curves, the angles, are so many marks in 
nature's record of our conduct. The lines produced by 
crime are downward; those traced by good actions run 
upwards; like the soul within, looking up for help and 
support, our good actions make their marks to indicate the 
upward tendency of our lives. 

Now, the reader may think these matters very difficult 
all but impossible to master. What if you should live to 
see the day when a school for teaching them should be 
successfully conducted and gladly supported? 


THIS is a subject of such vital and paramount importance, 
that we intend to enter into it so fully, that every one of 
ordinary intelligence may be able to appreciate the facts 
and reasons, so as personally to apply them, and become 
the intelligent instructors and guides of all who come 
within the sphere of their influence. 

Let us then first consider the qualities and influence of 
the atmosphere. All the continental waters come to us 
from the ocean. If they are fresh and sweet, it is because 
they have passed through the great laboratory of nature, 
by the simple process of distillation, which is the first fact 
to be specially pointed out. 

The Sun, the great awakener of life, shoots his burning 
rays every day athwart the face of the waters; he causes 
the invisible vapours to rise, which, lighter than the air 
itself, unceasingly tend to soar into the atmosphere. In 
their ascending movement, they encounter the colder layers 
of the higher regions, which have a cooling influence. They 
are condensed in vesicles, which become visible under the 
form of clouds and fogs. Then borne along by the winds, 
whether invisible still, or in the state of clouds, they spread 
themselves over the continents, and fall in abundant rains 
upon the grounds which they fertilize. All the portion of 
the atmospheric waters not expended for the benefit of the 
plants and the animals, or carried off anew into the atrno* 


sphere by evaporation, returns by the springs and rivers to 
the ocean whence it came. 

Thus the waters of the ocean, by this ever- renewed 
rotation, spread themselves over the lands; the two ele- 
ments combine and become a source of life, far richer and 
much superior to what either could have produced by its 
own forces alone. But we see the earth and the water, 
tne continents and the oceans, touch each other only at 
their margins. A more intimate action upon each other is 
only possible by means of the most mobile of the elements, 
the atmosphere, which performs in nature the part of a 
mediator. The winds are the agents in this important 
work, the carriers of the water which unceasingly reno- 
vates the face of the lands, and sustains its beauty. The 
inhabitants of the arid desert can alone tell us how to value 
this treasure of revivifying moisture. Still let it be care- 
fully remembered, that the more elevated regions receive 
the more purified air, with its burden of more purified 
vapour. Hence the mental and bodily vigour attained in 
elevated regions, within certain limits, is proportionally of 
a more elevated order than can be attained in a more impure 
and heavier region in depressed situations. 

Now, let us look at the terrestrial distribution of our race, 
with special reference to the elevation and climatic condi- 
tions of its habitat. 

Man, among the inhabitants of the earth, forms a striking 
exception to the general law of distribution and develop- 
ment. He is not found in his most perfect type in the 
tropical regions. The tropical man, far from exhibiting 
that harmonious outline, that noble and elevated form, and 
all those perfections which the chisel of a Phidias or of a 
Praxiteles has combined in a single individual, displays that 
figure which approaches near to the lower animal, and 
betrays the instinct of the brute. If, then, the distribution 
of the human races on the surface of the globe does not 


follow the law of the rest of nature, what is the law, let us 
try to point out, which regulates it? This is one of the 
most important problems in nature. I do not intend to 
enter into the discussion of this question here, but merely 
to state and verify the fact that, while all the types of 
plants and of animals gradually decrease in perfection from 
the equatorial to the polar regions, in proportion to the 
temperature, man presents to us his purest and most per- 
fect type at the very centre of the temperate regions of the 
great land-hemisphere, almost in the middle of the great 
north-eastern continent, in the regions of Iran, of Armenia, 
and of the Caucasus; and departing from this geographical 
centre in the three grand directions of the lands, the types 
gradually lose the beauty of their forms in proportion to 
their distance. At the extreme points of the southern 
continents we find the most deformed and degenerate races, 
the lowest in the scale of humanity. 

Now, let us take a type from the central region of 
Western Asia the Caucasian. In this we are at once struck 
with the regularity of the features, the flowing, easy grace 
of the lines, and the perfect harmony of the whole figure. 
The head is oval; no part is obtrusively prominent; nothing 
salient or angular disturbs the softness of the lines which 
surround it. The face is divided into three equal parts by 
the line of the eyes and that of the mouth. The eyes are 
large, well cut, neither too near nor too far from the nose; 
their axis is placed on a single straight line at right angles 
with the line of the nose. The stature is tall, lithe, and 
well-proportioned. The length of the extended arms is 
equal to the whole height of the body; in a word, the pro- 
portions reveal that perfect harmony which is the essence 
of beauty. Such is the type of the white race the Cau- 
casian, as it has been called the most pure and perfect 
type of humanity. Their average elevation above sea level 
is 2,000 feet, hence pure and invigorating, but not too rare, 
is their lung-food. 


In proportion as we depart and descend from this geogra- 
phical centre of the races of man, the regularity diminishes, 
and the harmony of the proportions disappears. Follow the 
dispersing races, first, in the direction of Europe and Africa. 

Although the European may be considered as belonging 
to the central race, his features have less symmetry, but 
more animation, more mobility and expression. In him 
beauty is less physical, but more moral and intellectual, 
which may be accounted for by the superior freedom with 
intellectual and spiritual culture. 

Passing into Africa, we find the Arab, who, whether in 
his own country or in Algeria, shews degeneracy in both 
his cranial and facial features. The degeneracy gradually 
increases as we proceed southward, and may be traced 
through the Qalla of Abyssinia, whose hair begins to crisp; 
the Kaffir, with woolly hair, and lips like the negro; and 
the Hottentot, who long was considered the most degraded 
specimen of humanity. Then look to the other coast of 
Africa, still farther from Asia, and you find the degeneracy 
of form still more rapid. The Berbers of the Atlas evi- 
dently belong to the Caucasian race; but, nevertheless, in 
the prolongation of the head, the pouting of the mouth, 
their spare meagre forms, and their deeper colour, they 
indicate a marked degeneration. The Fellatahs of Soudan, 
and still more the inhabitants of Senegal, bring us to the 
type of the Congo Negro. In him the retreating forehead, 
the prominent mouth, thick lips, flat nose, woolly head, 
strongly-developed occiput, announce the overwhelming 
preponderance of the sensual and physical appetites and 
propensities over the nobler faculties. And then, at the 
extremity of Africa, the miserable Bushman is still lower 
than the Hottentot. 

Now we turn to Eastern Asia to point out the marked 

decadence of the human species in their descent from the 

* pure and elevated cradle of the race. Towards the level 



of the sea, the great receptacle of terrestrial impurities, as 
the race descends, the more debased has it ever become. 
But more on this point when we come to enumerate some 
of the centres of immorality and decay that may be visited 
on our great rivers by the sea. 

From the Caucasian region, as far as the extremity of 
Australia, the decreasing beauty of the human form is not 
less perceptible or less gradual than towards the extremity 
of Africa. Here we see the Mongolian with his prominent 
cheek-bones, eyes compressed and wide apart and elevated 
at the outer corners, and the whole figure wanting in 
harmony throughout. Then the Malays, who seem to 
have sprung from a mixture of the Mongolian and white 
race. The Papuan of New Guinea, with still some lingering 
advantages of form. But the South Australian with his 
gaunt body, his lean members, bending knees, hump back, 
projecting jaws, presents the most melancholy aspect that 
is found in human form. 

In our rapid suggestive general survey, we now come 
to America. Here the same law shews itself. The face 
of an Indian chief has some advantages, but the prominence 
of the cheek-bones, a slight elevation of the outer angle of 
the eyes, and the size of the jaw, clearly betray a degener- 
ate nature. In the South American Indian all these defects 
are still more exaggerated, and give to the races of the 
south, compared with those of the north, a very marked 
character of inferiority. Finally, at the extreme point of 
the continent, and in the wretched Island of Tierra del 
Fuego live the Pesherais, the most misshapen, the most 
mentally degraded, and the most wretched of all the inha- 
bitants of the New World. 

The same law holds good in advancing towards the 
poles. Passing the Finns, we arrive among the Laplanders; 
through the Mongolians we reach the Tungusians, the 
Samoiedes of Siberia, and the Esquimaux of North America 


Thus, in all directions as we remove from the pure 
elevated seat of the most perfect and beautiful human 
type, the degeneracy becomes more strongly marked. 
Let us now draw a few deductions from these re- 
markable facts observable in the distribution of the 
human race. 

1. The continents of the north, which constitute the 
central mass of the lands, are inhabited by the finest races 
and present the most perfect types; while the continents 
of the south, forming the extreme and far sundered points 
of the lands, as it were long wedges driven into the 
ocean are occupied exclusively by the inferior races and 
most imperfect representatives of human nature. This 
contrast is more decided in the Old World than in the 
New; nevertheless, in the latter, notwithstanding the general 
inferiority of the copper-coloured race, we have seen that 
the man of the north the Missouri Indian has a marked 
superiority over the Indian of the south, over the Botocudos, 
the Guaranis, and the Pesherais of South America. 

2. The degree of culture of nations bears a proportion to 
the nobleness of their race. The races of the northern con- 
tinents of the Old World are alone civilized, while those of 
the southern continents have remained savage. In America 
the civilized Aztecs of Mexico came thither from the north. 
The ancient civilization of the Incas (or Quichuas) on the 
table-lands of Peru scarcely seems indigenous to South 
America. But, it must not be forgotten that the land itself, 
by its elevation, belongs to the temperate zone, averaging 
more than 4,000 feet above sea level. 

Now, these differences between the north and the south 
are not of to-day nor yesterday. If we glance at the 
memorials of these tribes, without written history, meagre 
as they are, it might seem that it has been the same from 
a time before all our traditions or histories if the Bible 
is excepted. No indication brings to light in these tropical 



continents the existence, at another epoch, of a purer type, 
of a more perfect race of men, than the degenerate and 
inferior form we there meet with at the present day. 
The annals or traditions of the tribes, in no part of these 
continents, record either the birth or the progress of a 
civilization which has contributed to the development and 
progress of our race. Man has there remained always at 
the bottom of the scale of civilization; while, from the 
earliest days of the world, history marks out the temperate 
and more elevated continents as the seats of the cultivated 
communities. As there is a temperate hemisphere and a 
tropical hemisphere, so is there a corresponding civilized 
hemisphere and a savage hemisphere. 

Without pursuing the subject, I may just hint here that 
the distribution of man on the globe, and that of the other 
organized beings, are not founded on the same principle. 
In all organized beings, except the human, the approach 
to perfection of the types is proportional to the intensity 
of heat and of the other agents which stimulate the display 
of physical life. But in man the approach to perfection 
of the types is in proportion to the degree of intellectual 
and moral improvement. This is a law of moral order, 
just as the former is a law of physical order. 

Now, since this subject is not only absorbing but intensely 
interesting, let me direct your attention, as briefly as 
possible, to. the fact that the continents of the north are 
the theatres of history and every kind of development. 
They are Asia, Europe, and North America. 

The result of the comparison which we have made 
between the northern and southern continents, in their 
most general characteristics, seems to be that, what dis- 
tinguishes the former is, not the wealth of nature and 
the abundance of physical life, but the aptitude which 
their structure, their situation, and their climate give them 
to minister to the development of man, and to become 


thus the seat of a life much superior to that of nature. 
The three continents of the north, with their civilized 
peoples, have appeared as the historical continents, which 
form a marked contrast to those of the south, with their 
savage tribes. 

We know that the condition of an active, complete 
development, is the multiplicity of the contrasts, the dif- 
ferences, the springs of action and reaction, of mutual 
exchanges which excite and manifest life under a thousand 
diverse forms. To this principle corresponds, in the organi- 
zation of the animal, the greater number of its special 
organs; in .the organization of the continents, the variety 
of the forms of the land, the strongly characterized districts, 
the nature of which stamps upon the people inhabiting 
them a special seal, and makes them so many distinct 
individual bodies. 

Hence we expect to find the great fact of the life of 
the nations connected essentially with those differences 
of soil and climate, and with the contrasts which nature 
herself presents in the interior of the continents; and that 
the influence of these differences on the social developments 
of man, although variable according to the times, is evident 
in the periods of his history. 

The true theatre of history is the great north-eastern 
continent, comprising Asia and Europe. We direct atten- 
tion to the unity and physical plan exhibited in this grand 
triangular mass, which, in a natural point of view, forms a 
single continent. The subdivisions bear the imprint of 
mere secondary differences. The most remarkable trait 
of its structure is the great dorsal ridge, composed of 
systems of lofty mountains traversing it from one end to 
the other, lengthwise, which may be regarded as the axis 
of the continent. It is in fact that on the two sides of 
the long chain of more than 5,000 miles on the north and 
south of the Himalaya, of the Caucasus, of the Balkan, the 


Alps, and the Pyrenees, the high lands of the interior of 
the continent extend. It splits the continent into two 
portions, unequal in size, and differing from each other 
in their configuration and climate. On the south the 
areas are less vast, the lands are more indented, more 
detached, and, on the whole, perhaps more elevated; it is 
the maritime zone of the peninsulas. On the nor*,h, the 
great plains prevail; the peninsulas are rare or of slight 
importance, and the ground less varied. 

But that which chiefly distinguishes one of the two 
parts from the other, and imparts to each a peculiar nature, 
is the climate. Those lofty barriers which have been just 
named, almost everywhere separate the climates as well 
as the areas. The gradual elevation of the terraces, from 
the north towards the south, up to the ridge of the con- 
tinent, by prolonging in the southern direction the frosts 
of the north, augments still further in Eastern Asia and 
in Europe the difference of temperature between their sides, 
and renders it more sensible. 

Thus two opposite regions are confronted, one on the 
north, in the cool temperate zone, with its vast steppes 
and desert table-lands, its rigorous and generally dry climate ; 
the other on the south, in the warm temperate zone, with 
its beautiful peninsulas, fertile plains, blue heavens, soft 
climate, delicate fruits, trees evergreen, and lovely smiling 
nature everywhere. 

The contrast of these two natures must have a great 
influence on the people of the two regions. It is repeated 
from the history of the very earliest ages in the most 
remarkable manner. In the north, the arid table-lands, 
the steppes and the forests, lead men to the life of shepherds 
and hunters; the people are nomadic and imperfectly culti- 
vated. In the south, the fruitful plains and a more facile 
nature invite the people to agriculture; they form fixed 
establishments and become civilized. Thus, in the very 


interior of the historical continent, we find, placed side by 
side, a civilized and a barbarous world. 

4s far as the memorials of history ascend, they shew us, 
on the table-land of Iran, one of the earliest civilized nations, 
the ancient people of Zend. The Zendavesta, the sacred 
book of their legislator, displays everywhere deep traces of 
the conflict of Iran the good and civilized with Turan 
the evil, dark, and barbarous inhabitants of the low regions 
around. Thus, clearly shewing that the purer elements of 
nature contributed in remotest antiquity to develop and 
elevate the human being enjoying their advantages. In 
China and India we have parallel examples of the effects 
of elevation on the lofty table-lands of these vast countries. 
There were developed the two great cultivated nations of 
Eastern Asia, whose perfected languages, rich literature, 
and wonderful skill in art and science remain as amazing 
monuments of their intellectual and physical development. 

Let us observe, in passing, that Eastern Asia is pre- 
eminently a country of contrasts, of isolated and strongly 
characterized regions. In perfect responsive accordance 
with these natural features of the earth, we find the char- 
acteristics of the man who occupies the soil the Mongolian 
race. In this people the melancholic disposition seerns to 
prevail; the intellect, moderate in range, exercises itself 
upon details, but never rises to the general views or the 
high speculations in science and philosophy. His ideas are 
wholly turned to things of earth, but the world of ideas, 
the spiritual world, seems closed against him. His whole 
philosophy arid religion are reduced to a code of social 
morals for the regulation of human conduct, such only as 
merely renders society possible. The Chinese again, being 
by nature closed in, have carefully adhered to the patri- 
archal form of society, but the white race of India, sprung 
from the west, have developed a civilization wholly different, 
the qualities of which are explained at once by the influences 


of the soil and the climate. The Hindoo is endowed with 
higher intelligence, with a power of generalization, with 
deep spiritual feeling, whereas the Chinese neither knows 
nor cares for a spiritual life. The pure air, the vast mountains 
and rivers of Upper India have so operated on the race, 
that it would seem that the material world disappears 
from their eyes. In their literature, so rich in works of 
high philosophy, of poetry, and religion, we seek in vain 
for the annals of their history, or any treatise on science, or 
any collection of practical observations, so numerous among 
the Chinese. One thing ought not to be forgotten in con- 
sidering these eastern civilizations. At a very remote era 
they had attained to their utmost in their several civiliza- 
tions, but then they progressed no further. The great ob- 
struction seems to be the isolation of each great community, 
arising from the impassable barriers that the land forms 
have placed between them. The wonderful contrast to this 
natural conformation will be very striking when we notice 
the amazing facilities afforded by the New World. 

Now, glance for a moment at the conformation of true 
Western Asia the Asia of history. It consists of a plateau, 
on the south of the great central ridge, and enjoys a fine 
climate, while it is flanked by two plains. If Egypt be 
added to it, this region will comprise all the great coun- 
tries of ancient civilization of the centre of this continent. 
Here is the original country of the white race, the most 
perfect in body and mind. Their original habitat was in 
the very centre of this vast salubrious plateau, around the 
pellucid head streams of the great rivers, along whose 
banks descended the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, 
keeping respectively along the Euphrates and Tigris, on 
which they built Nineveh and Babylon, whose history is 
too well-known to be more than simply mentioned here, 
for the sake of observing that their fate, in becoming great 
sinks and centres of moral pollution and degradation, has 


been ever since the history of cities founded on large 
streams in low situations where natural impurities accum- 
ulate, and so affect body and mind, to sap the pure and 
healthy action of each. National decadence is first seen in 
city luxury and sensuality. 

Let us now glance at Europe, which has a character quite 
special. The giant impassable natural barriers to inter- 
course which abound in Eastern Asia are almost wanting 
here. The whole continent is accessible, and better formed 
and fashioned for the development of the human being. 
This has been the continent most favoured, considered in 
respect to the education of man. More than any other 
in the old world, it calls into play his latent forces. No 
other continent is more fitted, by the numerous physical 
regions it presents, to bring into being so many distinct 
and different nations and peoples, as well as to increase 
their reciprocal influence and stimulate them to mutual 

Now, we glance at North America, the third continent of 
the north. Its aspect differs entirely from the other two. 
The New World's two continents are not grouped in one 
mass, or placed side by side, but touch only at their 
exterior angles, standing in line rather than grouped. Be- 
sides, they are rendered still more distinct from each other 
by being situated in two opposite hemispheres. North 
America's characteristic is that of great simplicity of struc- 
ture. Add to this its vast areas, fruitful plains, numberless 
rivers, prodigious facility of communication, nowhere im- 
peded by serious obstacles, with its oceanic position, and 
we can perceive that it is made, not so much to give birth 
and growth to a new civilization, as to receive one already 
formed, and to furnish for man, whose education the Old 
World has well begun, the most magnificent theatre, the 
scene most worthy of his activity. It is here that all the 
peoples of Europe may meet together, with room enough 


to move in, may commingle their efforts and their gifts, and 
carry out upon a scale of grandeur hitherto unknown, the 
life-giving principle of modern times the principle of free 

Now, having rapidly pointed out the great leading 
physical causes that contribute to the formation and devel- 
opment of the human body and mind, as it regards nations 
and communities, let us look at a few of the more local 
and minute causes affecting the mind and its wonderful 
index, the face and form. 

In all attempts to cultivate body and mind, we should 
never lose sight of the indispensable and absolutely neces- 
sary elementary sustainers of healthy action in both. First, 
then, we mention pure air as the element of primary 
importance, as not a moment can pass in life in which we 
can dispense with this sustaining fluid. As the atmosphere 
is a fluid of great compressibility and expansibility, and 
readily combines with other gases, holding them in solu- 
tion, it is most important that we should inhale the air 
that may be as free from deleterious matter as possible. In 
all liquids holding in solution impurities, those heavier 
than the liquid will be precipitated, while those that are 
lighter will either escape at the surface, or become apparent 
as floating impurities. As a general rule, the atmosphere 
becomes purer the higher we rise in it, when it is uncon- 
fined. Poisonous gases and effluvia that are deleterious 
to human life have such specific gravity, that they descend 
and become the breath or food of plants. Those of large 
lung-power in health can breathe comfortably at a mean 
elevation of 6,000 feet above sea-level ; but the best average 
height for vigorous respiration is considered to be between 
3,000 and 4,000 feet. 

The next great essential of life is pure water. It is ol 
immense importance that this element should be pure; and 
much care is necessary in selecting and analyzing water; 


for it holds in solution many most dangerous ingredients 
both organic and inorganic. Before using water from either 
a well, or spring, or stream, we should carefully ascertain 
its purity by carefully testing it. As a general rule, the 
further from and above the sea we find a spring, ifc is the 
purer, especially when it wells from the limestone or iron- 
stone rock. But care in the selection of pure water, as well 
as pure air is much enhanced when it is considered that 
purity of mind as well as body depends essentially upon 
due use of these great sustainers of life. 

People living on low, flat, or depressed lands are well- 
known to be subject to fevers, jaundice, derangement of 
the portal system, Asiatic cholera, &c., while those who 
dwell among the mountains scarcely ever are assailed by 
these deadly enemies of human life. Cholera almost always 
originates at the mouth of the Ganges, where this immense 
river pours its waters into the sea, and deposits over its 
extensive delta the fearful amount of rotting vegetable 
debris and putrifying human remains which the supersti- 
tious dwellers along its 4,000 miles of banks are ever and 
anon committing to its impetuous torrent. Look now to 
New Orleans and the country forming the long line of flats 
between that pestilential city and the Gulf of Mexico. 
This is a hot-bed of yellow fever. The reason of the deadly 
nature of this district is not far to seek. All the central 
part of the North American continent is drained of its 
impurities by the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi rivers, 
with their tributaries, and carried down into the hot and 
impure air of these vast swamps, where it soon breeds that 
terrible scourge. Carbonic acid gas, when cool, always 
subsides and seeks depressed or neap ground as a resting- 
place, where it contaminates the vitals of those who are 
sufficiently unfortunate to inhale this deadly poison. Fresh 
water will receive its own weight of carbonic acid gas, 
which it carries by river to the salt water, only to be thrown 


out upon the air, to vitiate and debase it, and empoison the 
blood of those who inhale it. Thus we perceive how it 
aiises that all the dwellers upon low lands are more sub- 
ject to fevers (especially fever-ague) than the inhabitants 
of elevated lands. The people who live in low countries 
are more or less depressed in their higher natures by the 
impurities which they breathe, as well as by the depressing 
monotony of the scenery. It is a law, that whatever affects 
the body affects also the mind. The debilitating effect of 
impure air and water conduce to stimulate the animal and 
depress the moral nature of man. This same law operates 
in causing the inhabitants of uplands to be more thoughtful 
and less animal than those who dwell on the marshy and 
paludal soil. This same thought-principle would raise and 
define the nose, chasten the lips, and mark clearly the eyes' 
form, as well as its expression. A striking example of this 
may be seen in the African face, which, in its flatness, 
reflects the character of the country whence he sprang. 
The people dwelling along the Amazon of South America are 
warm in their animal natures, but crude in their mentality. 
The degenerate Spaniard of Mexico is vigorous of body, 
ardent in love, stolid in intellectual improvements, while 
he is debased, and, as a rule, animal. 

The physiognomy of the deer, elk, and antelope, are well- 
defined and expressive, when contrasted with that of the 
crocodile, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, as well as other 
animals of low river-countries, in which feculent air 

This same principle would prove that the people who 
live in hilly, temperate climates are further advanced in 
social arts and accomplishments than those whose abodes 
are in level and depressed countries. The classic hills, 
groves, and elevated picturesque cities of Italy are the 
localities whence the instructors of the fine arts press their 
claims for deserving merit England, with her level fields 


of grain, pasture, and woodland scenery, is queen of the 
seas, and possesses a physical power which the nations of 
the world care not to dispute. Scotland, with her rugged 
mountains, deep ravines, and bounding rills, is the birth- 
place of industry, and sterling peaceful worth. These attri- 
butes also depend largely upon the granite in her soil, and 
the early oatmeal brain-nourishing fare of her sturdy sons, 
who labour in their youth in the open air, and study as a 
pastime until they enter college. Let it be observed also, 
that all their universities are by the sea, or on elevated 
situations. More eminent men have come from the granite 
shire of Aberdeen, in proportion to its population, than 
from any other county in Scotland. The granite character 
is in their very nature. Ireland, with shamrock ever green, 
inspires her people with a love of song and liberty. Her 
natives strongly bear out the observations we have made 
on the influence of the physical surroundings. The hilly 
counties and highlands of Connemara produce tall, hand- 
some, keen, active, persevering, intelligent men and beauti- 
ful women ; while the ungainly baboon-faced, pot-bellied 
rapparees are the natural offspring of the great central plain 
and interminable bog-land that occupies such a vast pro- 
portion of the country. North America, with her snow-clad 
peaks and thundering cataracts, in her grand simplicity of 
natural construction for facilitating every species of mental 
and material progress, bids away the traveller's monotony, 
and beckons his thoughts transcendently above the inglo- 
rious herd to the mazes and labyrinths of worlds whose 
splendour and stupendous grandeur fill the sky. 

Nearly all great reforms of a moral nature were first 
started on some mountain or in a mountainous country. 
The Decalogue was given to Moses on the grand, rugged 
mountain of Horeb. The Messiah, whose teaching rolled 
on the chariot wheels of civilization, had His birth in the 
hilly district near Jerusalem, and most )f His teachings were 


on the top or declivity of a mountain. In 'ancient times, 
when a people desired some great good, they were com- 
manded to go up to the mountain tops and pray. They, 
too, knew the ennobling effect of elevation and pure air of 
mountain freshness upon the mind and morals of men. 
There are more Thoracic forms among the inhabitants of 
mountainous regions than in lowland countries, because the 
purity of high air necessitates greater respiration in volume, 
which enlarges the organs of respiration, and the thorax 
which contains them. 

In flat sections, the air seems to encourage the nutritive 
power, and the people become full of adipose material, and 
are round, plump, and somewhat inactive. This is the case 
pre-eminently in Holland, where the inhabitants are often 
on a lower level than the sea, which is kept from inundating 
their towns by their famous dykes. On the other hand, 
mountain-air thickens and cools the blood, arches the upper 
eyelid, expands the forehead and chest, sharpens every 
feature, and gives vivacity and action to both body and 

In Alaska the Indians are fairer, more thin-lipped, and 
have higher and narrower noses than the Indians of Cali- 
fornia, Nevada, Utah, or Colorado. The Stichians and Sticks 
who inhabit Alaska are quite intelligent, and never use 
salt. Nor do any of the Alaskians use salt shewing that 
salt is an article not positively necessary to the sustenance 
of man. 

The reasoning powers of those who live in pure air are 
more clear and accurate than of those who dwell in low 
malarious districts. The atmosphere of low realms excites 
the animal nature in men, and causes them to talk and 
think more of the voluptuous and amorous pleasures than 
those who live in high altitudes with pure air. Where 
countries are undulating and the waters clear, and brisk 
breezes fan away incentives to vice, there the soul towers 


away in the majesty and gloriousness of the noblest nature; 
whereas the marshes and frog-ponds of mortiferous regions 
make full cheeks, large necks, dull dark eyes and skin, 
flat noses, hollowing and narrow foreheads, all of which 
evince want of intellect, and that the individual is doltish 
and asinine. 

Upon the mountain tops of moderate elevation, the air 
being fine and subtle, one respires with pleasurable freedom ; 
the body is more elastic, the mind more serene; pleasures 
become less ardent and the passions more controllable. The 
grandeur of the scenery inspires sublimity in the mind's 
meditations. Thus elevated above all animal life, it seems 
as if one had left every low terrestrial sentiment and had 
approached the celestial realms of light. The soul feels 
drinking in full draughts of eternal purity, and one be- 
comes thoughtful without being melancholy, peaceful but 
not indolent, inspired yet resigned; the passions are more 
readily subdued, while gentle emotions fill the mind. Hence 
the passions, which in the lower world are man's most 
powerful enemy, in a higher sphere contribute to his 
advancement and happiness. 

" Above me are the Alps. 
The palaces of Nature, whose vast walls 
Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, 
And throned eternity in icy halls 
Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls 
The avalanche the thunderbolt of snow I 
All that expands the spirit, yet appals, 
Gather around these summits, as to show 
How earth may pierce to heaven, yet leave vain man below. " BYRON. 


WHY were none of us born among savage tribes in Africa? 
Why was not our lot the dingy complexion and oblique 
eyes of the Chinese, or the copper hue of the former inha- 
bitants of America? God only knows. We readily admit 
that there are some conditions of our existence over which 
we have no control, and for which, therefore, we have no 
accountability. If a man was born blind, no one blames 
him for not seeing; if deaf, no one expects him to hear; if 
idiotic, his want of reason renders him the object of our 
pity, not of our condemnation. But in a modified degree 
some are born with interior intellectual powers, some with 
perverted moral tendencies, and there is seldom any allow- 
ance made for them; while others inherit superior talents 
or a high moral character, and though they may have 
bestowed little culture on either, they are praised by others, 
and valued by themselves. We cannot always account 
either for the gifts of nature or its obliquities and defi- 
ciences. One boy is born with a natural genius for 
music, another has a passion for poetry, a third delights 
in mechanics. It may be assumed, as a general rule, that 
those faculties which the parents cultivate, rather than 
those which they idly possess, are those most likely to be 
transmitted to their children. While, therefore, no one is 
accountable for what he has not received, every one is 
responsible, not only on his own account, but on that ol 


his offspring, for what cultivation he bestows on his natural 
endowments, and what check he places on his inherited 
vices. There is. no doubt that if a child is led to follow 
the bent of his natural abilities, whether these are intel- 
lectual or physical, if they are moral and good, he will 
succeed better and rise higher than he could by labouring 
in an avocation for which he has no natural fitness. It 
often happens that certain expressions of countenance in 
the child bear a striking resemblance to those of the father 
or mother. This is a sure indication that the child is much 
like the parent in those traits of character that are mani- 
fested in those features; and for this characteristic the 
parent, perhaps the progenitors for several generations past, 
have inevitably set the die which has moulded that child. 
How much education and careful training may do to eradi- 
cate hereditary evils, no man can tell with certainty, nor 
how much may be done by a man's pains-taking with 
himself when he comes to years of discretion; but all 
concur in the opinion that though education in youth 
and self-discipline in manhood, may mould and influence, 
yet it will never wholly eradicate the evil arising from 
pre-natal causes, so that it shall not be ever ready as a 
root of bitterness to spring up and give trouble. Dr. A 
was understood to be an illegitimate son of George IV 
He was taught the business of a printer, but coming under 
church influences in his early manhood, and exhibiting 
considerable gifts of speech, as well as knowledge, he wa,<? 
induced to become a preacher. How long his bettei 
principles prevailed over inherited tendencies we kno\v 
not ; but some time after he had passed the meridian ol 
life, his personal resemblance to his father became striking 
and unmistakable. Unhappily 'the disposition to sexual 
gratification likewise developed, until all bounds of decorum 
were overstepped, and he resigned the position he had so 
disgraced. Carrying, however, like thousands of others, his 


sanctimonious and hypocritical face, he obtained employ- 
ment through the patronage of a more fortunate scion of 
the royal bouse, who was not a Physiognomist. 

It is far more easy to cultivate a child that closely 
resembles both parents, than one in whom little or no 
likeness can be traced. And as those characteristics which 
the parents have most cultivated in themselves, are those 
which they are most likely to transmit, so are they the 
tendencies most easily susceptible of culture in the offspring. 
On the other hand, a child who is personally unlike both 
parents, will not be so accessible to educational appliances; 
because he does not remarkably inherit the cultivated 
qualities of either father or mother. If the father has 
excelled in any laudable avocation, and his son is found 
personally to perfectly resemble him, it is sure to be right 
to bring the child up to follow his father's calling. The 
same rule is applicable in cases of resemblance to the 
mother. And here comes in the importance of a thorough 
knowledge of the facial signs and evidences of character. 
By the tokens they give, statesmen may be developed and 
embryo poets brought into life. With this unerring aid, 
one child will be made a mechanic and another a lawyer 
with the happiest results to themselves, and honour to the 

'In some countries, all trades and professions are hereditary 
by law; it being taken for granted that inherited talent 
and the opportunity of early culture ought to result in 
.superior proficiency. This is true, but with some limita- 
tion. We often see a particular talent appear to die out in 
the third or fourth generation ; sooner if the mothers are 
destitute of it. We have heard of great generals whose 
sons proved still greater, as Philip of Macedon, the father 
of Alexander, but the line went no further. So of some 
eminent authors and musicians. S. W. was the first 
organist in England, perhaps in Europe. His father had 


been musical, though not professionally so. His wife was 
destitute of the talent, and so were his children by he;. 
But he had another liaison with a musical lady, and both 
the sons and daughters of that union proved musicians of 
superior talent. 

It is worthy of remark in passing, how many of those 
men who have made the most conspicuous figures in the 
world have left no sons, or none that came to maturity. 
We need only mention Alexander the Great and Julius 
Csesar in ancient times; the first Napoleon, General Wash- 
ington, and Benjamin Franklin among the moderns; to 
say nothing of some of our most celebrated historians and 

Whatever apparent irregularities there may be in the 
transmission of certain intellectual talents and moral 
qualities, it is certain that wherever any particular 
physical organization is required for a special vocation, 
its perfection can generally be attained only through 
inheritance. A fine example of this might have been 
seen forty or fifty years ago among the fishwomen who 
occupied the village of ISewhrven, near Edinburgh. They 
were accustomed to load vh3mselves every morning with 
immense burdens of fish with which they walked many 
miles during the day, uttering cries which could be heard at 
a great distance. They seldom intermarried with any but 
the hardy fishermen of the same village; and thus had 
been formed a race of such stalwart females as made all 
others appear as pigmies by their side. Some remains of 
this race may yet be seen; but the facilities of railway 
transmission have superseded the demands on their strength, 
the shopkeepers have thus got the best of the trade out 
of their hands; and as a separate people located in one 
spot, they have ceased. 

On the other hand, the most eminent teachers of dancing 
in our great cities have inherited the profession through 



several generations. It woulil be impossible to make a 
good dancing-master of a ploughman's son, or a danseuse 
of the daughter of a "NTewhaven tishwoman. Any one who 
has had an opportunity of observing the footmen that 
attend Queen Victoria in her migrations through the 
country, must have been struck with the singular light- 
ness and rapidity of their steps, reminding one of Mercury, 
the messenger of the gods, with his winged feet. These 
servants could not be made out of clod-hoppers by any 
course of training. They are born of families that have 
been in the service of princes and nobles for generations 
back both men and women accustomed to practice this 
noiseless elastic movement. 

Such are the seeds, moral, intellectual, and physical, 
which parents sow in their children; and such character- 
istics as we have alluded to are the legitimate fruit of 
ancestral virtue or vice, superior or interior intellectual 


THE beauty and ever-changing expression of an emotional 
human face has in all ages fixed the attention and called 
forth the admiration of lovers, poets, and philosophers. 

" Bead o'er the volume of his lovely face, 
And find delight writ there with beauty's pen; 
Examine every several lineament, 
And what obscure in this fair volume lies, 
Find written in the margin of his eyes. " SHAKESPEARB. 

" How much her grace is altered on the sudden! 
How long her face is drawn ! How pale she looks, 
And of an earthly cold ! Mark you her eyes." IDEM. 

" Her face had a wonderful fascination in it. It was such a calm, quiet, 
face, with the light of the rising soul shining so peacefully through it. At 
times it wore an expression of seriousness, of sorrow even ; and then seemed 
to the very air bright with what the Italian poets so beautifully call the 
' lampeggiar dell' anglico riso,' the lighting of the angelic smile. "- 


Every face, however, is not alike transparent to the ordi- 
nary observer. But none can conceal the character and 
propensities of their inmost nature from the penetration 
and scrutinizing glance of the skilled, scientific Physiogno- 
mist. Every man in his age has a soul of crystal through 
which all men may read his actions; yet some men's hearts 
and faces are so far asunder, that they try to make it 


appear that no intelligence is held between them. This, 
however, is self-deception, very delusive. 

Not only is the face of every human being recognizably 
and perceptibly different from that of every other indi- 
vidual of our species; but every individual face is under- 
going various kinds of changes throughout the whole course 
of life, and thus becoming a physiognomical stereotype 
plate, as readable to the Physiognomist as the most legible 
letterpress page is to the linguist. We often hear wonder 
expressed at the infinite variety, and yet amazing similarity 
of some one phenomenon in organized matter. No one 
has ever yet found, on comparison, two blades of grass, 
leaves of trees, animals, or aught else endowed with life, 
exactly alike. We sometimes hesitate whether to admire 
most this endless variety with striking similarity in nature, 
or the godlike faculty with which we are endowed for 
its perception and appreciation. ^ 

Any law of nature, which is found universally prevalent, 
may be relied on and universally applied in the examina- 
tion of natural phenomena and solution of physical pro- 
blems. Nature never lies when questioned by the honest, 
candid truth-seeker. 

The colour of the eye, in all civilized nations, is of almost 
every shade; whereas, among barbarous tribes and uncivil- 
ized nations, the colour is, almost without exception, the 
same in every individual. On whatever principle this may 
be accounted for, we find the fact to be, that the tribes and 
nations of uniform colour of eye are gradually disappearing 
before the peoples of the many-coloured eye. The most 
remarkable instances of this are the gradual disappearance 
of the Celts from all the western countries of Europe; 
the Indian tribes, from the American continent, and the 
aborigines from all the islands of the Pacific. The Physiog- 
nomist of the past was not capable of comprehending the 
present age; for the human face changes with the ever- 


changing exigencies of the times and nature. This law of 
change runs through all nature, and is applicable to this 
science in a pre-eminent degree. The observations I am 
making are true for this age; but, owing to the changes 
which are gradually and incessantly taking place in man- 
kind, and necessarily affecting the "human face divine," 
the rules applicable now may not be pertinent in fifty years 
hereafter, except as they must be changed to coincide with 
the shifting phases of the panoramic mutations of kaleido- 
scope facial phenomena. The only plan, then, is to keep 
investigating until you become thoroughly imbued with 
the phenomena of the passing age, and perfectly conversant 
with its distinctive characteristics. 

Forms are ever changing. Fifty or a hundred years ago 
they were very different from those of the present day. 
Consequently, so are the dispositions and aspirations of the 
people. But in the coming time, the changes will be much 
more rapid than in past ages. Since the invention of 
printing, everything intellectual has been progressing in a 
geometrical ratio; but since the independence of the United 
States of North America; the invention of the Magnetic 
and Electric Telegraph; the Morse system of recording 
messages; the introduction of the Hoe printing press; and 
the consequent almost universal diffusion of every species 
of knowledge, one year in this age (1873) is more than 
equal to a century five hundred years since. This amazing 
rapidity in all intellectual stimulants and appliances must, 
and has affected the human face to such a degree, that it 
can only be appreciated by the connoisseur in pictorial and 
sculptural art. The rapidity of the change is astonishing; 
and the reason might be given, but the ordinary mind is 
prepared for only part of the truth at present. The rest 
shall be retained for another and future occasion, as I 
intend to write on this theme again. In a brief article like 
the present, this vast and absorbing subject cannot be 


The change of the human face, from birth to old age, is 
one of the most remarkable of natural phenomena. Nothing 
in nature presents to the investigator of her beauties germs 
so capable of expanding the thoughts by study, as this 
change in the face of the human creature. In every person 
the subject may be easily illustrated, for every one has to 
pass through the same ordeal. The infant has a round 
dimpled face with a body soft in all its parts. As age 
increases, it grows hard in bone and muscle ; lines become 
discernible, and the countenance, changing, gives more 
expression to the face., which, by and by, exhibits indelible 
marks as records of vice or virtue, past and present, that 
give to the individual a fixed and idiosyncratical expression 
by which he can be recognized and distinguished from every 
other human being. But the animal kingdom does not 
present to the observer such a variety of expression. Such 
sameness of countenance obtains among the lower animals 
of the same species that, were it not for some peculiarity, 
such as colour, or form, or size, it would be impossible to 
distinguish them. Take a flock of white sheep and try 
the experiment. This difficulty is acknowledged and 
attested by the universal practice of proprietors marking 
the animals of their flocks, herds, and piggeries with their 
own initials, so as to be able to identify them when mixed 
with other flocks. Very different is the feeling about the 
members and individuals of the human family. Who ever 
heard of a person being marked that he might be recog- 
nized? The amazing variety and instantaneously recogniz- 
able peculiarity of face specially belonging to every one 
precludes the slightest necessity for any other distinction 
The most casual observer can see no two alike; but it is 
worthy of remark that, the higher we rise in the grade of 
intelligence and intellectual development, the more easily 
is the individuality recognizable by physiognomical expres- 
sion. Compare the faces of men of mark, who have held 


high positions of public trust and great responsibility, with 
those who are mediocre individuals who have jogged on 
through life in an even, monotonous course, and you will at 
once perceive how easy it is to recognize the men of 
distinction from those of the common level in life. 

Nature's noblemen, the aristocracy of goodness and 
intellect, are ever more easily and readily distinguished 
than the commonalty How readily men of gigantic intel- 
lect are known by even a common photogram, no matter 
how poorly it has been taken. For instance, Shakespeare, 
Milton, Washington, Lincoln, Greeley, Grant, Burns, Sir 
Walter Scott, Gladstone, Disraeli, Spurgeon, with hundreds 
of others, who have occupied positions of such eminence thai 
every one has become familiar with their faces. A few 
lines etched by a skilled physiognomical artist will render 
such a face asGreeley's at once recognizable, whereas, when 
you descend in the scale of intelligence and intellectuality, 
you find that faces become less marked, until they become 
nearly as undistinguishable as sheep, as in soldiers of the 
regular or standing army of the Eui'opean nations. Such 
also is the case in families in which nothing has disturbed 
the monotony of the ever-recurring daily routine of exist- 
ence. These all become almost as like as twins. Descend 
still further, to the savage jtribes, and there, on a cursory 
inspection, you feel disposed to think them all perfectly 
alike. The horse is more intelligent than the ox or hog, 
and less variety of physiognomical expression is perceptible 
in the hog or hippopotamus than in the horse. This is 
simply another proof that, in proportion to the develop- 
ment of intelligence, the more perceptible is the variety of 

The change of countenance is not so great in youth as it 
is between the ages of twenty and thirty, unless it has been 
previously affected by sickness. So intimately connected 
are all the parts of the body that, whatever affects one part 


of necessity affects every other part. If the frame ii 
dwarfed, the parts are similarly affected. Those who under- 
stand this can tell how each part is affected by age, disease, 
or education, for all are alike affected by change. I will 
not say, in this chapter, what effect each part exercises over 
the others, though this is very important to be well under- 
stood ; for in that branch of Physiognomy much depends on 

" A sweet attractive kind of grace ; 
A full assurance given by looks, 
Continual comfort in a face, 

The lineaments of gospel books ; 
I trow that countenance cannot lie, 
Whose thoughts are legible in the eye." SPENSER. 

"The cheek 
Is apter than the tongue to tell an errand." SHAKESPEARE. 

" The cares, and sorrows, and hungetings of the world, change counten- 
ances as they change hearts ; and it is only when those passions sleep, and 
have lost their hold forever, that the troubled clouds pass off and leave 
heaven's surface clear. It is a common thing for the countenances of th 
dead, even in that fixed and rigid state, to subside into the long-forgotten 
expression of sleeping infancy, and settle into the very look of early life ; so 
calm, so peaceful, do they grow again, that those who knew them in their 
happy childhood, kneel by the coffin's side in awe, and see the angel even 
spon earth." DICKENS. 


"Common Sense is the complement of those convictions or cognition* 
which we receive from nature, which all men possess in common, and by 
which they test the truth of knowledge and the morality of actions; the 
faculty of first principles; such ordinary complement of intelligence, that 
if a person be deficient therein he is accounted mad or foolish ; native 
practical intelligence ; natural prudence ; mother wit; tact in behaviour ; 
acuteness in the observation of character, in contrast to habits of acquired 
learning or of speculation." SIB WM. HAMILTON. 

IN an ingenious and forcible article on the theory of 
Common Sense, Dr. W. B. Carpenter maintains that this 
fine mental power consists in the capacity to bring all 
the results of pertinent experience to bear upon any question 
which is submitted to the decision of the judgment, to 
which exercise it is, of course, necessary that the mind 
should instantaneously discriminate between those ex- 
periences which are, and which are not relevant to the 
matter in. hand. One of the most frequent and useful 
effects of this convergence or' experiences is to enable the 
thinker to form a correct and rapid estimate of the 
means which are best adapted to the end which he has 
in view. 


AD able writer, in commenting upon Dr. Carpenter's 
interesting and, in many respects, admirable theory, accepts 
it with the needed amendment, that imagination as well 
as experience enters into the higher exercises of Common 
Sense; for with skill in using experience, there must 
be also "a touch of poetic insight, a talent for the use of 
undeveloped agencies, a gift for preferring an unexpected 
method to an expected, a great alacrity and courage for 
new lines of enterprise." In other words, originality, as 
well as the power of correctly applying experience, is 
involved in the exercises of Common Sense. The first 
Napoleon's system of tactics was not due exclusively to 
the instructions which he received in the school of Brienne, 
and which were founded on the military experience of the 
past, but to his own intuitive and original insight into 
those martial arrangements which would best subserve 
his gigantic purposes. The common sense which he so con- 
spicuously displayed in all the complications of his affairs, 
was indeed always more or less marked by original genius. 
At a time, for instance, when nobility was universally 
understood to be an inherited and not a native grandeur, 
there was wonderful freshness and independence of view 
in his reply to the Italian flatterer who was endeavouring 
to prove to him his descent from the Dukes of Treviso. 
Ere the wily courtier had completed the false genealogy, 
Napoleon broke in with the curt declaration that his patent 
of nobility dated only from the battle of Montenotte the 
first victory which he had gained over the Austrians in 

The gift by which we are enabled to bring the results 
of experience, and the suggestions of intuition to rapid 
convergence upon a given question, is a distinct and natural 
power which may be transmitted by inheritance. 

It 'sometimes happens that an individual displays more 
Common Sense in youth than in maturity. This pheno- 


menon is owing to the fact that he finds it comparatively 
easy and rapid work to discriminate and apply the limited 
experiences of early life, but from want of mental grasp is 
confused by the accumulating and, to him, contradictory 
suggestions which are furnished by succeeding years. The 
fact that a long course of education sometimes impairs the 
practical capacity or Common Sense of the student, is also 
due to the bewildering effects of the accumulation of know- 
ledge in excess of the power to digest and apply it. 

Common Sense is the general characteristic which estab- 
lishes the fact that a person is not a fool or a lunatic. Its 
facial markings are so decided that they can scarcely be 
mistaken even by the most carelsss observer. A fool is 
nearly always seen with vacant staring eyes and open 
mouth. It is thus that he is described by Dryden in 
the lines 

"The fool of Nature with stupid eyes 
And gaping rnouth that testified surprise." 

Born without intelligence, or deprived of it by some 
unhappy accident, he will testify to the fact by the physiog- 
nomical disproportion of his features and the vacancy of his 
expression ; for, as Sir Thomas Browne has it, " In mystic 
characters we all bear in our features the motto of our 
souls." Lunatics are not so easily recognized as fools. 
They are often men who, previous to their derangement, 
were possessed of a high degree of mental development, but 
who have been thrown out of their intellectual balance by 
some ill-explained but abnormal condition of the nervous 
system. As this condition is usually the result of undue 
intellectual exertion, of keen emotions, or of long-continued 
anxieties, it has come to be a popular and not unreasonable 
idea that dullards never go mad, since their phlegmatic 
forms are incapable of the excitements in which madness 



Lunatics may be compared to a ship which has plenty 
of sail, but no ballast; or to a watch in movement without 
a balance-wheel. Their eyes, which have a peculiar glazed- 
ness, are sometimes fixed upon an object or upon vacancy 
with a ghastly stare, and sometimes wander from one point 
to another with a restless and hunted look, which it is very 
painful to witness. The expression of sadness which so 
often marks their fiaces is appalling rather than pathetic. 

It appears as if two 
synchronous trains of 
thought were con- 
stantly passing 
through their minds, 
and in the futile effort 
to harmonize them, 
they were burdened, 
confused, and even 
agonized. The un- 
steadiness which is 
noticeable in all their 
actions is but the 
external sign of their 
nervo- mental irregu- 

I append the cuts of a fool and a lunatic. 
A person possessed of common sense never keeps his 
mouth open like a fool, or performs irregular and unreason- 
able actions like a madman. The degree in which he 
possesses this quality will depend upon the harmony of his 
whole being. It is a law of nature, that we cannot do 
outside of ourselves that which is not in accordance with 
our interior organization, and hence, as the act of judg- 
ing is only a balancing of the various considerations 
which are connected with a given subject, such as value, 
weight, form, logical force, &c., the balancing power, or 

Foolish Sam. 


common sense is dependent upon a balanced condition of 
the system. 

It is almost universally the 
case, that when the mind is 
exclusively directed to a parti- 
cular department of knowledge 
or action, the special intellectual 
sense is developed at the ex- 
pense of the common sense. 
James Brindley, the great 
engineer, a genius 

** Of mother wit, and wise without 
the schools," 

is a striking example of this 
truth. After having con- 
structed the Bridgewater Canal, 
under difficulties which caused 
the practical men of the day 
to condemn the project as 
utterly chimerical, he is said 
to have been waited on by 
a committee of the House of 

Commons, who asked him for Major a lunatic copied from the 

' Characters of Glasgow, pub- 

what object rivers were formed. H s hed by John Tweed, 11 St. 
The ardent engineer replied, Enoch Square, Glasgow. 
with more enthusiasm than common sense, " To feed 
navigable canals." Some of the most remarkable and useful 
men that the world has known have owed their success, 
not, as is usually the case, to the specialization, but to the 
universality of their power?. Such a man was Leibnitz, 
who was not only primus i 'tter primos among mathema- 
ticians, but was also well-nigh equally distinguished as a 
metaphysician, naturalist, jurisconsult, theologian, and his- 
torian. Of this great man, Dugald Stewart unhesitatingly 
declared that literature and science had gained more by 


his universality than they could possibly have lost through 
the diffusion of his powers. 

The lack of common sense which we so often observe 
in the pulpit is largely owing to the fact that the atten- 
tion of preachers is so exclusively centred upon one class 
of ideas that they are blind to other considerations, which, 
to laymen, are the patent facts of human experience. In 
their violent attacks upon the sins of the Jews, and the 
vices of the Corinthians (while the sinners of their own 
congregations sit unreproved and uninstructed beneath 
them) they often remind me of the boy who stood throw- 
ing stones at a barn swallow that was building its nest 
beneath the eaves of a lofty edifice. When asked why 
he attempted to strike this far-off bird, while hundreds 
of the same species were standing near him, he replied, 
that if he could succeed in killing the one in the eaves, 
he would then feel sure that he could hit all the rest. 
The parsons, to whom I have referred, seem possessed 
of a similar idea which prompts them to the inspiring 
thought that if they can only make the dead Jews and 
Corinthians feel the point of their darts, they can after- 
wards impale every living sinner at their discretion. 

JOHN G. WHITTIER, a celebrated American poet and philanthropist, 
the latter is shown by his long and relatively narrow face ; the capacity 
for poesy gives the intelligent look with well-proportioned features. 


THERE are few abstract things so generally recognized and 
admitted as the influence exercised on the Physiognomy 
by a protracted continuance in any particular calling or 
occupation. Even in occupations, the successful prosecu- 
tion of which does not draw very largely upon the resources 
of the mind, we find the principle very appreciably at 
work; and few men endowed with any powers of obser- 
vation, even although these powers may be developed only 
in a very rudimentary degree, can have failed to be struck 
with the approximate correctness which attends his specu- 
lations as to the probable calling of a chance acquaintance, 
even although he may have no other ground-work of 
hypothesis than the Physiognomy alone. Thus, on a 
Sunday or fete day, when, for the time being, the more 
material indications are obliterated in the metamorphoses 
effected by the powerful agencies of soap, hair-brushes, 
and broad-cloth, there is little difficulty in pointing out 
the vagrant, the artizan, the shopman, or the clerk; and 
when the facial index would seem to fail in its functions, 
because it is in impractical hands, an inquiry would almost 
invariably result in the elucidation of exceptional and ex- 
planatory circumstances, or in the discovery of an abnormal 
specimen of humanity. If this hold good in the lower 
strata of the social system, in which there is a less urgent 
demand for mental activity, we might be prepared to tinJ 


the principle much more manifestly at work in those 
higher grades in which the intellectual predominates over 
the ordinary and the commonplace. And here, indeed, we 
do find this operation of nature leaving its handwriting on 
the visages of habitual thinkers with a pencil of no un- 
certain touch. As the process of serious reflection and 
mental analysis is carried on entirely within the inmost 
chambers of the organization, and as, for the time being, 
the visual organs are not required in their ordinary 
functional capacity, the eyes are either closed, or they 
are n'xed on vacancy, utterly failing in discerning objects 
before them, which at other times would have aroused 
the most lively interest and curiosity. Habitual indulgence 
in reverie speedily fastens an indelible stamp upon the 
Ph3 T siognomy. The eyes, from habitually retreating back- 
wards, to watch, as it were, the weighty operations going 
on in the laboratory of the organization, seem at last to 
take up their permanent abode there. Thus, the hollow 
sunken eye, which marks the visage of maturity and of 
age, invariably denotes long and continued struggling with 
mental problems. As in thinking, eagerness and impulse 
are the antipodes of mature deliberation and patient un- 
compromising investigation, so might we be prepared to 
find the marks which denote the votaries of the former to 
be the antipodes of the traces I have just been describing, 
and such is the fact. The unseen and hard-fought strife, 
with conclusions, which has its seat in the organization 
of the thinker, soon produces its handwriting on the 
outside, and the ploughshare of thought slowly but 
surely turns up the furrows across the brow and the 
face furrows that can never afterwards be effaced. No 
great thinker ever had a smooth face. Not to men of 
deep reflection, but to children of tender years, and to 
children of older growth, belongs the smooth uri wrinkled 
brow, which betokens the mind contented with its sur- 


roundings, and unspeculative as to the why and wherefore 
of the many mysteries which surround us from the cradle 
to the grave. In such men as Pope, Dryden, Cuvier, 
Leibnitz, Liebig, Morse, Robert Dale Owen, and a host of 
other glorious names of similar calibre, we have the deep 
and well-defined wrinkles of the indomitable and uncom- 
promising thinker, who will accept nothing for granted, and 
will have none of halting conclusions or insecure and 
tottering premises. Here we have the attenuated features, 
the long deep furrows stretching across the forehead, and 
that drawing together of the occipito frontallis muscle 
which produces those wrinkles transversely to the muscle 
and forehead, the muscle running up and down over the 
forehead, and attaching or extending with its tendinous 
oponeurosis from the brow over the .top of the head to 
the occipital bone. The shortening process thereby in- 
curred, results in an elevation of the eyebrows and a 
consequent wrinkling of the skin of the forehead. But 
other causes contribute in forming the outward and visible 
marks of sustained thought and deliberation. By reason of 
the mental abstractions closing the secernent system, thereby 
cutting off and removing the supply of adipose or fat 
from the body, the cushioning behind the scalp is therefore 
diminished; the skin becomes localized into a smaller circle, 
and there lies more loosely and less closely packed, until 
eventually, folding up to accommodate itself to the narrowed 
space, the permanent wrinkles are formed for the uncomplex 
reason that there is more surface of skin than area of scalp. 
Mature is never at a loss in adapting herself to abnormal 
conditions and occasions. There is no greater self-decep- 
tion than for a man to conclude that he has good grounds 
for claiming to be considered a thinker that is, a thinker 
in the higher sense of which we are treating simply 
because he is in the habit of dwelling listlessly on the 
incidents of past history whether personal, national, or 


cosmopolitan. Fifty years of this kind of reflection would 
not of itself suffice to produce one solitary wrinkle; and 
a man fond of sitting on the rocks of the sea-shore and 
watching the ceaseless conflict of waves and rock-bound 
coast, would have fully as good a title to he regarded as 
a profound geologist, intimately acquainted with the struc- 
ture and composition of the crust of the earth. Neither 
occupation demands any effort of the mind, and both are 
equally unproductive of solid results and of wrinkles. The 
soi-disant Socrates, and the suppositious sea-side dreamer, 
are merely participators in an amusement in which a child 
of tender years can equally as well engage, and in which 
all three have an equally small chance of fame and 

Life sorrows and troubles of great magnitude are fre- 
quently found to induce the facial peculiarities of which 
we are treating in people who may not have been before 
suspected, and may indeed have been entirely innocent 
of anything even faintly approaching to deep and serious 
thought. And why? The importance of the crisis with 
which they are confronted is so immediate and so pressing, 
that it will not and cannot be dismissed from the presence 
of the mind, as more diminutive annoyances have hitherto 
been. They stand at bay, and the mental conflict begins 
and is carried on until some vista of fair weather is worked 
out in the organization, if that be possible; until, if no 
better may be, a state of calm and patient endurance is 
reached, or until broken, defeated, crushed in the unequal 
and unwonted strife, the mind sinks into the dull apathy 
of despair. But this enforced cudgelling of the brain leaves 
the same graven furrows and wrinkles which fall to the 
lot of the higher order of beings who are mental warriors 
from choice, form, and genius. No more telling instance 
of this can possibly be found than in the case of Abraham 
Lincoln. The stupendous and, for a time, well-nigh over- 


whelming difficulties which he had to encounter soon after 
assuming the Presidentship, had the effect, immediate and 
almost perceptible in its progress, of deepening the furrows 
upon his brow, of graving the wrinkles on his entire face, 
and inducing that expression of application and depth of 
thought by which he was distinguished. An ambrotypo 
of Daniel Webster in his old age, which we have in our 
possession and which is copied for this book, shews indis- 
putably that he was a Titan among mind workers. His 
face was then covered with wrinkles, and the attenuated 
visage and sunken eye tell a tale too unmistakably of 
consecutive years of mental analysis and abstract thinking, 
for a beholder to doubt for a moment that supreme 
Platonism and profound cogitation resided in the great 
man. The visual organs of children are prominent, because 
they are eager to gaze superficially and unthinkingly at 
an}* and every object which may arrest their fitful atten- 
tion. They are delighted with frivolities calculated to 
enchain their facile powers of wonderment; but the owner 
of a thoughtful and contemplative mind can be discerned 
by his slow and measured step. Thoughtlessness and 
frivolity caper along with a mind equally unballasted 
and unchained ; but the brisk, purposeful step which is 
direct, measured, orderly, and staid, stamps the abode of 
deep and weighty thought. To the latter the ordinary 
subjects of mere worldly concern are unheeded; and if a 
chance smile (he never laughs) is called up it is regarded as 
a lapse and a waste of time. The jocund laugh and merry 
jest are impossible with him ; and he sighs in vain for 
power to engage in these despised pursuits, knowing full 
well that it is this unbending that would best refresh the 
weary mind and ja-ied body. Great thinkers carry their 
heads in a forward attitude ; and the head thrown back 
that infallible indication of a vacant mind is a posture 
that will in them be looked for in vain. In the child we 



almost invariably find the eyes eagerly projected from their 
sockets; but with maturity come cares and anxiety, pro- 
moting serious reflection and gradually withdrawing the 
eyes into their coverts. Old age, witli its habitual discretion 
and meditation, next supervenes, and then how sunk the 
eye how wrinkled the withered brow how staid the walk 
and how ever present are those indications which mark 
contemplation and anxious solicitude! 

Dugald Stewart wrote of thinkers, that " there are very 
few original thinkers in the world, or ever have been; 
the greater part of those who are called philosophers have 
adopted the opinions of some who went before them." 
Cicero well understood how man was divine, as the follow- 
ing quotation from his writings will shew. " Whatever 
that be which thinks, which understands, which wills, 
which acts, it is something celestial and divine, and upon 
that account must necessarily be eternal." Byron well 
illustrated, in brief lines, that storms of thought were 

aroused by mortal anguish " Now furrowed o'er with 

wrinkles, plough'd by moments, not by years and hours 
all tortured into ages hours which I outlive." 

SARAH BEUNIIAKDT, a distinguished French actress and artist who 
has won crowns of success in England, America, and in her native 
country. This portrait shadows forth a subtle, independent, and fertile 
intellect which knows no master. 



THE world in which we live is ascertained to be nearly an 
exact globe or sphere; and ail the organic matter found on 
its surface exhibits more or less roundness of form. Regular, 
well-marked angles belong to mineral crystallization; but 
every animal and vegetable has a curvilinear boundary in 
one or more directions. Very few even of the humbler 
plants have square stalks like the hemlock ; almost every 
stem, from the tender grass to the gigantic forest-tree is 
cylindrical; and in the animal creation there are even fewer 
sharp points and angles than in the vegetable. 

In the human subject, this curvilinear arrangement differs 
considerably in different individuals. The unpractised eye 
detects it most readily in the hair, which is easily seen to 
be either lank and straight, or inclined to curl. But when- 
ever the hair is curly, the lines of the face will be found 
more curved than those of a straight-haired person. Only 
let the reader remember that in judging of portraits, and 
even living subjects, he may be deceived by artificial curls. 
Waviness or curliness in the hair is so undeniably becom- 
ing, that all British ladies before Victoria's time, and most 
gentlemen too, turned their hair with papers or irons; and 
many do it still. But where this is found naturally, we 
have a curly subject; and we are now to describe his 
general character, intellectual and moral. 

First, be it observed that one cause of curliness in a child 


is great mental activity or strong physical excitement in the 
parents previous to the birth of their offspring; and this 
occurs more frequently in large towns than in rural dis- 
tricts. There may be parents possessed of great mental 
activity, living in the country ; but the tendericy of city 
life is to intensify all the attributes of human nature. 
When men and women crowd together in these dense 
masses, they are pressed downwards towards lower vice, or 
pushed up to higher virtue. Large cities are great magnets 
which draw thousands from the surrounding country and 
grind them to powder. Then the new forms that arise 
exhibit less angularity, and less straightness than those 
found in rural districts. 

Curly hair is generally indicative of quick perception, 
keen temper, and a feeble sense of right and wrong. 
Curved lines in the face lead us to expect a loving nature, 
and a hopeful, sprightly temper. People thus formed are 
lively in all their emotions; you will generally find them 
good-natured; and though they may get mad about a trifle 
and abuse you, you will see them on the stool of repentance 
the next minute. On the contrary, the most definite people 
are those who are built on the straight principle. They 
are capable of high scientific attainments, whereas the 
round, curly men are generally gassy, seldom fond of hard 
study or close application; but clever at making a good 
show out of whatever knowledge they have acquired. 

Among the lower animals we remark that dogs of the 
St. Bernard and Spaniel breeds have curly hair, and are 
remarkable for their active, hopeful, affectionate, and withal 
somewhat tricky dispositions. The little poodle may be 
seen fondly caressing its mistress; but if provoked, can be 
angry enough, and shew its resentment with considerable 
bodily activity. The curly-woolled sheep is similarly affec- 
tionate, sprightly, and passionate. 

Then look at the curly-headed negro the lowest type of 


humanity full of childish glee, dancing, singing, and enjoy- 
ing animal life; impulsive, and easily stimulated to work 
by sufficient compensation, but little capable of continued 
application to anything; and then how passionate and 
vengeful if not restrained by circumstances. 

The lines of a sheep's face run in short curves, so do 
those of the spaniel, the same is observable in the negro; 
and a sameness of disposition in the particulars we have 
named is found to pervade them all. 

It is worth remarking that as curly people have more 
of the animal nature and less of the higher intellectual, 
so children are rounder in form than full grown persons; 
and no one needs to be told that their animal propensities 
are vigorous, while the intellectual are little developed. 
So the negro race have physically much of the constitu- 
tion which belongs to childhood, and no one could better 
describe their character than by calling them childish men. 

All men possess the instincts of animal life in common 

Curly Face. 


Straight Face. 

with the brute creation, only in various degrees of strength; 
and more or less under the control of their higher powers. 
And a man having the curly attributes of the lower animal 


life, may yet raise himself to greatness by the diligent 
cultivation of his higher intellectual nature. 

Here are two opposite characters represented by a straight 
face and a curly one. It would be a poor observer that 
could not perceive a difference of character under so striking 
a dissimilarity of form. One is naturally constituted to go 
straight, and the other more or less round about. 

At college, the straight men are the hard students, the 
curly are the promoters of games and sports what we call 
fast young men, who slip through their term of study and 
graduate with very superficial knowledge. They may excel 
in such light matters as music, poetry, painting, gymnastics, 

Systematic, punctual, and straight- 
forward gentleman. 

Surly, selfish, conceited, and de- 
ceptive scamp. 

but seldom in mathematics, or other branches requiring 
severe thought. We rarely or never find these curly dogs 
obtaining a degree at West Point, for there is no partiality 


there, and students must be thoroughly informed before 
being permitted to graduate. Several of these curly fellows 
have, however, entered that school, but they have been 
obliged to leave after a short time, in consequence of some 
scheming, or bringing imperfect lessons. 

The foregoing cuts may still further illustrate the con- 
trasts we are describing. 

The straight-faced and straight-haired men are orderly 
and punctual; they love good morals, and abhor vicious 
indulgences. On the other hand, that class of men who 
are most addicted to excesses, or what the world calls 
pleasure, are most commonly of the curly structure. 

The straight men make the best mechanics; because, 
being exact and honest in themselves, they more naturally 
turn out solid and stable work, for the product of the 
artificer's labour is only character and disposition wrought 
out upon tangible objects, which, therefore, become re- 
gistered evidence of that character. As stable men do 
firm and stable work, so fanciful artizans make light and 
showy articles. An honest workman performs a good job, 
but a dishonest scamp accomplishes a mean sham. Straight 
men tell the truth and are transparent as glass; you know 
their intentions, and can discern that all they do is at 
least intended for good. But round-about men often dis- 
appoint you. They are more attractive at first sight, more 
plausible, more winning in their ways, but they do not 
wear so well; do not bear knowing so thoroughly. If 
they do not deliberately and intentionally deceive you to 
accomplish a selfish end, they may prove untruthful through 
mere thoughtlessness and carelessness about strict integrity; 
and this to a degree that may deeply wound and grieve 
you. Do not mistrust and avoid every curly-headed man 
as if he were necessarily a rogue, but for an enduring 
steady friend, cultivate the acquaintance of the straight 
man; less fascinating, less get-atable at first, it is worth 


your while to persevere in winning his esteem, and gaining 
his affection. 

The ancient Greeks judged intellectual character much 
from bodily forms, yet they regarded honesty more highly 
than rounded beauty. Socrates was angular of form, yet 
profoundly intelligent and philosophic. So we shall often 
find the disinterestedness, the integrity, and the ability of 
a Socrates in connection with those straight lines and sharp 
angles which militate against our ideas of what is hand- 
some and attractive in the human form. William Pitt, who 
wielded the energies of the British Empire through the 
most awful period of her history, was a man of straight 
physique, as a glance at any good portrait of him will 
shew. His great rival, Charles James Fox, was just as 
strikingly round and curly. We are told that he (Fox) 
was distinguished at school for quickness of parts, warmth 
of affection, and occasionally earnest, but irregular applica- 
tion to study. Also that in his early manhood he was 
ardent and thoughtless in the pursuit of pleasure. 

The Earl of Bute, another statesman of George III.'s 
reign, was a handsome round-faced, curly subject. He 
had no great talent, but obtained his place and power by 
the personal influence which he early gained over the 
monarch. The British nation believed that America was 
lost to her through his counsels; and there is little doubt 
that that loss mainly contributed to overthrow the intellect 
of the king, who had yielded himself to be guided by this 
handsome, plausible, ambitious, weak-minded fellow, rather 
than by the talented, far-seeing Pitt. 

Wellington was one of the straight-lined; and he was 
distinguished in the Cabinet for a purity of motive and 
conduct rare among statesmen, no less than he had formerly 
been for bravery and military skill. 

Kelson was physically such another, and was remarkable 
for integrity of purpose, with disdain of everything selfish 


and sordid. Perseverence was a striking feature in his 
character; and we are told that "he always went straight 
to his object, and so escaped all those difficulties incident 
to doubt, finesse, or timidity, which embarrass the pro- 
ceedings of vacillating and crafty minds." Among American 
notables, we cannot forbear to allude to Martin Van Buren, 
as a curly formed man in an extreme degree, and a more 
deceptive and wily turncoat than he never lived. Lincoln 
may be named as a good example of the straight-lined type, 
likewise Grant and Sherman. 

A curly, ambitious, and jealous Dog, 



THERE is a principle in nature that every motion accords 
with the life-principle of the animate being producing that 
motion. For instance, the turtle waddles slowly along, and 
thus shews that its mind has little energy, and its range of 
thought is limited. The deer, on the contrary, bounds over 
the hills and mountains, and spins away before the pur- 
suing hounds, in perfect accordance with his active nature. 
Having a quick, instinctive perception of danger, on the 
slightest suspicion of it he darts away with the rapidity of 
the wind, displaying, at every bound, how beautifully his 
limbs express the eager rapidity of his mind. He delights 
to range over the lofty mountain-tops, and scale the preci- 
pitous cliffs. It would be derogatory to his character to 
suppose he left his mind behind, or that it had less range or 
scope than his body. 

Men who are great travellers have more intelligence and 
mental range than those who remain at the old homestead. 
Compare such men as Columbus, Vespucci, Cabot, Cook> 
Humboldt, Irving, Agussiz, Livingstone, Darwin, and hun- 
dreds of others, who have visited all parts of the world, 
with men who have staid at home and kept their minds 
within a narrow range of thought. Whatever applies in 
one department of animal life, as a general principle, appliea 


equally to all portions of aniraality. We find the dog 
ranging over mountains and valleys in rapid succession; 
consider how favourably he compares, in the excellence of 
his mental capacity, with the sloth, whose range of activity 
includes only a few yards per diem. 

The fundamental principle, in judging of the human walk, 
is, that it is simply the result of character the mind is 
the motive power, and the walk is the result. Let it be 
admitted as a principle, that whatever is produced bears 
the indelible stamp of the producer; and then we can easily 
account for the fact that every likeness painted by a Ger- 
man artist from imagination resembles the German face and 
character. So also is this the case with the Italian, the 
Frenchman, and the Englishman; each gives his work of 
imagination the national likeness peculiar to his own 

Philosophically, the legs may be considered as animal 
imitators of the mind of their master. And as we conclude 
that every freeman is, or ought to be, master of his own 
legs, then we can easily see how they, in their motions, 
bespeak the character of the individual to whom they 
belong, provided they are in a normal condition. Hence, 
we see the quick step produced by the active mind; the 
slow, dragging step by the stupid and inactive mind; and 
the bounding, springing step by the sprightly elastic mind. 

Another principle in nature is, that no one can produce 
naturally that for which he has not an organization. We 
fail to judge accurately of a faculty or quality in which we 
are ourselves deficient. Thus, the natural walk must be 
in accordance with the organic structure. Hence, men who 
are tall, generally take long slow steps, and have slow, far- 
ranging minds. As examples of this, we may mention 
Washington, Lafayette, Lincoln, in America; Walpole, New- 
castle, and Castlereagh, of England; Havelock and Lord 
Sligo of India, &c., who were all tall, dignified forms, and 


were remarkable for their slow, measured, and dignified 
walk. Short men, true to the principle, have a short step, 
and generally employ their minds on small insignificant 
matters. From this rule should be excepted men with long 
bodies and short legs. Professor Morse, the inventor of 
the electric telegraph, was a very tall, dignified man, with 
a deliberate, long step, slow and dignified, which shadowed 
forth the result of his far-reaching, inventive mind. He 
launched into seas of undiscovered knowledge, and fields of 
more than golden value were discovered by him. 

In the common acceptation of the term, a short person 
cannot be dignified ; for dignity includes stateliness of manner 
in connection with height. Nothing that is short, dumpy, 
or stunted can be looked upon as dignified. The short step 
and mincing walk bespeak the small mind, as a general 
rule. The energetic step bespeaks energy of character. 
The man who is not formed on the mechanical plan has no 
skill in judging of mechanism. He who has no colour in 
his eye, skin, &c., will generally be found to be an inferior 
judge of colour. Hence, the universal law of nature, that 
like appreciates and best judges like, applies equally to all 
traits of human character. One in whom centres many 
colours, having bright blue or brown eyes and rosy cheeks, 
will judge of colours better than one in whom no distinct 
tints or varied hues appear. This law explains the reason 
why men confined in dark cells for a succession of years 
cannot discern and judge of colour. Any plant germinating 
in the dark is colourless, because it has been shut out from 
the sun-lisjht. It is well known that the finest art colorists 


lived and studied in a climate refulgent with sunlight and 
colour, such as Italy and Spain; while in Scotland, England, 
and Ireland, where fogs and murky atmosphere prevail 
more than half the year, obscuring the sun's direct rays, 
we find more pseudopts than in any other well-tested 
civilized country. 


The law of nature is, that we can always judge best of 
any faculty of which we possess most. The man who takes 
the longest step has generally the most comprehensive 
mental range. The plain, easy walk is indicative of an 
unassuming mind; the plunging or stamping step, an 
unvarnished mentality. The unsteady gait results from 
unreliability of character; while the light, tripping step 
bespeaks a playful and hopeful disposition. The mechanic's 
tread is measured and regular; the speculator's walk is 
irregular, because he is organized to do things out of the 
regular routine, and, by fits and starts, seizes the oppor- 
tunity to make a speculation whenever the chance occurs. 

As an interesting instance of indications of the true 
character in the walk, all of which are palpably apparent 
to the scientific Physiognomist, it may be stated here, 
merely as a fact, that when the author was some years 
since delivering a course of lectures at 'Clinton (Iowa), a 
young man, walking across the lecture-room to test the 
lecturer's powers to judge, and the science of Physiognomy 
to point out his character and capacity, elicited from the 
author the decided opinion, that " he might become success- 
ful in literary pursuits." The gentleman's name is Mr. 
Bernard Wayde, who adopted the directing opinion of the 
lecturer, by commencing, within a few weeks after, to write 
for the press. So successful has Mr. Wayde been as a 
literary man, that he is now (1872), residing in Edinburgh 
as correspondent and novel-writer for some of the most 
influential journals of New York and other American 
cities, after having edited four papers, as well as written 
numerous plays and novels; several of his plays having been 
dramatized with remarkable success. Thus does the walk 
unerringly indicate character. 



To the most casual observer it must have occurred that 
there are perhaps no two human beings that walk in 
precisely the same manner; the gait of every one is as 
peculiarly his own as his handwriting. Though there are 
many who have something similar 
in their movements and attitudes 
during locomotion, and appear to the 
cursory observer to walk alike; yet 
to the practised eye there are esseii- 
tiul points of difference in their 
peripatetic characteristics. Educa- 
tion and training, assisted by the 
mimic inclination of our nature, do 
much to produce styles of walking; 
but the close observer can detect at 
a glance each person's idiosyncrasy, 
and thus can tell, almost certainly, 
the physical, mental, and moral 
\ Toddler Foolish Mary.* qualities and tendencies of the 


In this article, we intend to classify all varieties of human 
pedestrian, ambulatory, and peripatetic locomotion under 

* This cut, and the others illustrating this chapter, were copied by per- 
mission from "The Characters of Glasgow," a valuable octavo volume 
published by Mr. John Tweed, 11 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. 


the two general heads of Natural and Artificial Peripatetic 
Manifestations of Character 


By the natural gait, we mean that mode of walking 
peculiar to each individual. Let us enumerate a few of 
the most usual and well-marked salient characteristics 
of these, while we specify them under epithets sufficiently 
expressive of the pedestrian idiosyncrasy. 

1. The Toddling Gait. This manner of locomotion is 
essentially childish, and unmistakably tells you that every 
attribute of a petty, trifling, finikin character may fairly 
and unhesitatingly be predicated of the human form that 
todcjles. If an acquanitance meets it, every expression of 
childish pleasure is manifested by the toddler. It cannot 
rest or stand at ease for a moment, but keeps moving up 
and down, round and round, and gets so excited that it 
stops short in the middle of a sentence and toddles off 
abruptly. Then, when you have smiled the natural bene- 
ficent and compassionate smile of half-pity, half-contempt, 
and total forgiveness, while turning away, in a moment you 
hear pitty-patty, toddle, toddle, up behind you, calling out 
that it had just forgot to mention that its dear Persian 
tabby had that morning had three beauties of kittens; but, 
poor little darlings, they were not yet able to frisk so jolly 
as their mother, the beauty, did when it first received her 
from Lady Mary Frisk. The features almost invariably 
developed in the toddler are of the small, chubby, childish 
mould, round, soft, and cheerful; and it may b*e remarked 
that, in its right-hand pocket, there is generally a store of 
comfits or small sweets, one of which is popped into its 
mouth by way of self-gratulation or reward after encounter- 
ing and so delightfully enchanting an acquaintance, as it 




did on the occasion just mentioned. When toddler is of the 
masculine gender, it may be remarked that the toes of his 
shoes are much further out of repair than the heels; that 
there are seldom all the buttons on the garments, and that, 
both a glove and an umbrella have just been lost, occasion- 
ing the necessity for trying to recollect every place Mr. 
Toddler has been, and thereupon revisiting it. This 
generally terminates its day, but 
without ever recovering the lost 
articles. In childish grief, and from 
sheer exhaustion, toddler, with a 
vexed heart retires to rest, but rises 
the next morning to go through a 
similar fruitless round of duty. Mrs. 
or Miss Toddler acts in a similar 
manner, but always displaying in 
her routine of duty all the coquettish, 
little, childish graces that so admir- 
ably become her sex. It would be 
cruel to expose or ridicule this darling, 
charming, natural, little creature. 
We have all seen her and many of 
her kindred often enough to be suffi- 
ciently well acquainted with her 
gyrations and winning ways. 

2. The Striding Gait. Who has 
not seen the man with the long 
striding pace? Always in earnest 
t pursuit of socne definite object or 
project, he strides along with pur- 
pose-like tread until he obtains it, or 
definitely ascertains the reason for 
disappointment. Every feature of 
his face bespeaks its earnest sympathy with his progressive 
measured gait. Though this style of pedestrian locomotion 

The Striding Gait - 
Bob Dreghorn. 


is generally seen in persons above the middle height, yet 
it is frequently met with in those of diminutive stature 
There is, however, mostly this difference, the long-paced, 
tall individual carries the trunk of the body much more 
erect than the undersized person, and pendulates the arms 
more freely and better in keeping with the whole figure; 
while the diminutive strider generally manifests uneasiness 
and difficulty in managing the arms; sometimes they are 
controlled by hooking the thumbs in the vest pockets or 
cleeking them in the arm-holes; but no matter how they 
are carried, they seem to be either in the way, or hard to 
manage. It som times happens, however, that the under- 
sized strider has abnormally short arms, and then they 
appear like the short wings of the auk, or the forelegs 
of the kangaroo, and serve the purpose well in being used 
as strong levers in raising the body in gymnastic exercises, 
ascending the shrouds on board ships, or in burglaries. It 
is well-known that this is the prevailing feature in the 
notorious burglars of large cities. But, in the other features 
of the persons peculiar for the striding gait, we may remark 
that there is the long, slow, measured, quiet pace in some, 
while others have a quick, impetuous movement, displaying 
that push and determination of character that does or is 
prepared to bear down all opposition to any project that 
has been undertaken. It may be remarked that an accom- 
panying cephalic feature in this character is a broad massive 
head, thick, square nose, wide nostrils, and square, massive, 
prominent chin, compressed medium lips, and eyes either 
prominent and severe, or sunken with a falcon expression. 
The late Dr. Chalmers was of the full-eyed, strong- featured 
type; and of the latter, was the famous Dr. Henry Cooke, 
the champion of trinitarianism in Ulster. But the reformer, 
John Knox, of Scotland, was perhaps the best example of 
this character. Then we must remark that the striding, 
slow, deliberate pace is accompanied by round, soft facial 


features, rather loose and flabby, the underlip generally 
keeping time with the step, as it is seen to hang loose, 
the mouth being almost always slightly open. Though this 
character is generally successful in the course of a long 
steady career in one line of life, yet it is seldom found that 
any mighty effort is attempted. The impetuous striders are 
too ready as well as eagerly willing to surpass what they 
call the slow, jogging stagers. The impetuous rapid strider 
has his purpose and goes right ahead to accomplish it, 
bearing down all obstacles; while the quiet, slow, cautious 
strider has also his object before him, but patiently fore- 
sees the difficulties, and determines to watch and stride 
cautiously and zig-zag to the end, no matter what dis- 
couragement may be thrown across his path. The rapid 
strider leaps over or kicks minor hindrances out of his 
course ; the slow strider steps over them quietly, and leaves 
them there for the next comer. Daniel Webster belonged 
to the class of the strong and gigantic intellects, and his 
gait gave token of the great mind within his vigorous 

3. The Lurching Gait. Sometimes this manner of walk- 
ing is denominated rolling. It is seen to perfection in 
people who are half-seas over, just before the real staggering 
attempt at progressive motion is commenced. In persons 
3f sober habits, however, the rolling and lurching gait is 
characteristic of innate overweening conceit, if displayed 
in an impetuous character; while it betokens diffidence and 
awkwardness in a timid, retiring individual.' The rapid 
roller is marked by strength of purpose and self-reliance, 
and becomes dictatorial and overbearing among his asso- 
ciates; as a commercial traveller he is almost always 
successful, and no. matter how often foiled in his efforts, 
he returns to the charge, and mostly succeeds in carrying 
his point Tall, heavy rollers often become bullies, and 
are found as patrons of the ring, the race-course, and the 


gambling hell They are always ready with the word of 
defiance, the fist, the shillelah, the revolver, the bowie- 
knife, or the stilletto, according to the nation to which they 
belong. Look the rolling and lurching bully in the face, 
and you catch his wicked defiant look or stare; see his 
squat snout, compressed, puckered lips, broad underface, 
square, broad chin, bull-neck, and short, broad hands, which 
he never extends open with the palm upward. When he 
stands, he naturally poises himself in an attitude of defiance, 
with his feet well apart, but not awkwardly, as much as to 
say, " I'm ready, come on." This type of character is 
commonest in the midland counties and borderland of 
England and Scotland, the counties of Mayo, Gal way, and 
Tipperary, in Ireland, and the' Kaffirs of Africa. The 
Normans and Norsemen were the most distinguished foi 
this phase of character during the middle ages. But let 
us look for a moment at the timid lurching character. He 
is slow in his movements, and the uncertain straight-toed 
alternate motion of his feet, with a half-kneeling expression 
of his legs, while he sways timidly from side to side, like 
a ship with rigging too heavy and without ballast. His 
look is generally shy, his eye having a distrustful, half- 
averted expression. This character is so seldom good for 
anything but the lowest drudgery, he is mostly found 
among the basest and most degraded in the back slums of 
large towns and cities, through which he may be often 
met prowling about, intent upon some favourite vicious 
gratification, or nefarious project. 

4. The Sweeping or Mowing Gait. This well-marked 
and pronounced mode of peripatetic progression is much 
more easily observed in women than in men. This 
simply arises from the flowing nature of the female 
costume, which receives the vibratory motion from the 
body, and gives marked and palpable indication of it in 
its sweeping pendulation in a room or on the street. But 



it is nevertheless equally observable in the opposite sex 
when watched carefully. In the male animal, the right-to- 
left and left-to-right sweep 
at every step, is almost 
always in conjunction with 
a peculiar wriggle perpendi- 
cular of the whole body 
from head to foot. The effect 
of this double vibration and 
contortion of the whole body 
instantly impresses the ob- 
server with the true cause of 
the outward manifestations 
an intense self-conceit and 
overweening persuasion of su- 
perior knowledge and ability. 
The immense variety of coun- 
tenance accompanying this 
corporeal expression of char- 
acter would occupy too much 
space in describing; but the 
most prominent visual pecu- 
liarities may be stated, as a 
narrow head, low forehead, 

eyes in close proximity, irregular nose tending to a thin 
upper half, long upper lip, pouting mouth, curling lip, 
and flabby cheeks, conveying, on the whole, an utter 
want of sympathy, which is generally well borne out by 
the almost invariable sa'usage ringers of the hand that 
never gives a kindly grasp. Morally, this character is a 
hypocrite, and generally may be found among those accused 
of false pretences. This gait radically indicates vacillation, 

5. The Fiiwi Gait. This is found only in strong charac- 
ters, whether physical, moral, ot religious. It at once 

The Sweeping gait. Blind Alick. 


indicates strength, and bespeaks the confidence, dread, or 
veneration of the beholder, in accordance with the accom- 
panying characteristics of the countenance. The whole 
structure of the person whose walk is firm, manifests com- 
pactness, solidity, and stability. He is staunch in every 
sense, and in all his intercourse there is a reliable and 
unshaken steadiness and resolute constancy upon which 
the sheerest stranger seems to place implicit reliance. 
Then, the strong, firm tread and gait of one who inspires 
dread is associated with a stern countenance, lack of sym- 
pathy with others, and devotion to self-indulgence. This 
character may be easily known by his sturdy tread, often 
light, but as certain as a bull's-eye shot; his low forehead, 
snub-nose, hanging jaws, pig's throat, broad chest, well- 
developed lumbar regions, full, beautifully-proportioned 
lower limbs, and well-arched foot, which all bespeak the 
character to awe the timid beholder. This is the physical, 
without either moral or spiritual restraint. Now, look at 
the historical examples of this. The most remarkable, well- 
authenticated instance we have in ancient times, is that 
of Agamemnon, " king of men," " whose tread was firm, but 
like music; whose heart was stern as Charon, the ferryman 
of Hades, and whose word was law to all the besiegers of 
Troy." In recent modern times, we shall only mention the 
Emperor Napoleon the Great, whose step and build are so 
well-known that they require only to be mentioned to 
recall their peculiar characteristics. His whole frame was 
so firm and well knit together, that it moved in perfect 
harmony; but the secrecy and feline trait of his nature so 
much affected all his movements, that his step was as sure 
and silent as the tiger's, and hence his spring and onset 
was as sudden and terrible. He is the best example of 
human physical firmness of gait, bespeaking stern firmness 
of command. All his features and build indicate these 
qualities in a pre-eminent degree. Below the middle height, 


but massive in all parts of his body, he shewed strength at 
all points. His head was large, broad, and square; the deep, 
vertical furrows in the forehead, between the brows, indi- 
cating intense concentration; the deep eyes, aquiline nose, 
compressed lips, and prominent chin, all, in harmony with 
the other firm features of the frame, manifested in an extra- 
ordinary degree the pre-eminently stern, inexorably firm 
character. These two great generals, with whom we might 
include Wellington, the conqueror of the latter, are suffi- 
ciently well-marked and amply authenticated characters 
to fix the truth of our observations on mere physical 
firmness. As examples of moral and religious firmness, 
we mention only a few remarkable names whose gait and 
concomitant features have been so well authenticated, that 
their names will recall their distinctive characteristics, 
especially if assisted by good likenesses or statues. Julius 
Caesar, Brutus, Gregory VII. (Pope), Luther, Knox (of Scot- 
land), Elizabeth of England, and Cecil her Minister, the pre- 
sent Emperor of Germany and his Minister, Prince Bismarck; 
all these went steadily and directly to the point. 

6. The, Shuffling and Shambling Gait. This mode of 
peripatetic locomotion is indicative of everything that is 
degraded, low, and vile in character, as well as imperfect 
and infirm in physical conformation. To some it is natural 
from birth, as the offspring of those whose physical defects 
and infirmities are perpetuated in their persons. Watch 
the shuffler physical, as he trawls his broad, flat, nether 
extremities along the street or floor. Every movement 
is a slovenly effort to progress; but the trail in the mud, 
or dust, or sand, shews the slovenly snail-like attempt at 
progress. All his habits, dress, and features are in keeping 
with these attempts at pedestrianism. His habits are 
slovenly universally; hair untrimmed and unkempt; ft.ce 
smeared, and eyes bleared and blinking; all his garments 
frnrn the throat downward bespattered with the particles 


of whatever he has attempted to put into his mouth for 
months past, perhaps, or sprinkled with snuff or tobacco- 
nized saliva. Then look at the shoes or foot-coffins in 
which his flat substitutes for feet are rolling and lurching 
about. They are off at one side, ripped in the soles, full 
of side chinks, and ever ready to admit the slush of the 
street to cool the neglected bunions that sorely torment 
the toes, though the pain, however acute, scarcely ever 
rouses the forlorn shuffler to attempt a cure, no matter 
how simple. Then glance for a moment at the cut of 
the outer garments. The coat is always too wide, too 
long, and has the cuffs nearly to the tips of the filthy 
fingers, which have perhaps never made the acquaintance 
of a glove. The vest wants a button or two, and is seldom 
with the proper button in the opposite hole. Now look at 
the trousers or pantaloons, always at least two inches too 
long, and ever moist about the ankles, thus beautifully in 
harmony and keeping with the shoes. Is it now necessary 
to pollute our eyes by looking into the facial points that 
so logically accompany all these? Yes, look but for a 
moment and mark the striking consistency. The brows 
are elevated and unthoughtful, the eyes bleared and sleepy, 
. the cheeks puffed with gross fat, the nose misshapen and 
moist, the lips without expression, and mostly as far apart 
as may be without effort. The expression of the whole is 
disgusting in the extreme, and bespeaks no more in the 
uneducated than the first remove from the brute. But it 
must not be forgotten that there are shufflers who have 
much cunning, and often manage to amass wealth. One 
of these died, not long since, in London, leaving 4,000,000 
to his heirs, after cunningly shuffling and cheating for sixty 

7. The Parallelopedic or Intoed Gait. This characteristic 
of pedal progression almost invariably indicates closeness 
and meanness as well as penurious stinginess of character, 


It is often accompanied with a lurching, hobbling, painful 
carriage of the body, indicative of being ill at ease, with 
a pinched, miserable expression of countenance. It also 
indicates stealthiness and low cunning. The feline species 
of every kind put down the foot in this manner; but the 
Indians of North America not only walk with the feet 
parallel, but put down the one foot straight before the 
other, in line; and they are notorious for their cunning and 
treachery in every sense. The features that mostly accom- 
pany this gait are sharp and unattractive. In all dealings 
or transactions with those whose locomotive pedestrian 
habit is intoed, every one should be warily on his guard. 
It was observed that when two solicitors, equally deformed 
in this manner, happened to be engaged on opposite sides 
in a chancery suit in London, the game of finesse was so 
well kept up by the raising of new points, of nice difficulties, 
that the estate, though large, was completely exhausted 
before the suit was half completed. 

8. Splay-footed Gait. Though this is a completely or dia- 
metrically opposite abnormity to No. 7. yet it indicates 
many similar traits of character. This mostly arises from 
the fact that intoed deformity generally originates in the 
legs being caliper-shaped, while the- splay-footed is caused 
by the knees being too affectionate towards each other. 
Still there are several traits of character peculiar to the 
latter gait. In the splay-footed, it is almost universally 
found that the character of the shambling shuffler prevails, 
with an ill-disguised dash of the feline cunning. Indeed, 
most of the characteristics of the knock-kneed and splay- 
footed may be found in the description once given of four 
such characters, who resided in Dublin, by a waggish 
friend of theirs, that "they were sagacious, silly fools." 
Anomalous characters. 

9. The Plunging Gait This is not an infrequent mode 
of progressing. The distinctive feature of the plunger is 


a looseness of the knee-joint, which gives the walk the 
appearance of a succession of curtsies, but with the painful 
appearance of being at every step almost precipitated on 
the head. The form of those so affected is quite in accord- 
ance with the up and down or undulatory appearance of 
the walk. Alternately you will find them in high spirits, 
full of hope and jubilant; again in deep depression, soon 
to rise into the opposite extreme. Hence the life of the 
plunger is one of fear and dread, hope and joy. His 
countenance most truthfully indicates this. Amid deep' 
lines of sorrow and foreboding, may easily be perceived 
the laughing wrinkles round the eyes, and the traces of 
the cheerful smile that often plays around the mouth, and 
sets the chin so cheerily in harmony with the mobile 
lips. Almost in every instance the plunger will be found 
possessed of warm affection, but subject to deep depression 
on any want of affectionate reciprocation of the loving 

10. The Fatuous Gait. This kind of walk is so apparent 
to the most careless observer that it only requires to be 
pointed out or mentioned to be recognized and understood. 
The gait of the imbecile may be observed in any large 
community, from the partially weak-minded to the drivel- 
ling idiot. In proportion to the stage of weakness of 
intellect, the walk is unsteady and paralyzed, until it 
becomes as nearly as possible like the balancing gait of a 
drunkard, but retaining impetuosity of motion. 

Minor varieties of natural peripatetic locomotion might 
be easily enumerated, but enough has been said to stimu- 
late the intelligent observer to analyze the peculiar pedes- 
trian characteristics of almost any human biped that may 
cross his path, or strut before him. 




By artificial gait we mean that mode of walking inci- 
dental to every profession, trade, or calling, as well as 
that taught by posture and calisthenic masters and 
mistresses, as preparations for the drawing and ball-room. 
As the artificial walk, saunter, and strut are so varied, 

and, in almost every in- 
stance, acquired with the 
intention of concealing the 
natural mode of pedestrian 
locomotion, we shall not 
attempt more here than 
the pointing out of a few 
of the more prominent 
artificial styles of walking. 
Take, then, the professional 
styles first. 

1. The Military Gait. 
On close observation, one 
may, without much diffi- 
culty, perceive that, from 
the field-marshal in every 
rank of the arrny, down to 
the raw recruit, there is 
a style peculiar to each. 
The best mode of getting an 
accurate idea of the differ- 
ence between a recruit and 
a trained veteran is to watch 
the drill, or the march past, 
on a review day. Then 

The Military Gait. Captain Paton, 
of Glasgow. 

mark in the one the irre- 
gular dubious step, while 
in the other, every man seems to be so completely trained 


that he simply might be looked upon as a nicely-adjusted 
part of a very smoothly working machine. This perfect 
drill and training gets at length BO much into the 
nature, that the old soldier, when walking alone, steps 
with as much precision and accuracy, as he would on 
the parade-ground or on the march. Habit has become 
so thoroughly a second nature that, except from the 
scarcely now natural features, and the forms and powers, 
one could scarcely tell the real character. Next, we have 
in the sergeant, sergeant-major, lieutenant, captain, adjutant, 
major, and so on, still rising in rank, the indubitable char- 
acteristics of office naturally stamped upon the man by the 
exigencies of his office. But, in all, the military strut and 
tread betrays the soldier and the rank. To the officers, 
both subordinate and general, the same remarks apply, 
but these have their peculiar and distinctive airs and 
struts of importance, until we come up to the colonel, 
the general, the marshal, and the commander-in-chief. To 
see these higher ranks to perfection, they must be observed 
in the promenade and the ball-room. The general rule to 
observe, in judging of them here, is that the more strutting, 
and lofty-looking, and supercilious bearing they manifest 
among civilians, the less noble and elevated is their char- 
acter in all the nobler attributes of mankind. 

2. The Clerical Gait. This style (or want of style) is 
so varied by denominationality and conventionality that 
we must merely point out the leading characteristics of 
a few of the principal churches as manifested in the gait 
of the clergy. The English established churchman, of 
every grade, carries himself with a degree of importance 
and superiority on all occasions of intercourse with the 
clergy of other denominations. In general he may be at 
once known by his attire, and the self-important air anc j 
tone of dictation he assumes, though we must do him the 


justice to say that, in sleek, soft, bland insinuation, and 
sanctimoniousness he is far surpassed by many of the 
clergy of the dissenting denominations. In their disguises 
at the theatres, racecourses, and fox-hunts, is the best 
time to observe their peculiar attitudes and gait. The 
lower limbs are generally, in comparison, weak; and in 
walking, run parallel from the knees to the- heels, keeping 
the feet almost parallel. This habit is contracted in the 
constant genuflections necessarily gone through in the 
reading of the church service, and during the visiting of 
the sick, in their probationary curacies. Also, it should 
be noted that, from habit, when they wax earnest in con- 
versation they involuntarily use their pulpit attitudes, and 
at the end of an animated sentence, settle their gown and 
imaginary bands, clasping their hands in the attitude of 
prayer. The Scotch churchman is equally important, in 
his own way, as the English; but his modes of worship 
give him a much more free and easy manner, though he 
wishes it to be known and felt that he is a superior being, 
ever since the hands of the presbytery were put upon his 
head. In his gait he slightly resembles the Episcopalian, 
but the legs and knees are not so nearly in the supplicatory 
attitude. This arises from the fact that the Scot is in 
the habit of standing and praying extempore. Among 
dis.-senters, we may take under the same head the Methodist 
and the Baptist preacher. These are so much alike in 
gait that it takes a keen eye and much experience to 
discriminate the one from the other. They both have the 
sleek, solicitous, bland how-is-your-soul and where-is-your- 
money look. Still there is in the Methodist parson rather 
more of an independent look and manner. The Roman 
Catholic may be known, all the world over, as soon as 
he walks and pendulates his arms, especially if he has 
been much on duty. I!he expression of the genuflecting 


nether limbs, and the wave of the hand in the gesture 
of consecrating the elements, are never got rid of by the 
Roman ecclesiastic. 

3. The Legal Gait. Like the clerical, this is so much 
dependent upon the branch of the legal profession to which 
the individual belongs, that we must confine ourselves to 
the general characteristics of the walk. The face and 
attitudes of the hands far more plainly indicate the profes- 
sional physiognomical traits than the walk. In every 
branch of the profession, however, the sly, cautious, stealthy, 
hesitating, parallel-footed gait prevails, and need never be 
mistaken after a few careful observations. In all countries 
the man of law who has devoted his life to it, has these 
distinctive traits. 

4. The Medical Gait The medical man, who has been 
some time in practice, becomes cautious and quiet in his 
movements, so that he seems almost always to feel as if 
he were entering the sick room, where silence and reticence 
are necessary for the safety of his patient Hence he 
learns to tread lightly, and contracts the habit of putting 
down his feet nearly parallel and stealthily like a cat. 
Almost invariably when he stands his feet are almost close 
together and parallel, his head slightly bent forward, and 
his hands in his pockets When suddenly roused he 
invariably pulls out his watch. This is sheer habit. 

5. The Mechanical Gait. Almost every mechanical 
occupation impresses its character upon the operative. 
The sawyer, smith, cobbler, and all those employed in 
mechanical operations of a regular, measured, motive nature, 
will walk with a steady, measured step, and pendulate 
their arms in the same manner ; so impressed has his 
nature become with the regularity of the mechanical 
motion with which he has been associated. This character 
is generally able to rise at any hour he wishes, so accurate 
has he "become in time, which is only another name for 



motion. Ask him the hour, and at any time he will answer 
you at once, and seldom make a mistake of more than five 
or ten minutes. The famous self-made engineer, George 
Stephen son, of Killingworth, was always so sure of the 
time that he would boldly assert that such and such a 
clock or watch was wrong when it differed from him. And 
not infrequently was hfc put to the test by his fellow- 

workmen. In after life, when 
he became a great engineer 
i*nd very prosperous, he was 
asked by a brother work- 
man, who had also risen in 
life, why he wore a gold watch, 
and he replied, I 'in regulating 
it. Tailors are easily known 
by their gait. The knee, in 
their case, becomes braced 
from their peculiar manner of 
sitting, and the bent form of 
the leg from the knee to the 
ankle gives, with the fixity or 
stiffness of the knee, a short, 
light, out-toe step, so charac- 
teristic that it can never be 
mistaken. Should any doubt 
on this point arise, the fact 
will at once be settled by look- 
ing at the hands. Every finger 

The Mechanical Gait- David Dale, ] ia s taken its Set expression 

from the peculiarity of the 

manner in which it is constantly used. The left hand 
should also be observed, as its expression is quite different 
from that of the right, especially in the lower, or nail joint 
of the thumb, which is bent in the manner it is accustomed 
to hold the seam while the rk'ht hand stitches. It is 


needless to pursue this further than to direct attention tc 
the expression given to the under lip by the pulling down 
of part of it by the thread, while the tailor bites the end 
with his teeth. Equally easy is the selecting of the cobbler 
from the crowd. Observe his mode of working. His knees 
close together, with feet slightly apart, and resting on the 
inner side his head habitually bent downwards his arms 
muscular and well-developed the thumb of the right hand 
in the act of holding the awl and piercing, so different from 
the left, which has acquired the habit of keeping the thumb 
closely applied to the forefinger in the act of inserting and 
extracting the bristle at the extremity of the " end." But 
we have double confirmation of these mechanical habits, if 
we are allowed to witness both the tailor and the cobbler 
in animated conversation. The tailor performs all his 
gesticulation with the right arm, and that in a most charac- 
teristic manner, by drawing out that limb at the end of an 
impassioned sentence, just as he would give a long sharp 
pull to his newly threaded needle when he has forgot to put 
a knot on his new thread. But this is not all: the left 
hand is all the while performing its peculiar function, by 
damping its forefinger on the tongue and under lip, and 
quietly rolling an imaginary thread between the thumb and 
finger. In the case of the cobbler, both arms come into 
play in a state of animated speaking ; but watch well the 
peroration period, and then you see the gesture in perfec- 
tion, when the hands are stretched out, closely touching 
each other, with the palms upward, and then as the period 
is completed, the arms are swept backwards with energy, 
just as in the act of drawing the " ends" through the seam, 
ending in the backward sweep with the palms downward, 
but with fists energetically clenched. The blacksmith, in 
animated conversation, becomes equally characteristic. In 
his case the right arm is sure to assume the motions of the 
sledge-hammer, while the left is as sure to take the 



vibratory motion of turning the red-hot bar on the 
imaginary anvil. 

Close observation will soon enable any one who has the 
taste, and possesses the talent to tell, almost at a glance, the 
peculiar occupation of almost any one. This kind of know- 
ledge is often very useful, and saves one from the uneasy 
feeling, often experienced, of being compelled to say, " Well, 
there's something odd about that man's manner, I wonder 
what it is." The best school for this study is 'found in 
attending tradesmen's meetings, and the preaching and 
hortatory services conducted by local- preach ing or peri- 
patetic tradesmen orators. 

6. The Tradesman Gait. This contains or comprehends 
the peculiarity of walk necessarily arising from the habits 
of locomotion acquired or necessarily resulting from every 
kind of shopkeeping or trading. There is scarcely any 
mere peculiarity of walk that can be spoken of as distinc- 
tive marks of these trades. But in the ever restlessness of 
body and constant change of position, even when there is no 
object in such movements, we can at once detect the trader 
of some kind. If allowed, however, to take into account 
the movements of the hands, we can in numerous instances 
detect the nature of the trade. For instance, those engaged 
in retail occupations, such as employs them in tying up 
small parcels, are almost invariably, in unguarded moments, 
working with their fingors as in the act of putting up the 
parcel and tying the cord. Others again, in the soft goods 
or cloth trade acquire the habit of spreading out, and 
measuring, and folding up goods. Apothecaries can scarcely 
ever become animated in conversation without coming to 
the inward circular motion of the pestle-in-mortar. Book- 
sellers invariably put down any dry article just as they 
present a book on their counter, placing it on the open 
edges with the back up. 

Without pursuing this matter further, we may just remark 



that we have not attempted to exhaust the subject of the 
language of pedestrian and peripatetic locomotion; but 
merely pointed out enough to arouse the attention of the 
reader to interest himself in this most useful protective 

JEPTHA R. SIMMS, uncle of the author of this book, wrote several 
large volumes, but the crowning work of his historical efforts was ' ' The 
Frontiersmen," in two volumes of 700 pages each, published in 1883 ; he 
expired in the ensuing autumn in his 76th year. His widow, with whom 
he lived upwards of 50 years, witnessed after his death, that he nevo* 
gave her an unkind word. 


No idiosyncrasy of character is more important than the 
manner of salutation. As is the salutation, so is the total 
of the character. In nothing do we lay ourselves so open 
as in our manner of meeting and saluting. In the various 
modes of salutation, every attitude of the body, as well 
as the wonderful variety of ocular and facial expression 
play most important parts. Let us consider some of the 
numerous modes of salutation that have become common 
in various countries of long standing and cultivated 

Of al\ the different modes of salutation in various coun- 
tries, there is none more graceful than that which prevails 
in Syria. Here the hand is raised with a quick but 
gentle motion to the heart, to the lips, and to the forehead, 
to intimate that the person saluting is willing to serve 
you, to think for you, to speak for you, and to act for you. 
In New Guinea, the fashion is certainly picturesque; for 
they place upon their hands the leaves of trees as symbols 
of peace and friendship. An Ethopian takes the robe of 
another and ties it about his own waist, leaving his friend 
partially naked. In a cold climate this would not be very 
agreeable, not to speak of the loss of time it implies. 
Sometimes it is usual for persons to adopt the unseemly 
practice of presenting themselves naked before those whom 
tiiey salute, as a sign of humility. This custom was put 


in practice before Sir Joseph Banks, when he received the 
visit of two Otaheitan females. The inhabitants of the 
Philippine Islands take the hand or foot of the person they 
salute, and gently rub their faces with it, which is, at all 
events, more agreeable than the salute of the Laplanders, 
who have a habit of rubbing noses, applying their own 
proboscis with some degree of force to that of the person 
they desire to salute. This custom had its origin, no doubt, 
in the feeling of comfort that the Laplander feels in the 
friction of the nose as a restorative of the warmth neces- 
sary to prevent the nasal organ from freezing. In Arabia, 
and all Mohammedan countries, inferiors in rank always 
kiss, or attempt to kiss the hand of a superior; equals 
embrace each other by putting cheek to cheek, as their 
thoroughbred horses do. In addressing their fellow-mus- 
sulmans, they use the common Eastern salutation, " Es- 
sald'm" " Aleikum," which simply means, " God save you," 
or, "Peace from Allah!" Hence the Mohammedans dislike 
to use this salutation to Christians ; and the Christians 
dislike it, as being a recognition of the faith of Mahomet. 
In formal visits among them, a good deal of etiquette is 
observed all over the Islam countries. Subjects are not 
allowed to sit in the presence of the Imam or Sultan. The 
higher classes sit cross-legged, like our tailors, while 
receiving company, and the inferiors sit upon their heels 
during an audience. In Christian countries the ordinary 
modes of salutation are bowing, curtsying, raising the 
hat, kissing the hand, and shaking hands. The passing 
salute of gentlemen on the continent of Europe, is the 
raising of the hat; of gentlemen meeting ladies of their 
acquaintance, to bow and then raise the hat; but if inti- 
mate, and stopping to speak with the lady, the bow, the 
raising of the hat, and then the shaking hands, or defer- 
entially stooping and kissing the hand of the lady in an 
easy, gentle, graceful manner, scarcely touching it with the 


lips. The graceful bend of the gentleman's body is the 
chief thing to be studied. In England and her dependen- 
cies, the hand-kissing is not adopted except on very 
important ceremonial occasions, such as presentations to 
Her Majesty on levee and drawing-room days, and giving 
audiences, or making important crown appointments to 
office. The universal salute, however, adopted in all the 
most highly civilized Christian countries, is the shake 
hands. On this universal mode of salutation and adieu, 
we purpose here to make some observations, especially 
respecting its almost unmistakable test of character. 

Almost every shade of friendly feeling is expressed by 
the shaking of hands. Let it be carefully kept in mind, 
however, that the shake-hands, on meeting a friend or an 
acquaintance, is the truer test of permanent character than 
the good-by shake. It is quite natural that the adieu- 
grasp of the hand should be affected by the conversation 
or words of greeting, and will vary in warmth and hearti- 
ness with the elevation or deoression of the feelings during 
the interview. 

This friendly custom must have commenced at a very 
early period of our history, but we have no hint in Scripture 
that this mode of salutation was practised in patriarchal 
or Christian times in the east. The earliest notices of 
such practice are found about the time of the second Crusade 
(A.D. 1144-). The customs of salutation in patriarchal 
times were, bowing low, prostration, and kissing. The 
introduction of coats-of-mail armour rendered these primi- 
tive modes of salutation impossible. Hence the martial 
men adopted the plan of touching hands as a token of 
good will; and thus the touching or shaking hands became 
general; for the manners of military men have ever been 
considered models. The performance of this act of 
courtesy and good- will ought to engage the special 
attention of every one who wishes to please, as well 


as to comprehend the characters of those with whom ho 
comes in contact. 

It ought to be always kept in mind that while in the act 
of shaking hands one should look into the face of the 
person whose hand is grasped, were it but for a moment 
There is much delicacy of feeling expressed in the manner 
of grasping the hand. The thumb should be gently but 
firmly pressed upon the back of the hand you grasp for a 
moment only, if the meeting is casual; but after long 
absence, and in proportion to the former feeling and inti- 
macy, the hand may be held for a proportionate length of 
time, and relinquished after a second delicate and meaning 

The varieties of shaking hands, the peculiarities of clasp 
ing the hands; the expression of the eyes; the motion or 
toss of the head ; the inclination of the body, all tell a tale 
of character on the one hand, and respect for others on the 
other side of the clasped hands. 

One man gives you a warm, cordial, hearty grasp, looks 
you straight in the face, with a pleasant, open smile, and 
shakes your hand up and down, withdrawing his after a 
second earnest gentle pressure. With scarcely an excep- 
tion you will find such a man an honest, earnest, and true 
friend. On the contrary, the man who gives the wagging, 
horizontal, millhopper shake, and lets slip your hand as if 
it were soapy or oily, will almost certainly be found selfish, 
cunning, and deceitful, ready to sell you the moment he 
can realize a dollar by the transaction. He will certainly 
prove an idle, selfish, and shiftless person. Be warned to 
have no dealings or intercourse with persons of this stamp. 
Sooner or later you will repent, should you fall into the 
snare. Now you encounter the speculator, or man of 
various occupations, sometimes requiring sudden and irre- 
gular attention. His shake-hands is hurried, indicating 
mergy, haste, hurry, and the necessity for rapid decision 


in pursuit of his selfish aims. The speculator-shake may 
be further characterized by the perpendicular or the wag- 
ging shake, which will of course modify your estimate of 
the trust to be reposed in him. A quick shake or wag 
and sudden letting go the hand indicate a high temper and 
cold heart. Then, again, there are those who give the 
unmeaning touch, in a very lack-a-daisical manner, and 
never look you in the face. This is generally the charac- 
teristic shake of the fair-weather acquaintances, the casual 
friend loose fish, as the Cockney calls them. As long as 
you sport a diamond or ruby ring, gold watch and chain, 
or have your shell made by the court tailor, and can shew 
a good balance at your banker's they will associate with 
you in a snobbish, friendly manner; but let reverses come, 
and then you test the swells of the unmeaning, namby- 
pamby touch and horizontal wag. 

Want of self-confidence is mostly the cause of the timid, 
diffident hand salutation of the youthful maiden. Let 
your similar salute to such be courteous, frank, and kindly 
impressive, with that degree of freedom that will inspire 
trust and respect, but not so off-hand as to excite fear or 
mistrust. Such persons, in the middle and lower classes of 
society, rather like -and admire an easy, jolly, outspoken 
man, provided always, that in all his free and easy salute 
and address there is the transparent expression of respect 
and esteem for the diffident maiden. Reserve and shyness 
is at a discount before their counter. It is, as they feel 
already, the article with which they are overstocked. A 
prudish shake evinces affectation in a repulsive degree. All 
persons of honest intentions and noble good-will thoroughly 
detest affectation, and never, by any chance, attempt it. It 
is a gratuitous intimation that those who assume the 
affected manner are willing to be liable to be taken for what 
they really are worthless, transparent hypocrites. When 
thrown 'in to their society, one should oast off all restraint. 


and assume a free and easy manner, and not deign to 
notice .their affectation, but by every means plainly shew 
that you are incapable of catching the infection from them. 
Remember that affectation is the lowest recommendation 
you could carry into good society. You may just as well 
take plated dollars to the Treasury. Both are spurious 
coin, and alike suspicious as a circulating medium. Neither 
of them has the ring of the genuine character. No doubt, 
you have often heard of the luckless servant girl who was 
asked about her character, and naively answered, that she 
always carried it in her pocket. 

Another and vary common kind of person you may 
often meet, who, seeing you hold out your hand, also, by 
way of imitation holds out his, but with no other intention 
than that you should, if you choose, lay hold of the four 
loose fingers and either squeeze or let them drop, as you 
please. Just as there is no meaning or expression in his 
digital salute, neither is there character in the man. If you 
do, by way of experiment, give his limb a shake while you 
hold on by the four meaningless daddies, you have about 
the same sympathetic pleasure that may be experienced 
in shaking a dish cloth. Instinctively 3*011 conclude, even 
before the operation is over, no matter how brief, that he or 
she has no distinctive character. By way of refreshing 
contrast, let us think how delightfully inspiriting it is to 
experience the warm, hearty, cordial grasp of a true friend 
whose whole soul is, for the moment, in his hand and eye; 
he is sure, in his hearty and honest earnestness, to retain 
your hand for a second squeeze and additional wag. This 
class of shake is found to accompany true friendship as fully 
divested of selfishness as it is possible to expect. When 
you meet such natures, court their friendship and render 
yourself worthy of their confidence. 

When men grasp your hand and look away from you, 
their regard for you is so trifling that you had better leave 


a blank leaf in your diary than write all you know or 
might learn of their true character. Could you only see 
their hearts you might perceive that significant little motto 
self indelibly stamped all over that vital organ. 

Those who keep the arm or elbow close to the side while 
shaking hands, may be found to add deference to the expres- 
sion of friendly regard, while reserve characterizes every 
feeling, and freezes the stream that otherwise might gush 
from their timid, uncertain, cautious souls. 

Low bowing, while in the act of shaking hands, or while 
approaching to do so, if done naturally, indicates respect- 
ful deference. But observe that the hand is not worth 
grasping, when the tips of the fingers only are offered in 

In shaking hands, until recently, when thin, tight, kid 
gloves became the thing in common wear by gentlemen, as 
well as ladies, it was the fashion to pull off the glove, even 
in the street, before shaking hands, or to apologize for 
retaining it on the hand. This having become so awkward 
on suddenly meeting a friend, it has become now almost 

The giving one finger in shaking hands is not to be 
tolerated in well-bred society, unless the hand is deformed 
or has been wounded, so that pressure might prove injurious. 
Should such rudeness be offered you, the best and quietest 
manner of reproving it is to present your own corresponding 
finger, but without touching the proffered unidigit. 

Finally, let the whole hand, cordially extended, with the 
thumb upwards, give a firm, whole-souled, cheering, and 
friendly, expressive token of your inner feelings of love, 
gratitude, and sympathy towards a noble and generous 
being who has been formed in the image of the Creator. 
But avoid affectation as a greater enemy to the countenance 
than small-pox. This, with strained allusions and disgust- 
ing finery, are easily attained by those who are mean 


enough to wear them; they are but too frequently the 
badges of ignorance or of stupidity, whenever it would 
endeavour to please. Everybody knows that vanity and 
affectation are mother and daughter. Vanity is the sin, 
and affectation the punishment. Vanity is only fully 
developed when it blows into affectation, and then it is 
complete. Locke, the philosopher, says: "Affectation in 
any part of our carriage is lighting up a candle to our 
defects, and never fails to be taken notice of, either as 
wanting sense or wanting sincerity." 

" In man or woman, bat far most in man, 
And most of all in man that ministers 
And serves the altar, in my soul I loathe 
All affectation ; 'tis my perfect scorn ; 
Object of my implacable disgust." COWPEH. 

" All affectation is vain and ridiculous ; it is the attempt of poverty to 
appear rich. " LAVATBK. 

SARAH J. LIPPIKCOTT, or " Grace Greenwood," a truly able and pop- 
nlar American writer, who has done much to develop the friendly and 
social qualities of the young readers of her works. 


" Nothing is more significant of men's character than what they find 
laughable. " GOETHE. 

LAUGHTER, like weeping, is a sign of emotion which is 
confined to the human species. 

The old proverbs, " Laugh and mend," and " Sorrow and 
die," intimate a true physiological principle, for few things 
are more injurious to the body than grief, or more healthful 
than laughter. Prolonged and hearty laughing has a 
tendency to promote the secretions and open the pores. 
It stimulates the whole glandular system, starts the per- 
spiration, and increases the peristaltic motion of the bowels, 
so that those who indulg3 in frequent cachinnations are 
rarely troubled either with constipation or indigestion. 

There are people who, from some mistaken idea of 
gentility, never condescend to laugh, yet Count D'Orsay, 
who in matters of taste was certainly an authority, said 
that " to laugh well is the sign of a cultivated gentleman." 
But even without his testimony, or that of any other man 
of social rank, we might rest assured that laughter cannot 
be intrinsically unrefined, since it has the mother mark 
of nature, and has, moreover, this to its fortune, that it 
contributes to good health. If a gentleman is never to 
laugh at all, because some clown laughs coarsely at coarse 
: oker, then he ought never to eat at all, since there are 
alwuvi vulganans who gluttonize. Who that hns heard 


the joyous, liugtng laughter of childhood, or the rich, 
sweet ? vwriment that ripples from the throat of a culti- 
vated Mroman, could wish this sign of amusement to be 
relegated to the kitchen or the bear garden ? 

If people laugh coarsely and disgustingly, it is because 
they are coarse and disgusting, but as their minds and 
manners improve, their sense of humour will be corres- 
pondingly refined, and their laugh, like their voice, ex- 
pression, and gesture, will assume a sweetness and nobility 
unknown before. 

There are exceptional cases in which the smile is so 
ready, expressive, and varied, that laughter could add 
nothing to the humorous charm of the manner, however 
much it might contribute to the bodily health. This was 
the case with Henry Clay, who seldom laughed, but whose 
rich smile left little or nothing to be desired. Persons 
who neither smile nor laugh are usually fit for "treason, 
stratagem, and spoils." Blackhawk, who was never known 
to laugh, was one of the most blood-thirsty villains that 
ever led a tribe of savages to deeds of violence. The 
closing of the eyes, or squinting during laughter, is con- 
sidered very ugly and underbred, but it is a sure sign of a 
jolly and whole-souled nature. 

For convenience, I will consider the laugh as guttural, 
nasal, love-smitten, cheering, and hypocondriac. The former, 
which for some inexplicable reason is often described as 
the horse laugh, evidences strength of the passions as well 
as of the constitution. It indicates excellent lung power, and 
coming as it does forcefully from the chest, seems to be 
peculiarly beneficial to the physique. As a rule, the less 
subtile!} 7 intellectual the kind of wit or humour which is the 
occasion of a laugh, the more it agitates, and by conse- 
quence, stimulates the budily organs. The coarse guttural 
j'augh, based as it is upon coarse humour, is the ordinary 
laugh of the negroes, who usually onjoy good digestion, 


with strong assimilating powers. Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut people seldom have this laugh, and dyspepsia ia 
as common among them as is fever and ague among the 

The nasal or te-he laugh indicates feeble passions and 
light intellectual calibre. It is a kind of cachinnation so 
weak, so drivelling, and so unmeaning, as to be an offence 
to every cultivated ear. 

People who have been disappointed in love's young 
dream, begin to laugh with some degree of spirit, but break 
off suddenly as though they had just remembered the awful 
nature of their visitation. Love disappointments depress 
the health as well as the heart, and whatever influences the 
health must affect the whole system, and with it the 
character of the laugh. 

The ho-ho, or cheerful laugh, commonly evinces hopeful- 
ness and health, and hence it usually characterizes persons 
of the Thoracic form, who have ruddy cheeks and sparkling 
eyes. Such laughers are averse to a sedentary life; joyous 
and sunny, they see the rose-tint in every cloud, and 
although they may be crushed for a moment by disappoint- 
ment, they are readily consoled and re-inspirited. 

All hypocondriacs have a harsh and despondent laugh, 
which is sometimes more disheartening than a good honest 
groan. They usually commence their lugubrious- merriment 
on a high key, and then descend, step by step, until they 
conclude with a deep, grave-yard grunt, which it is truly 
afflicting to hear. Those who have this manner of laughing, 
always see mountains, or quicksands, or savage beasts in 
their pathway to the city of fortune. They disparage every 
enterprise, and esteem no one but themselves true sons of 
the prophets. 

Unrestrained and wholly meaningless laughter 'is on o* 
the most obvious and repulsive indications of imbecility. 

The English, who are noted for their good living and 


stio&g digestive powers, are also hearty and frequent 
laughers. When a joke is thrown out before an English 
audience, they roar and roar again, until the whole assembly 
is convulsed with mirth ; but the man who has the hardi- 
hood to perpetrate a jest for the applause of the Scotch or 
New-Englanders, will see it sink like a stone into the water 
below the Niagara Suspension Bridge it will fall "ker 
chug," and that will be the end of it. 

TOM HARRIS, an indiscreet and imitative man, half Indian and half 
Negro. This face presents, in its phenomenally wide mouth, the very 
best example of large animal imitation, a quality of mind described on 
page 126 in this book. Tom Harris was employed in a music hall in 
London, England, twenty-five years to imitate musical instruments with 
his mouth. 


AMONG the many evidences of character, whether physical 
or mental, few are more certain than those derived fiom the 

This natural covering is a modification of the epidermis 
cuticle, or scarf-skin, which contains neither vessels nor 
nerves, but forms a horny layer over the cutis, or true skin. 
It is thus accounted for that hair may be found more or less 
on every part of the human body, except the palms of the 
hands and the soles of the feet; the horny matter on those 
parts is all employed in constituting the epidermis, which is 
thicker there than on any other part of the body, because of 
the greater exposure to pressure and friction. 

Every ordinary hair consists of two principal parts; the 
shaft, which projects beyond the surface, and the bulb, 
which is rooted in the true skin. When examined under a 
microscope, the bulb is found to contain minute cells, some 
of which are loaded with pigment or colouring matter, but 
all of which are abruptly condensated into hard fibres on 
rising into the shaft. This shaft is of true cylindrical form 
in hair which lies straight, but a trarsverse section of a 
wavy or curly hair appears somewhat oval. The colour of 
the hair seems to depend on a peculiar oil, which can be 
seen coursing through the central hollow, and serving, as it 
comes to the surface, to lubricate and soften the outer por- 
tion of the hair and skin. The wavy, transverse lines that 
appear on the outside are due to the single outermost layer 

HAIR. 401 

of cells, which overlap each other. The bulbous root of the 
human hair, very nearly resembles that of some plants; 
and doubtless the nourishment which affords material for 
the constant growth of the hair, is derived from the body 
much in the same way as plants are nourished by the soil. 

The peculiar characteristic in hair, that first and chiefly 
{strikes the eye, is its colour; but we have also tor consider 
whether it is straight or curly, coarse or fine, long or short, 
abundant or scanty. 

Certain races of men have no variety of hair colouring; 
it is, and appears to have been for ages, the same; and this 
is generally black. No other is to be found among the 
American Indians or the pure Africans; and very rarely are 
lighter hues to be seen in those Asiatic races usually called 
Mongols and Malays. Variety of colour belongs pre- 
eminently to the Caucasian, or as some call it, the Japetic 
that is, the white variety of the human species. One 
parent may have black hair and the other flaxen; while 
their children have brown. Such variety is sure evidence 
of civilization, as also is difference of complexion; it is the 
non-progressive races that transmit the same colour both of 
skin and hair from generation to generation. It is natural 
to expect that the colour of the hair should correspond with 
the complexion of the skin ; because its roots, being planted 
in the cutis, derive their nourishment and colouring matter 
from the same substance which there contributes to form 
the complexion. 

Also, the same climatic influences that act upon the skin, 
operate on the hair, causing it to be light or dark. The 
lighter shades are met with chiefly in mountainous regions; 
the darker in warm, low-tying countries. There are more 
fair-haired children in the mountains of California than in 
any other part of the world that we have visited. Light 
hair is common, also, in the Highlands of Scotland, and the 
mountains of Sweden. Even among the Negroes there are 


402 HAIR. 

specimens of lighter hair in the more elevated districts, 
while the low lands of Guinea present only black. Red is 
common in the elevated region of the Alps; while black 
is the predominant colour at the foot of those mountains. 
The intermarriage of various races in temperate climates 
goes to produce varieties of colour in the hair. Black 
absorbs all the rays of light and heat; but white conveys 
them without loss to the interior. The hare, the ermine, 
and some other animals turn white in winter; and if this 
is caused by the cold, it is likewise a certain protection 
against it, besides rendering these animals more secure from 
their enemies, by the assimilation of their fur to the sur- 
rounding snow. 

Among ourselves, red hair has usually been considered 
an evidence of quick temper; and doubtless this holds 
good as a general rule ; yet many cases might be cited in 
which red-haired persons have been very amiable, and 
throughout a life-time have not been known to exhibit 
angry passions. This colour, however, may be taken as 
sure evidence of an active form ; if curliness is added, it 
indicates an intense organization, and a disposition to 
ardent love. Very coarse red hair is a sign of propensities 
much too animal. 

Auburn is indicative of a kindly and sympathetic nature, 
with much capacity for Platonic love. Fine brown hair 
is found only on persons of excellent minds, and generally 
intellectual tendencies ; so, beautiful golden hair is rarely 
observed in individuals of gross and sensual natures. Such 
are fond of children; they love the fine arts, and generally 
have exqufsite sensibilities, so that one need never fear a 
person with pleasant golden or auburn locks, regularly 
disposed and curled; for they bespeak a high standard of 
intelligence and kindliness. We know not whethei it was 
from an appreciation of these symptomatic qualities, or 
from mere taste or caprice, that golden hair came to be all 

HATH 403 

the rage in France a short time ago ; so that many ladies 
who could not bring their own hair to this colour, procured 
artificial locks at any expense. 

Glossy black hair, inclined to be wavy or curly, evinces 
keen perceptions, and usually a cautious, secretive nature. 
As a general rule, straight hair accompanies persons who go 
straight in walking, and whose bodies exhibit straight lines 
and angles, rather than curves and round turns. The 
mental character will be found to correspond; the curly- 
headed people are the more sinuous people, and hence the 
expression, " a straight-haired boy," meaning that he is 
honest and reliable, moving straight in his conduct, so that 
you know where to find him. Straight black hair evinces 
more or less stolidity, with a wiry constitution; and the 
same colour, if very coarse and curly, denotes much irrita- 
bility, not without stupidity. Curly black hair, however, 
accompanied with blue eyes and fair skin, may be taken 
as indicating an excellent mind and good moral tendencies. 
Such were Dr. Lyman Beecher's characteristics. His black 
hair seemed to stand up bristling and curling on his fore- 
head, to bespeak his great intensity of mind and clearness 
of thought; while the blue eye and white skin forbade 
one to associate with him those characteristics that 
are apt to attend such hair with black eyes and coarse 
dark skin. 

The black hair of the Asiatic Mongolians, and the various 
tribes of Polynesians and American Indians, is generally 

Filament of WooL Negro Hair. 

straight and lank; that of the Negroes, Hottentots, and 
other African families is usually crisp and woolly. The 

404 HAIR. 

African head has been considered as being covered with a 
species of wool rather than true hair. But Dr. Pritchard 
having carefully examined a number of hairs from the Negro 
as well as other races, in comparison with the wool of a 
Southdown sheep, reports that a filament of wool has a 
serrated or jagged surface, whereas the Negro hair appears 
only imbricated. It is for this reason that though hair will 
entangle to a certain extent, it will not felt into a compact 
mass like good wool. 

The black, . which is the predominating colour of human 
hair, is found by chemical analysis to depend on the pre- 
sence of iron; while the lighter colours exhibit more sulphur. 
It is found that black-haired men can work in iron with- 
out injurious consequences, whereas the blood of light-haired 
persons has so little affinity for this metal, that handling 
it too much produces disease, from the infinitesimal par- 
ticles insinuating themselves into their systems. 

The grayness of hair in old age, arising from a deficient 
secretion of pigment, appears natural enough, when all the 
corporeal powers are weakened. But no one has satisfac- 
torily explained how it is that hair has turned gray or even 
quite white in a single night under the influence of fear or 
distress. It has been suggested that some fluid, perhaps 
an acid, is in such cases secreted at the bulb, and perco- 
lating the hair, has destroyed the colouring matter. But 
how mental excitement should produce such fluid, appears 
still a secret. 

We have had occasion to allude to the texture of hair 
in connection with some shades of colour. It may be 
further observed that coarse hair indicates strength of 
constitution and a courageous temper, while tine bespeaks 
weakness of physique, with sympathetic susceptibilities, 
unusual care, timidity, and withal, vivacity. The wild 
boar, which has been known to turn upon a dozen hunters, 
and the lion, which will attack a whole herd of elephants 

HAIR. 405 

or buffaloes, are good examples of strong coarse hair in 
connection with physical strength and courage. On the 
other hand, animals weaving fine soft hair are timid and 
active, fleeing at the first appearance of danger. The deer 
and the rabbit may be cited as well-known examples. 

Even the finest hair is strong and elastic, hence it is used 
to make fishing tackle, also to stuff beds, seats, &c. When 
dry, it is easily rendered electrical; but it attracts moisture 
readily from the atmosphere, and doubtless from the body 
also. When it was the fashion in this country for females 
to curl their hair artificially, twisting it in paper over night 
was usually sufficient, but a damp morning would oblige 
them to use hot irons before making their appearance in 
the eveniu^. 

Among different races there are great differences as to 
the quantity of hair that grows on the body. The northern 
Asiatics, and the American Indians are noted for thin hair 
and scanty beards; while in the Kurilian race there are 
individuals with hair growing down the back, and covering 
almost the whole body. Some years ago a hairy lady 
understood to be from Mexico, was exhibited in London, 
and her body was embalmed after death as a curiosity. 
The whole of the face, except the eyes, was covered with 
hair of different lengths. That on the head was straight, 
black, bristly, and very thick. The ears and the back of 
the neck were hairy, and the hairs on the shoulders and 
legs were a abundant as they are sometimes seen on very 
powerful men. 

A heavy head of hair is considered a great ornament 
to a woman. Whatever the reason, the hair of Irish 
females, especially those of humble class, seems to grow 
much more luxuriantly than that of either the English or 
Scotch. Besides its undeniable beauty, abundance of hair 
is a pretty sure sign of a good constitution, and full or 
large animal propensities. Wendell Phillips and Horace 

406 HAIR. 

Greely are more intellectual than animal; they have very 
little hair. 

At the International Exhibition of 1862, there was a 
beautiful specimen of hair, understood to be British, jet 
black, and measuring seventy-four inches in length. We 
are not informed of what length that lady's hair was, of 
whom a Persian poet of the tenth century has sung: 

"At dead of night, 

The bridegroom, with his locks of light, 
Came in the flush of love and pride, 
And scaled the terrace of his bride, 
When as she saw him rashly spring, 
And midway up in danger cling, 
She flung him down her long black hair, 
Exclaiming breathless, 'There, love, there!'" 

But we are glad to learn that he fixed his crook in a 
projecting beam, instead of accepting her self-sacrificing 

When the hair grows low down on the forehead, it is 
evidence of a good constitution and long-lived ancestry. 
A peak coming down on the centre of the forehead is con- 
nected with honesty of purpose, excellent observing powers, 
and, it must be added, fractious tempers. Andrew Jackson 
had this peak well marked. His high regard for his honour 
has rarely been equalled; and his temper was as waspish 
as that of a fractious horse, in which the same shaped peak 
of hair is observable. 

Nature supplies whatever is necessary for the preserva- 
tion of life in the circumstances in which she places either 
races of men, or species of animals. She invests most cf 
the quadrupeds with a thicker coat of hair in the autumn 
and causes them to shed it in spring, when it is no longer 
required. Furs obtained in northern climates are, it is 
well known, much thicker than those of the temperate 
and torrid zones. The beaver, removed to warm latitudes, 
exchanges its fur, and the sheep its wool for coarse hair. 

HAIR. 407 

suitable to the altered circumstances. On the other hand, 
the bear exhibits coarse black hair in moderate climates, 
but is clad with the finest white fur in the arctic regions. 
This increase of hair is produced by the effect of cold in 
obstructing the perspiration; for the matter which would 
otherwise have been emitted through the pores of the skin, 
is formed into hair. A warm climate, by relaxing the 
system and opening the pores, allows this matter to escape 
before it can be concreted into the substance of hair. 
Persons who produce but scanty hair and whiskers are 
best adapted to live in warm climates. They manufacture 
less animal heat than those whose systems afford a profuse 
growth of hairy matter. 

Certain specific diseases occasion the hair to fall off, and 
no external washes will reproduce it in such case ; nothing 
will do but the purification of the blood. Such disease has 
been very prevalent in America since the war; and in 
France, since the thirteen years of almost ceaseless warfare 
that preceded the banishment of the first Napoleon to the 
island of St. Helena. Some families, or portions of families, 
inherit a weakness of cutaneous blood circulation, which 
causes them to lose their hair at a comparatively early 
period of life. The effect of typhoid fever in causing the 
hair to fall, is familiar to every one; but it is not so gener- 
ally known that a hard hat may operate in the same 
manner, though in a less degree, by its pressure on the 
veins which return the blood from the scalp, thus causing 
a feverish action in the integument of the head. In the 
theatres of New York, London, Paris, Berlin, and other 
cities, one sees hundreds of young men who wear dress 
silk hats, and are more or less bald. Smoking tobacco is 
undoubtedly another cause of baldness, the nerves of the 
skin being paralyzed by the fumes curling round the head 
day after day continually. O tobacco! where are thy 
charms? Broken constitutions, nervous shadows of man- 

408 HA.TR. 

hood, hypochondriacal dyspeptics echo " Where?" and it 
seems almost an impertinence to mention bald heads in 
the same category with the graver evils resulting from 
this baneful practice. Dear youth of our land, be per- 
suaded never to use it no, never! While you read these 
lines vow to yourself never to begin its use; but if you 
have already commenced, resolve to be its slave no longer 
no, nor its companion. Say " good bye tobacco, thou and I 
part here for ever." 

Fifty or sixty years ago. Kowland's Macassar Oil was the 
thing for promoting the growth of the hair; scarce any 
other was known; and so firm was its hold on the public, 
that though the article itself has fallen into disuse, the 
coverings which are to save our easy-chairs from grease are 
called anti-macassars. Now the nostrums for saving the 
hair, patented and unpatented, may be numbered by hun- 
dreds, if not thousands. Among them all, however, there 
is none to be preferred to a good stiff brush, which, 
diligently applied, stimulates the scalp to healthy action, 
and to pour out the oil which nature itself has wisely 

"JENNIE JUNE," a highly interesting, varied, terse, and voluminous 
writer for the popular press of America. 


BEHOLD that beautiful child with its dimpled chin, cheeks, 
and round nose, and what could one imagine more lov- 
able. Pure Platonic love 
is there personified in 
truth. Dimpled chins are 
ever found to be concomi- 
tant with warmth of soul 
feelings, love of society, 
and happy natures. 

All things in nature 
correspond and harmonize, 
and when the chin is 
dimpled the entire flesh 
of the body and face in- 
clines to partake of the 
dimpled nature. The but- 
tock of a child often will 
have dimples, as well as 
its legs, arms, breast, and 
neck, all evincing the 
merry and loving soul. When one dimple is seen, we at 
once draw the inference that the tendency of that whole 
system is to partake of the same character. 

Superabundance of adipose tissue, with small bones and 
weuk muscles, will so round out the form as to give it the 

Love, Faith, Intuition, and Innocence. 


dimply nature. These dimples will be found to shew them- 
selves in the places where fat is least laid on, and by the 
filling up in the more natural places of deposit will leave 
dimples. Such persons as those of a dimpled nature will 
be naturally lovable, good-natured, fond of being petted, 
and extremely musical in soul. 

Rarely do we see dark-complexioned people much dimpled. 
This agreeable peculiarity is more apt to accompany blue 
eyes, florid or blond complexion, and well rounded forms. 
You might as well look for lightning in winter, in temperate 
climates, or for grapes on the oak, as for dimples on some 
forms. Those lank, tall, and spare people, who are naturally 
so, and have always been thin, and ever will remain so, do 
not afford evidences of dimpled natures. Neither Abraham 
Lincoln nor the Duke of Wellington partook of this char- 
acter. Lincoln shewed no particular devotion to music; 
and the Duke once remarked that no music was so sweet as 
a hundred cannons in full play (when you were in safe 
distance). They were built more on the angular shape, and 
neither shewed a fondness for being petted ; but more freely 
bestowed than invited it from others. Principle, with them, 
seemed to surmount all other traits of character. 

Large-boned persons rarely or never have the same warm, 
social nature as those who are more fleshy, with less frame- 
work. They are not so readily thrilled in every fibre of 
their beings with music, as people who have small bones, 
good muscles, and a large supply of blood and vital life. 

A pebble cast into a lake, makes its further shore feel a 
ripple for that pebble; while, if it were thrown upon a 
solid rock, its influence ceases with its fall. Thus we see 
how persons who have much liquid and less solid parts of 
body are more easily affected and influenced by musical 
air-waves and social heart-beatings than the bony or, so to 
speak, rocky person. Such people as have large bones are 
more able to withstand the influences of peoples or com- 


umnities than those having more of fibre and cellular 
tissue, and less of the osseous structure. There is no douht 
that the small man or woman who so readily bends, in 
something like the French style of affability about you, is 
more controllable by the mind of another, and is more the 
creature of circumstances than the tall, raw-boned indi- 
vidual who uses no blandishments." 

Washington, who stood six feet and three inches high, 
could handle two common men, and possessed strength and 
agility sufficient to jump twenty-two feet at a single leap, 
proved himself not the man to be controlled, even by his 
powerful British relations. Lincoln, who was six feet and 
several inches high, and was possessed of well-strengthened 
muscles and bones by early physical labour, when all the 
North were clamouring for the issue of the Emancipation 
Proclamation, stood like a rock, uninfluenced, waiting the- 
appropriate time dictated by his cool spirit, and sanctioned 
by his judgment. 

Men who stand pre-eminent in the world's history as great 
and self-reliant heroes, statesmen, and noted personages, 
have all had solid and heavy bones, where they have not 
been of more than average stature. That self-willed and 
ambitious man, by some known as the Great Napoleon, had 
a rough, bony face, much unlike the popular prints we 
often see in shop-windows, which, for the most part, are 
the flattering and insipid efforts of pandering artists, result- 
ing in smooth-faced oil burlesques on the wilful character 
and face of the erst would-be king-maker and dictator of 
Europe. A gentleman, who was once an English soldier, 
and stood guard over Napoleon on the Island of St. Helena, 
has assured us, that " all the pictures and paintings of 
Napol&m are too smooth-faced, as he had the largest jaw I 
ever saw; large nose, massive head, with very little hair 
on it, and his beard was so thick, that when recently shaven 
it gave the skin a blue cast. His eyes were light-blue, 



and when roused, they spoke of a master-spirit. His 
general facial expression was very bony and masculine." 
No dimples ever graced his person. His spirit loved war, 
and powerful commotion, and terrible struggles, better than 
the social influence of children, wife (whom he so cruelly 
divorced to gain power), music, or home. What an indomi- 
table spirit he possessed; and how little influence friends 
and the world had upon him, history and those who knew 
him best can attest. His pulse gave only about forty beats 
per minute, shewing how little action the soft parts of the 
body had, and his character gives evidence of wonderful 
power and recuperative nature arising from short, thick, 
and heavy bones. Julius Csesar and Alexander were each 
bony and angular men, and how little they were influenced 
by, and how much they moved the world of mankind. 
Hannibal and Scipio, whose legions and force of character 
moved the masses, were powerful in bone structure. Leoni- 
das, whose braves drove the hordes, a hundred to one, 
before them, was inspired by the master-spirit, who was 
full of muscle and well set in bone. 

A great law of nature is, that things are moved most 
which have material most easily acted upon, and as soft 
tissues and blood material are more easily acted upon than 
bones, so it naturally follows that men, partaking of the 
character of their bodies, are more solid in mind, and unin- 
fluenced, if the bony structure predominates in their 
systems; whereas the dimply form (being only signs of a 
superabundance of fatty tissues) gives evidences of char- 
acter easily influenced by all nature's forces. They are 
pleasant creatures of circumstances, loved by every positive 
and bony person as they naturally smooth and brighten the 
rough pathway of life. The following verses, and especially 
the last one, gives a very good idea where lasting dimples 



' Over the cradle a mother hung, 

Softly crooning a slumber song; 
And these were the simple words she sung 
All the evening long : 

" Cheek or chin, or knuckle or knee, 
Where shall the baby's dimple bet 
Where shall the angel's n'nger rest 
When he comes down to the baby's nest? 
Where shall the angel's touch remain 
When he awakens my babe again? 

* Still as she bent and sang so low, 

A murmur into her music broke 
And she paused to hear, for slie could but kno^ 
The baby's angel spoke : 

" Cheek or chin, or knuckle or knee, 
Where shall the baby's dimple be? 
Where shall my n'nger fall and rest 
When T come down to the baby's nestV 
Where shall my finger's touch remain 
When I awaken your child again? 

* Silent the mother sat, and dwelt 

Long in the sweetest delay of choice ; 
And then by her baby's side she knelt, 
And sang with pleasant voice : 

Not on the limb. angel dear ! 
For the charm with its youth will disappeat i 
Not on the cheek shall the dimple be, 
For the harbouring smile will fade and flee ; 
But touch thou the chin with an impress deey 
And my baby the angel's seal shall keep." 


IN modern times we use the word miser and miserly, only 
to stigmatize the self-inflicted poverty of the man who 
denies himself the good things of this life which he can 
well afford to purchase, but will not, because he prefers 
keeping his wealth in store. But the Latin word miser 
simply means poor or afflicted, and the other derivatives 
from it misery, miserable, &c., we still use in the larger 
sense, as once in our own language a miser meant any poor 
or afflicted person. 

We are to point out some of the physical developments, or 
rather non-developments of the man, who, as Bishop Herne 
describes him, "forthe sake of gathering what he will never 
use, and adding to his beloved heaps, will forego the comforts, 
the conveniences, and almost the necessaries of existence, 
and voluntarily submit, all his days, to the penances and 
austerities of a mendicant." 

Commence, then, by observing the general configuration 
of the man. Let him stand up, and look at him attentively. 
Examine the length and general largeness of the body. 
In early and middle life, a person of these tendencies may 
be of at least middle size, staight and agile. But in declin- 
ing years, the limbs, especially the lower ones, become con- 
tracted and the figure dwarfish. 

We know not whether the miser's figure in Nicholas 
Nickleby is a portrait, but a gentleman in London, whom 
we shall call Mi. Berno Pudici, might have sat for it. or 


rather stood; for it is a full-length figure, arid the resem- 
blance is most striking in the thin, crooked legs and con- 
tracted knees, though also apparent in the contour of the 
head and face. This Mr. Berno Pudici counted his wealth 
by hundreds of thousands ; there was no appearance of 
stint about his handsome dwelling; he gave away many 
hundreds of pounds every year, and had the reputation of 
being one of the most munificent Christians in England. 
Did one judge him a man of naturally niggardly disposition 
only because, in old age, he became personally so like 
Martin Chuzzlewit? No; though the most casual observer, 
uninstructed in Physiognomy, would instinctively have so 
judged him from his appearance, even if he had but seen 
him on a platform announcing a subscription of five hundred 
pounds. But a friend of ours happened to know a few facts 
about this profuse contributor to religious institutions. His 
house betrayed no meanness, because in early life he had 
married an open-handed lady, who kept him up to an expen- 
diture suited to his position. He gave largely, because he 
had in early life made it a rule to consecrate a certain 
portion of his gains, probably the tenth, to religious and 
charitable purposes. But this was as much a calculation 
of profit and loss as any other of his transactions. He 
believed most firmly that the Divine blessing had rested, 
and would rest on his affairs through his doing thus; and 
as matter of mere self-interest he would not have withheld 
the stipulated proportion. But he took care to get his 
money's worth in public praise. All his givings were in 
the shape of subscriptions to societies; and rather large 
sums to a few extensive ones, than a scattered bounty to 
many. If there was a private case of poverty or distress, 
it was no use applying to him. In matters which were not 
to appear prominently in print, he was often heard to 
grumble that he had to pay ; for, in truth, people seemed 
to delight in bleeding him. More than once, when it was 


announced that Mr. Pudici had promised to bear such and 
such expenses, the old gentleman might be seen fretting and 
fuming as if he were going to be ruined, and saying to 
those around him that he had promised no such thing. He 
was a singular, well-marked example of a man, at heart 
a miser, and carrying the tokens of it on his person, yet so 
controlled by circumstances that he obtained and delighted 
in the reputation of unusual liberality. 

Nature always contracts herself when she would avoid an 
excess of liberality. For example, when it rains bountifully, 
all the vegetable world enlarges and increases, so that the 
harvest is abundant. A dry summer is stingy. Vegetation 
shrinks and contracts for lack of rain, and nature econo- 
mizes the scanty fluids as best she can in bringing the 
grain and fruit to maturity. A similar process is observed 
in mankind. There are men full of sap, their bodies well 
supplied with the juices of life in all departments : like a 
rainy season, the life-giving waters largely preponderate in 
their constitutions. On the other hand, the opposite class 
exhibit all the attributes of a dry season. Parched and 
meagre, they look like beings whose juices have dried up 
within them. Thin, dry old maids, are always parsimoni- 
ous and covetous, mean and stingy. Beware of trusting 
them; they live in single unblessedness, probably because 
they have cheated some poor young man of his heart, and 
now they will cheat you of your money if they can. 

Miss Margaret Clephene seventy-six years of age, 
lives with several cats up four or five pair of stairs, in one 
of the old streets of Edinburgh. She is said to be rich, 
but she lives on charity, receiving ten pounds a-year from 
Trinity Hospital. The accompanying cut is from a drawing 
we got made while we conversed with her. Her poor old 
hands were dirty, because she could not afford soap to wash 
them. Her dress was miserably poor, but she has bettei 
for Sundays the cast-off garments of a relative. Margaret 



C. is not, in one respect at least, like the old maid we have 
described in this article. Margaret C.'s lover jilted her for 
a girl with more money. Such is often the more imme- 
diate cause of covetousness in elderly unmarried females. 

Miss Margaret Clephne. 

It is impossible for a man possessing plenty of nature's 
substance in his body, to be stingy and niggardly in his 
mental character. You cannot find one it is contrary to 

A figure merely deformed or dwarfed, indicates self- 



conceit; but it is the stiff, contracted, drawn-together 
expression of limb that betokens the miser. However 
observe the face especially. It has a mean, pinched-up 
appearance, the mouth generally, but not always, small, 
and the lips thin. Still more particularly examine the 
eyes. Abdominal eyes indicate a desire to live high, or 
rather, an anxiety to obtain something good to eat. The 
man addicted to gluttony will have a sleepy, heavy expres- 
sion, precisely similar to the eye of an anaconda, whose 
nature is to stuff to repletion, and then sleep off the effects 
for weeks at a time. Gormandizing stultifies and stupe- 
fies the brain and nerves; this dulls and deadens the 
intellect, and the process is betrayed through the medium 
of the eyes. In the eye of the miser, on the other hand, 
there is a dry appearance around it, and a fulness beneath, 
with a peculiar wrinkle of round form. 

In complexion and colour the same saving disposition 
may be observed. Niggardly persons generally have little 
colour in their faces. They are like pale, dried peaches, 
they either never had any bloom, or it has departed, yet 
they may never have been visited by sickness. Illness 
often extracts the colour from lips and cheeks, as leeches 
suck the life-blood; or as long drought absorbs the moisture 
of the earth, causing the ground to crack and grow parched 
and pale, the bright herbage to lose its green tints and 
fade into the sere brown. So the droughty, stingy, mer- 
cenary, niggardly spirit in man or woman steals away the 
bloom of the cheeks, pallors the countenance, blanches the 
lips, and dries the eye. Soul and body are cramped alike; 
the geniality of social life is stolen away, and all the traces 
of open-hearted generosity have disappeared from the 

In this cut, representing the celebrated miser, John Elwes, 
M.P. for Berkshire, you remark the features above 
described. He inherited the mansion and estate of Stoke, 


in Suffolkshire, from a miserly uncle, whose favour he won 
by always changing his ordinary dress for a meaner one be- 
fore reaching the house when he went to 
visit him. The young man learned to 
be even a greater niggard than his uncle. 
His public position as a Member of Par- 
liament required some appearance of re- 
spectability, and it seems he kept a pack 
of hounds; but one man-servant daily 
milked the cows, prepared breakfast, 
saddled the horses, unkennelled the John Elwea. 
hounds, conducted them to the chase, 
rubbed down the horses on their return, laid the cloth, 
waited the dinner-table, milked the cows again, and 
littered the horses for the night; yet Mr. Elwes stigmatized 
this man as an idle dog,, who wanted wages for doing 
no work. To save fuel in winter, he would walk in an old 
greenhouse, or sit in the kitchen; would collect stray chips 
and straw, or endanger his limbs by climbing for a crow's 
nest to make a fire. When he had to travel, he rode on 
horseback, avoiding all turnpikes and public-houses; feed- 
ing himself on hard boiled eggs and dry crusts which he 
carried with him, and allowing his horse only the grass 
that grew by the wayside. Yet he sometimes advanced 
large sums to assist his friends; sometimes also tried his 
luck at gambling, and honourably paid if he lost There 
was, as his appearance betokens, somewhat of gentlemanly 
feeling and self-respect about this niggard. He never 
married; but had two illegitimate sons, to whom he be- 
queathed 500,000. 

Another, and a much more degraded character, was Daniel 
Dancer, Esq., who died near London, in 1794, five years after 
Elwes. It is recorded that, during his last illness, Lady 
Tempest accidentally called upon him, and found him 
lying up to the neck in an old s:i :k, without even a shirt 



On her remonstrating, he said that, having come into the 
world without a shirt, he was determined to go out of 

it in the same manner. 
When she begged he 
would have a pillow 
to raise his head, he 
ordered his servant to 
bring a truss of hay for 
the purpose. He be- 
queathed his house, 
with land worth 500 
a-year to this lady; 
and when her brother 
took possession of it for 
her,he found, from time 
to time, large bowls 
filled with guineas and 
half-guineas, besides 
parcels of bank-notes 

stuffed under the corners of old chairs. The house had not 
been repaired for half a century, and was in a wretched 
condition. Mr. Dancer generally wore a girdle of hay to 
keep his tattered garments together; and his stockings had 
been so darned and patched that scarcely any of the original 
could be seen; but in cold weather they were covered with 
ropes of hay, which served for boots. Nevertheless, Mr. 
Dancer was rigidly upright in all his transactions, and 
would give temporary assistance to those of whom he had 
a good opinion ; always, however, expecting interest as well 
as repayment. His faithful and only servant fared much 
better than his master, having whatever he chose to eat 
and drink, and a good bed to sleep on. Mr. Dancer had a 
sister of temper similar to his own; and a brother, who 
survived him, was said to be, if possible, more penurious. 
You may remark that all over the face the wrinkles are 

Daniel Dancer, a miser and hermit 


short, save a peculiar and well-marked one situated under 
the eye. It has a striking fullness and clearness of develop- 
ment found only in such subjects, forming a complete semi- 
circle, yet totally different from the fulness which marks 
those persons that have a great flow of language. This 
round and very distinct furrow is not inappropriately 
designated the miser's wrinkle, for it is always well- 
marked in such subjects. All niggards are not dishonest, 
as we have seen, above, but men who are mean in their 
dealings, and prone to rascality in trade, are usually thus 

The characters of these two gentlemen are the more 
remarkable, because this excess of covetousness is not so 
often found in country squires, as in those engaged in 
trade and commerce. And it is worth while to take along 
with this remark, the fact that both of them were char- 
acterized by the integrity which in those days was expected 
from men in their position ; also that their only deviations 
from the general miserly rule, as occasional gambling and 
hunting, were unlike what would have been recorded of 
men whose money was made by buying and selling. 

It would be impossible to define and describe all the 
wrinkles to be found in miserly faces, for these vary accord- 
ing to the form, or combination of forms found in each 
individual case. But the grand distinctive mark of mean, 
miserly characters, is to be found in the strong rounding 
wrinkle under the eye. This will ever signalize the face of 
a niggard, as the union jack does the colours of a British man- 
of-war. All the other wrinkles will appear to be of an un- 
defined character, not well marked, seeming to have neither 
beginning nor ending, but dying out gradually at either 
extremity, and thus continuing all over the face. I can 
liken them only to those on the skin of an old potatoe, 
from which the watery juices have been evaporated. You 
know how the rind appears in undefined wrinkles, by 


which I mean having no regularity, yet extending all 
over the hull or skin. Just so are the raisers; no regu- 
larity; some here, some there, some deeper, some shallower; 
yet marking and furrowing the entire face in a very peculiar 
fashion, not to be mistaken when once seen, and never to be 
forgotten. The miser, therefore, is a husky, dry, shrivelled, 
and wrinkled being, precisely like a dried up plant, whose 
sap and juices have been exhausted by a burning sun or 
scorching wind. Like causes produce like effects. The 
face may be healthy, but if there are those short irregular 
marks all about it, you may suspect the subject of being 
capable of mean tricks as well as a petty economy. Such a 
man's character cannot be found out by feeling his head, 
for he may have been liberal once, and this state is per- 
petuated in the contour of the skull, which continues to 
indicate such trait of character. But the face changes with 
the habits, and there you may read the marks intelligently 
and without mistake. 

Sometimes, but not often, the miserly signs appear in 
early life; more frequently the love of money comes in to 
fill the place of some other disappointed love, or to furnish 
a never-failing source of pleasure to the man who has 
exhausted other streams. John Foster mentions, as a 
remarkable instance of resolute will, a young man of 
spendthrift habits, who wasted a large estate in dissolute 
pleasures, and then sat down to gaze on the lands he 
had lost, and determine to possess them all again. Be- 
ginning to earn a few pence by whatever work he could 
find, regardless of its meanness, and to save every possible 
farthing, he succeeded in re-purchasing his estate, and died 
an inveterate miser. Like a plant, shrivelled and wrinkled 
for lack of moisture, would that once full and open face 
become pinched, and parched, and wrinkled, as his years 
advanced and his stores increased. For nature's rules are 
ever true, and may be depended upon. She shrinks and 


shrivels the skin of the face, when the mind and disposition 
of the individual has become close and contracted. 

Again, some persons may be born of a very careful and 
saving, if not mean and sordid disposition, which by early 
care and education may, to a great extent, be overcome. 
But as a general rule, this is an inveterate mental disease; 
and especially when it sets in towards life's decline, and 
as the result of disappointment in something else, it grows 
and increases to the end. 

" Mammon's close-linked bonds have bound him 
Self-imposed, and seldom burst; 
Though heaven's waters gushed around him, 
He would pine with earth's poor thirst." MRS. S. J. HALE. 

None of the lower animals possess the above distinctive 
marks of miserly propensities, except perhaps some dogs 
which have wrinkled faces and perhaps this is rather 
stretching the point. It is true that some creatures exhibit 
a hungry wrinkled appearance, but this is owing to the 
illiberal treatment they have received at the hand of man. 
Natural history makes us acquainted with the habits of 
several provident little creatures, that lay up stores for 
future use, but we do not read of any that deny themselves 
what is needful for present sustenance, or that accumulate 
except for a certainly approaching time of need. 


ALL nature tends to harmony, and the absence of harmony 
is simply produced by certain unequal conditions of nature. 
When the atmosphere is set in terrible motion by heat or 
cold, or the electric currents being out of balance, there 
is a want of evenness or repose in the effect, generating 
in some degree or other storm, confusion, and discord. So 
when the parents are thin-faced, large-brained, lank and 
tall, their children are generally fretful, short-lived, and 
have large heads. They are disjointed in mind, so to 
speak, because their parents from their very resemblance 
in approximate qualities did not, though outwardly alike, 
harmonize in reality, one with the other. To illustrate the 
meaning of this more forcibly. All the angles or prominent 
points of disposition and character in the one, stood out 
constantly opposed or in contact with their exact duplicate 
angles and prominences in the other, and to use an apt, 
though technical expression, never could be got to dovetail 
properly together. 

Suppose twenty singers all join in singing " Home, sweet 
Home," or " Auld Langsyne," and one voice puts all awry 
by being a half tone above or below its part, there -is at 
once an absence of sweetness, because harmony is wanting. 

A beautiful and well-balanced child is only the effect 
of loving parents, and the happy ante-natal surroundings 
of the mother. 


One parent being of a round, full, and vital build, and 
the other being of a tall, slim, and nervous make, their 
offspring in all probability are, or will be, well-organized 
and loving children, because the combination of the parent- 
age, just described, conspires to produce love between them- 
selves, and loving, healthy, and well-organized children. 

When fierce, consuming lightnings dart and flash across 
the weeping heavens, at each volley of the Omnipotent's 
artillery, causing the dreaded tones to reverberate from 
mountain tops to vales, there is clearly indicated a want 
of balance in the electrical forces of the atmosphere. 

When the little child totters along over the carpet, a 
straw may trip the little " toddler," and he or she may 
be thrown out of balance. A slight offence causes a whole 
family to quarrel, and inharmony, to use no stronger word, 
is the consequence. Where the forces are strong, and a 
pure and soul-deep affinity exists between man and wife, 
powerful incentives to quarrel may arise, but peace will 
prevail and still reign in the ascendant; but where two 
of the same hot temper and nervous build are united in 
wedlock, there will be disagreement, and unbalanced families 
are the ultimate result. To produce or retain balance or 
harmony in families or offspring, only such persons should 
marry as can see a difference in shape of features, body, 
and general physiognomy. Slight things and conditions 
produce balance, and other feeble and wrong variations 
produce inharmony. 

All faces long from the top of the forehead to the bottom 
of the chin and very narrow, are certain evidences of 
unbalanced minds. 

This face of David Duncan is entirely out of harmony, 
and he would find few of mankind with whom he would 
wish to become familiar, or enter freely into sympathy 
with. Were his face more full on the sides, it would 
enable him the more completely to be a "man of the 



world," by entering into universal brotherhood of feeling 
more easily than a long slim face is able to do. The face 
of David Duncan denoted him cold, unsocial, distant, and 
of feeble constitution, whereas Washington Irving was one 
of those approachable and social men who loved and was 
beloved by those who knew him. History says he never 

David Duncan, Hermit of Michigan. 

Washington Irving. 

had an enemy. His face is just wide enough for its length, 
so to speak, that is, of " good proportions." When we see 
a house four stories high, and twenty-two or twenty-four 
feet wide, like the one on Fifth Avenue in New York, 
opposite Central Park, we are forced to exclaim, how 
much out of proportion seems the fearful structure, and 
how dangerous it looks. The important feature of this 
otherwise well-finished and costly mansion is ihharmoni- 
ousness. Often in observing men, we see four-story faces 
which are three times higher than wide, and they serve 
to jar on our understandings while we view them. Their 
predelections are to abstruse thinking, and in some things 


they may be very sound and vigorous, while in the majority 
they are very weak. 

To be in harmony should be our constant aim, not only 
within ourselves, but with all the world. This condition 
of body and mind is a great promoter of longevity. When 
the head and brain are well balanced, that is, the head 
not too large for the bodily support, and the body not 
too strong in its vital powers for the size of brain it 
supports, then there is harmony between the brain or 
mental power, and the body or physical, and old age is 
more likely to be attained by such organisms than in 
unequal systems. A machine which runs true, each wheel 
smoothly performing its part, will last a long time and be 
productive of much good. If one wheel jars or is out of 
proportion to the rest, the machine will accomplish very 
little useful work and soon wear out. So it is with an 
individual. If each organ is in harmony and proportion 
to the entire faculties of mind and body, the result is 
usefulness and long life. We should be surprised to look 
at a very old man and find a want of harmony in his 
body. If such cases do exist, they are exceptional, and 
only prove the general law the more true. 

The great object of life should be to develop harmonious 
offspring, and this same condition within all mankind. To 
know how to produce this pleasant state within ourselves is 
a knowledge, if well used, which possesses the key to all 
true happiness. When we speak kindly to others, we not 
merely please them, but give ourselves a conscious feeling 
that we have done right, which kindles the fire of human 
love in our bosoms, with which we burn up the stubble of 
our last crop of hate. If we speak to another harshly, 
irritation is produced, Which not only throws us out of 
peace with the person spoken to, but with ourselves also. 

We should never harm a worm or bird, and should never 
ueedlessly hurt s-ny ot the living things of earth. 


" The coward wretch, whose hand and heart 

Can bear to torture aught below, 
Is ever first to quail and start 
At slightest pain or equal foe." 

The shooting of robins, larks, sparrows, and thrushes, or 
any of the hundreds of harmless birds, which so sweetly 
trill their musical notes in the air of mountain or valley, 
and break up earth's monotony by their lively presence, is 
not only a pitiful sight, but is destroying the very instru- 
ments intended for the promotion and encouragement of 
melody and harmony within ourselves. Their mellifluous 
voices are attuned by nature to be in unison with the 
soul of our higher manhood. Then why deal the deathblow 
to that we need to fraternize with our natural instincts? 

Should we meet with loss of friends or property, we 
should not for a moment permit our tranquillity to forsake 
us. All individuals who live to an advanced age are pacific 
in their natures. Nations are like persons. If they are in 
turmoil and contentions, their days are shortened thereby. 
Polemics and logomachy should be most studiously avoided 
to promote tranquillity of mind and amicable nationalities. 
Let nothing ruffle your temper. Cultivate patience, as it 
will promote your highest happiness here as well as here- 

Harmony in music is succession of sounds pleasing to the 
ear, so combined that one sound fully agrees with all others 
made at the same time. Where the properties, relations, 
and dependencies combine in a pleasing manner to the ear, 
it is called harmony. The music of the spheres was the 
harmony which the ancients imagined to be produced by 
the accordant movements of the celestial orbs. 

Melody in music differs from harmony in this manner. 
Harmony is pleasing sounds agreeing with each other like 
the several parts of a tune, and melody denotes the pleasing 
alternation and variety of musical and measured sounds as 


they succeed each other in a single verse or strain. Melody 
consists in a succession of single tones, and harmony is a 
succession of chords. Music rarely fails to produce a sooth- 
ing effect on the mind of man 

" Lulled with sounds of sweetest melody." SHAKESPEARE. 

Harmony is the just adaptation of parts to each other in 
any system or combination of things, or in things intended 
to form a connected whole, as the harmony of the universe. 

A man, to be a good citizen, should be in harmony with 
his family and the whole list of his acquaintances, and 
particularly his neighbour. Be consistent and agreeing in 
your nature, and discord will fade away like friends when 
adversity drops her mantle upon you. Nothing, in our 
belief, can produce such a fine feeling and so completely 
harmon.ze a family as vocal music. 

" The harmony of things 
An well as sounds from discord spings." DENHAM. 

The harmonious face is a study like a smooth, running 
river or placid lake, pleasing to behold, not a ripple or 
wavelet to be seen. Discordant faces stand in relation to 
harmonious faces as the braying of an ass does to the sweet 
tones of a flute. The face which would present to us such 
pleasure, that we would feel in the vicinity of happiness 
and cherish good- will towards others, must contain a decided 
expression of harmony. The calm and repose which accom- 
pany such is like a quiet summer day genial and com- 
placent the atmosphere fragrant, full of everything 
inviting, and impregnated Tith contentment. 

The being possessing harmony is never an envious person. 
There is nothing on earth more precious than harmony. It 
never kills, pilfers, or falsifies, and is full of hope and cheer- 
ful contentment. It commands respect, gives one the 
power to perform the duties of life well, and draws around 
ine possessor sentiments that may cheer the heait of 


millions. It sheds a halo of fondest recollections on tho 
weary pathway of life. 

To be attractive and beloved by the world is one of the 
best proofs and testimonials of a well-balanced condition of 
mind, and nothing gives so much power to a speaker as 
harmony. Good feeling is like a summer day. Oh how 
delightful! It is pleasing to everyone. So it is with the 
man or woman who bears a large amount of harmony. 
" What a nice speaker: I like him; he is splendid," are the 
expressions used in regard to such. Any man who lives 
much in the mind of the world, and who gives to the world 
pleasant recollections, must be possessed of large concord 
and harmony, and, to be an attractive person, one requires 

To be a good musician, requires that the whole qualities 
of your mind and body be in perfect agreement. A good 
speaker needs it. To succeed in the enjoyment of this life 
it is necessary; and an entire book could be written on the 
beauties of harmony. Heaven is harmony, and hell is 
discord, and the Devil is the irritator. There is nothing 
like contentment to produce, and discontentment to decrease 

The best construction of harmony is where all the elements 
of one's constitution are fully blended into one grand whole. 
What gives the ocean its billows and sound? The com- 
motion is caused by the irritating effects of the wind. 
What produces the uneven surface of the earth? The 
boiling and seething tires below. 

The signs of harmony in the face are that one part is not 
too prominent or too much sunken for good proportion with 
the other parts. Well-defined and even features are marks 
by which the mind's balance can be determined. Every- 
thing must be well proportioned and well rounded to give 
natural harmony. It is an easy matter to read the 
harmonious person. There is so much in his bearing to tell 


its power. Where we find a face all hollows and wrinkles, 
or too fat and smooth, it savour? of inharmony. 

Ta have full grain requires a good season, pleasant 
weather, rains, and sunshine. So it is with man possessing 
fulness, for harmony implies an equal fulness in every depart- 
ment. Now, to produce good full grain, also requires good 
soil on which to grow and good seed to grow from, with plea- 
sant surroundings to bring it to maturity. So an harmonious 
person requires the same conditions. To produce fulness 
requires healthy parents, and proper and pleasant surround- 
ings to develop the germ, and to maintain this condition it 
requires peace, joy, and hope; they being the necessary 
accompaniments. We have thus very much the means in 
our own hands to produce harmony or discord. 

We would now make a few remarks on music. As music 
is simply the result of harmony of organization, so it can be 
consistently treated under this head. Harmony of all the 
forces in man is the producer of melody, and music is 
nothing but successive melodious sounds in harmony 
with others made at the same time. -Jenny Lind. Cannisaa, 
Parepa Rosa, and Lucca have harmonious faces in a high 
degree, and they are the greatest singers of the age. Having 
harmony in themselves, they can give it out. Where it is 
entirely absent, a person can, in no wise, give it forth. 
Those who have no harmony in their structure cannot give 
out the article to others. Harmonious faces succeed in 
capturing the hearts of thousands by their sweetness. No 
woman ever travelled in America who had so many admirers 
as Jenny Lind. 

A person possessing the constituent parts of the body in 
balance, by the proper adjustment of all the parts, is 
capable of the highest and most captivating music. Lowell 
Mason, of Boston, is a splendid type of this ; whilst 
Chiokering, the inventor of the Chickering piano, is also 
of musical make. 


The Germans are noted for their musical abilities, 
Beethoven, Mozart, Handel, Bach, and Hayden. were all 
full and well balanced. Hence the origin of their soul- 
fltirring music. 

There are three kinds or parts of music, the soul, the 
science, and the performance. Jenny Lind seems to have 
had the whole three parts in a high degree. It is the soul 
of music, so to speak, which captures and entrances more 
than all the others. Ole Bull has a face of perfect harmony, 
and he has said that when playing one of his most heart- 
touching pieces, he has felt it more than his hearers. 
Paganini had a thin face, yet it was well proportioned, and 
his perfection of nature drew itself out on his skilful bow. 

What on earth can so fully touch the sympathies of man 
as some plaintive song, sung with heartfelt pathos. Even 
the beast has been moved by its charming power. Our 
churches, knowing well its talismanic influence, use it with 
full effect. Public meetings and private family circles 
alike claim its aid. Theatres and all places of amusement 
pay high to secure its effect, and every house is lonely 
without the power of this grand^equalizer. 

When the low, melifluous, pliant notes waft across some 
quiet river at evening's mellow hour, what mortal so poorly 
organized that his heart beats not wilder in his breast at 
the sounds, as each air wavelet assures him over and over 
again, that his soul feeds on the perfection evolved by 

At no time has our soul risen higher in ambitious aims, 
than when the tones of sweetest music thrilled each fibre 
of our body. Often in such moments have our aspirations 
for great good bounded higher than meridian sun, and 
carried judgment with them, and then! oh, then! we have 
felt as if melody had lifted our soul away from earth to all 
the bliss of heaven. 

?ope has aptly unfolded music's charms in the following 


beautiful lines, which, we think, we cannot do better 
close our present subject with: 

" By nvuic, minds an equal temper know, 
Nor swell too high, nor ever sink too low; 
If in the breast tumultuous joys arise, 
Music her soft assuasive voice applies; 
Or, when the soul is pressed with cares, 
Exalts her in enlivening airs. 
Warriors she fires with animated sounds, 
Pours balm into the bleeding lover's wound* 
Melancholy lifts her head, 
Morpheus rouses from his bed, 
Sloth unfolds her arms and wakes, 
List'ning envy drops her snakes ; 
Intestine war no more our passions wage, 
And giddy factious bear away their rago I n 


LUDWIG VON BEETHOVEN, a distinguished Prussian musical com- 
poser, in whose face is expressed the harmony of sound in the superlative 
degree ; as he was never married his whole soul seemed devoted to the 
development of the science and practice of mellifluous concord. 


THERE is a sex of the soul as well as of the body. Every 
living creature is masculine or feminine in its inward 
nature as well as in its outward form ; and not seldom is 
it found that a masculine spirit dwells in a woman, a 
feminine one in a man, and in every case the configuration, 
especially of the facial features, will surely indicate the 
fact to the attentive mind. A large mouth, a beard, a 
strong nose, powerful chin, broad forehead, and prominent 
bones are characteristic signs of the masculine. A small, 
straight nose, well cut mouth, rounded chin, moderately 
wide and receding forehead, smooth skin, the adipose tissue 
filling in over the bones, and well rounding all, are forms 
recognized as feminine, and if observed in a man, will indi- 
cate his gentle, soft, and yielding nature. So of other parts 
of the body. A man with narrow shoulders and large hips 
has to a certain extent the female form, and his character 
will correspond. The Deader will notice the facial expressions 
of men who resemble John Summer-field, or Milton the poet 
John Summerfield was called the beardless boy by a sexton 
of Boston, when he first appeared as a preacher in America: 
the fine feminine expression of his loving face unmistak- 



ably indicated the soul within. But observe a woman 
wtio, besides the features we have described as masculine, 
exhibits very broad shoul- 
ders, and you will find she 
partakes largely of her 
father's character,' or that 
of her grandfather on her 
father's side of the house, 
and consequently has mas- 
culine traits of character. 
Such a woman often says 
to herself perhaps she 
dares to speak it aloud 
" 1 wish I were a man." 
She feels, if she does not 
utter that great principle 
within, which looks out 
unmistakably from 
face, " I feel my superior 
strength, and wish that the 
customs of society would 

permit me to assume my natural sphere in life; to be occu- 
pied as men are, in heavier, coarser, and more rigorous 
employment; to undertake duties, cares, and responsibilities 
that would fully call out and satisfy my pent-up soul. 
Although I am a woman, I have the ardour, judgment, and 
reason of a well-sexed man." Such has been the thought of 
many a woman, whose strong features and masculine build 
betray her dispositions whether she expresses them or not. 

Can we find any cause for the contrariety which some- 
times occurs between the sex of the body and that of the 
soul ? What gave to one woman a large nose, strong 
mouth, broad forehead, masculine chin, and rough-lined 
features ; while her sister, who has been reared in the same 
family circle, with the same surrounding influences, has a 

The Feminine Face 
Kev. Johu Summer-field. 



fine rounded, feminine-looking face, her head and body 
delicately moulded, her skin smooth, all her features be- 
speaking in their own soft, quiet language, that here are 
womanly sympathies, keen perceptions, quick sensitiveness, 
love, faith, imagination, all the attributes of true woman- 
hood. The first is her father's girl. She loves to drive 

team, if rural life be her 
portion. Often she will 
be seen with the dog, 
chasing the cows at 
night; or she is away 
in the early morning 
climbing the mountain- 
top to halloo to a friend 
on another summit ; 
romping through fields 
and forests at her own 
wild will; and impatient 
of nothing so much as 
of inactivity. To sit 
still and sew is to her a 
dreary ' imprisonment ; 

the duties of housework are drudgery; her true great man- 
hood loves no restraint, dictation, or parental care. These 
two girls have been distinguished by this difference, both 
of feature and character, from their earliest years. The 
feminine attributes were not given to the one, or taken 
from the other by any process of education or influence 
since firs! they. drew the breath of life; and so we are shut 
up to the conclusion that some controlling influences in 
their mother's pregnancy have set the mark on their char- 
acter, and stamped their whole being, the one for one course 
of life, the other for the opposite. 

Doubtless, while a child is in utero, the mother may exert 
an all-powerful influence over its character, and thus muulj 

The Masculine Face Miss Eos* Bonheur, 
the noted artist of France. 


its Physiognomy. Many mothers in our land, understand- 
ing this principle, procure the portrait of some noble-minded 
man, hang it in their room, look at it often, and call to 
mind the deeds of him whom it represents, thus marking 
their child more or less with the like spirit and features. 
Thousands could do the same, if they recognized the prin- 
ciple, and possessed the faith and patience requisite for 
working it out. Suppose a mother, when three months 
pregnant, or after the sex of her child was established, 
should place before her view the likeness of a boy, and 
fixing her mind steadily on the picture, with an earnest 
and believing desire that the child she then carried should 
be similar to that boy; then, if it proved a female, there 
would probably be considerable resemblance to the other 
sex, and as the girl developed into womanhood, her Physi- 
ognomy would appear masculine, and her whole nature 
possessed of much of that vigour that belongs to manhood. 
This is the manner in which many children are charac- 
terized for life; and mothers cannot too earnestly consider 
these principles, or too carefully apply them for the benefit 
of unborn generations. 

Pleasant surroundings for an expectant mother are of 
immense value to her offspring; whereas, if disagreeable 
people crowd about her, or any deformity is daily obtruded 
on her notice, a misshapen child may be produced in the 
latter case; and in the former, a sourness of temper that 
no future influences can counteract 

Some children have something both of the look and 
manner of old people, in consequence of the mother's having 
been much in the society of some aged person who made 
a strong impression on her. And as the features and 
manners, so the tastes of the future man or woman may 
be greatly influenced, if not entirely formed by impressions 
made on the mind of the mother previous to the birth. A 


single impression, indeed, will not often avail much in the 
formation either of feature or character, unless it be sudden 
and vivid, as in the case of fright; to prove powerful and 
lasting, they must be frequent or continuous for montha 
A happy home, an agreeable partner, cheerful company, 
fine paintings, music, and well-read books, will conduce to 
give the child harmony both of mind and bodily feature, 
it will prevent idiotcy, and ennobie the nature of the 
unborn homo. 

There are people who have features partly male and 
partly female. Such persons exhibit phases of character 
seemingly contradictory. There are few that they can love, 
but those few they love devotedly. They will generally be 
found sensitive, ambitious, and passionately fond of music. 
But where sex of soul as well as body is strongly marked, 
we perceive the attraction and repulsion that characterizes 
other forces of nature. Individuals strongly marked as 
masculine are repelled by masculinity in others of the 
opposite sex, but are attracted to the soft and gentle natures. 
A large, coarse woman will be attracted to a man whose 
features bespeak a feminine soul; and vice versa. So a 
thoroughly manly man seldom fancies an amazon; but a 
soft fellow adores a woman of masculine character. One 
seems to contain the positive, the other the negative; and 
according to the well-known law, two positives or two 
negatives repel each other; whereas a negative attracts and 
is attracted by a positive. This attraction between the 
positive and negative may be observed any day in large 
families. Where there are many to choose among, the two 
brothers, tr two sisters, or brother and sister, that draw 
together in the closest love and confidential friendship, are 
never characters of like strength or similar temper, but 
always contrasts. The strong natures are apt to quarrel 
with e&.sh other, and so are the weak ones; but a rough 


nature and a gentle one draw close together. This law 
of nature ought to be well understood, and respectfully 
obe} 7 ed by persons contracting marriage. Considerations 
of interest or convenience will prove a poor substitute 
for the suitability that is found in nature. 

Egl>ert Kiog of tho West Sairom, first monarch of all England, 


THIS, of all subjects, is the one which demands at our hands 
the closest and most scrutinizing investigation. In order 
to fathom its depths by logical sequence, we must turn our 
attention to natural phenomena, First, the question has 
been asked immemorially, " What are the constituent signs 
of phj'sical strength?" And need we state here that the 
answers in almost every instance have been more obscure 
than accurate. In tracing this important question on 
scientific grounds to its base, we cull our experience from 
close observation and years of unremitting labour. Not 
the labour of books in its entirety, but that of personal 
inspection, passed amid the mineral, animal, and vegetable 
kingdoms. Indeed, if we would study nature's laws, we 
must drink from nature's cup, otherwise our knowledge in 
a great measure will be merely superficial, and wanting in 

For all that we learn of character, science, or art through 


books, mother Nature is our only re-modeller, in point of 
fact our true teacher, and to her we must fly if we would 
attain that true wisdom which the marks of time can 
neither mar nor obliterate. 

Having, then, got thus far with our introductory, it 


remains for us now to prove that our sequence is not only 
logical, but based firmly on that surest of all foundations 

Now, in order to deduce proofs of what we have endea- 
voured to advance, we take up the first point of our 
assertion, and one of the most useful of all mineral 
productions, viz., granite. This rock has been apparently 
designed by nature to enjoy a high and lasting reputation 
among minerals. In texture it is harder than soap-stone 
or slate, and consequently more durable, if not more flexible 
in its construction. The physiognomical differences of 
granite, too, compared with shale, slate, sand, chalk, lime, 
coal, or any ui the softer materials of rock, are in nature 
the most striking. It possesses an extremely rough surface 
indeed, and so unlike the minerals to which we have alluded, 
that the contrast is great and wonderful. 

Without entering further into the appearances and endur- 
ance of granite, we next take up the diamond, the most 
valuable of all mineral substances, and the hardest and 
strongest of all rocky materials. This latter, until it is cut 
into ornamental shape, possesses, like its predecessors, a 
rough and uncouth exterior. Also is it thus with quartz- 
crystal and spar. These last productions of the mineral 
kingdom bear a glass-like propensity of texture, and are 
equally hard, though consisting of sharp projections which, 
with their smooth planes, give them more of a rough and 
broken appearance. 

Therefore, laying aside the constituent parts of the 
mineral kingdom for the present, having first adduced 
enough of facts therefrom to explain and work out our 
deductions, we may now enter upon the vegetable world, 
and unfold other evidences as the truer signs of Physical 
Strength. The monarch of vegetable life, then, is well 
understood to be the oak, and a right regal tree indeed is 
this gnarled and vigorous member of the woody family, 


shooting high and wide of its compeers in brake as in wood- 
land. Note its rough and wonderful massiveness compared 
with the beech, or the pine, or the ash; contrast its hard- 
ness with the smooth poplar or the graceful willow, and 
yuu are compelled at once to acknowledge that it is by far 
the most useful, if not the strongest and hardest of all vege- 
table productions. 

Thus step by step we proceed with our logical sequences 
until we advance a trifle nearer the human family. 

Let us now observe the animal kingdom as a further 
proof of the foregoing allusions relative to Physical Strength. 
The next link in the chain of evidence is the lion, Anglicised 
from the Latin (Leo Barbarus). This animal is considered 
to be, and justly, too, we imagine, the strongest beast of its 
size in the world. Compare it then with the ox (Bovidas 
genus}, selecting, of course, one of the same size and weight, 
and you will perceive the rough hairy appearance of the 
former in wonderful contrast with the comparatively smooth 
surface of the latter. The difference in this respect is not 
only strange, but striking to the common run of humanity, 
and furnishes the intelligent food for well digested reflection. 
The subject, to the general reader, is also comprehensive 
and important. 

Now, by these fundamental deductions, you will observe 
that a rough exterior among animals, rocks, and vegetation 
is, at least, one indicative sign of Physical Strength. But 
we proceed to prove a far better analogy yet. and, indeed, 
one which will bear tracing through all the various grades 
of organic and inorganic life. In proof of what we assert, 
we will once more dwell upon the mineral creation and add 
another link to the yet severed chain of our connection?. 
For instance, take the diamond, the richest jewel of all the 
mineral species. Compare it with the slate. The one is a 
broad form of stone of extraordinary hardness and brilliancy, 
while the other is flaky and will readily divide into long 


tbin stripes which are as easily broken with but slight pro* 

This is the case with almost everything of a very weak 
texture, unless it possesses great powers of elasticity, or is 
kept in constant action by other forces, through which 
means it sometimes becomes firmly imbedded together. 
Action, we assert, is the great condenser of nature's mineral 
arteries; therefore we perceive that granite, on the other 
hand, unlike its far-removed relation slate, is a broad and 
vigorous stone, if we may use the expression, and will not 
so readily yield to the cleaver's iron and maul as will its 
softer and less condensed kindred. The slate being more 
sectional than solid, is hence liable to be sundered with less 
effort. Diamonds being the hardest, if not densest, of 
minerals, are in consequence broad in proportion to their 
length. Again, the oak tree is broad and short compared to 
the pine or poplar, and, as our deductions go to prove, far 
stronger than either of the foregoing. Also is the manseneta 
of California very low, broad, and extremely hard. The 
strength of its fibre is known to be remarkable, and its 
durability wonderful. Again we have the weird and 
knotted elm, with many of the qualites of the oak, being 
like it broad and low, and in comparison with poplar, pine, 
sequoya, or fir, apparently ten times ae strong and tough in 
its texture. 

Having thus far worked out our assertions relative to the 
most striking signs ot .Physical Strength evidenced in the 
physiognomical relations of the mineral and vegetable 
kingdoms, we once more revert to the animal creation. 

To retain the thread of our reasoning and make our 
analogy plainer to the general reader, we assert that the 
lion's strength and courage is based on the plan upon which 
he is built, and that is the low and broad principle. First, 
his face is wide and short, while his foot is as equal in ite 
breadth as in its length. The wide, deep quality which 


gives strength is the peculiarity which pervades his nose, 
head, and entire frame. Compare a lion with the antlered 
deer, or the timid rabbit with the ferocious bear, or even 
the gentle giraffe with the treacherous and merciless tiger, 
and you will immediately perceive that breadth of neck, 
head, face, feet, body, and entire make produces strength. 

The grizzly bear, the fiercest and most destructive animal 
on the American Continent, built also on the broad and 
massive principle, has been known repeatedly to cany off 
an ox or mule, weighing several hundred weight, over rocky 
and broken land; and indeed in numerous instances has 
this animal been observed to walk along a dangerous log 
extended across a precipitous chasm with a full-grown horse 
in his mouth. But the tiger is another example of^this 
tremendous muscular power and fierce energy; and when 
compared to the round and puny build of a sheep, the 
contrast is no less astonishing than striking. The tiger, of 
all animals, is perhaps the most active. His strength is 
proverbial. Indeed, he has been often known to prostrate 
and kill an ox, a zebra, or even pallah with a single stroke 
of his foot. 

Now for the last, but not least of our proofs, on the 
subject of Physical Strength. The main link of the great 
creation is man. The link that binds our philosophical, 
but as yet severed connections in this article, is also 
man, the most glorious, the most perfect work of the 
Creator. Men, then, who are notedly strong among their 
fellows, are constructed on the wide plan. An illustra- 
tion of this, which, by the way, comes accidentally across 
our memory while we write, is Dr. Windship, of Boston, 
a man of most extraordinary physical powers, broad and 
deep through the chest, having hands and feet in unison 
with the make of his body. In this gentleman the 
broad and massive is in every way predominant. In 
the tfladiutonai bouts of Rome's most glorious days, when 



her ooAineib swayed half the then known world, n? 
athletes were distinguished by those infallible markfl of 
strength, breadth of neck, face, head, shoulders, hands, 
feet, limbs, and entire structure. Then having so far 
illustrated our subject and drawn upon facts which cannot 
be controverted, we must hence infer in the sequence that 
the wide form of construction is the true indicator of 
Physical Strength. Roughness of face is also an index of 
the same in men and animals. The laws of nature are 
general and uncontrovertible, and as surely apply to the 
universe of forms, whether we comprehend them or not. 

ALEXANDEK III. , Emperor of Russia, is tall and powerfully built, pos- 
sessing herculean physical strength ; with his fingers he can roll a silver 
rouble like a scroll. 


HAVING long observed that some races of men, as well as 
many classes of people, are naturally and constitutionally 
averse to physical labour, I have been led to observe 
closely the facial and bodily signs that indicate a love of 
corporeal exertion. 

The anti-industrial central point of the world is Arabia; 
for, on every side, branching out to the east and west, we 
find industry making progress, while, in Arabia, centuries 
pass away without any improvement, save what has been 
introduced, almost by compulsion, by foreigners. The trade 
carried on by exports of coffee, dates, figs, spices, and drugs, 
though still considerable, is said to be only a shadow of the 
old commerce which existed before the circumnavigation of 
Africa, or when Aden was in its prime, and the Red Sea 
was the great commercial route. Arabia has few manu- 
factures, but carries on a transit trade in foreign fabrics, 
besides importing these, to some extent, for its own 
necessities. Few nations have approached so near as the 
Arabs to the condition of standing still in a moral, social, 
and industrial point of view. Considering how little pro- 
gress has been made, it is remarkable that a greater 
degeneracy has not taken place. 

The southern slave owners of North America were very 
much addicted to indulge in listless idleness and give wa.y 


to their love of repose. They disliked toil to such an 
extent that they used every available means to avoid it 
if possible. 

The North American Indians are naturally averse to 
drudgery, and evince energy only in their predaceous 
pursuits. This is indicated by their wide cheekbones, 
which are connected with the respiratory air passages, and 
evince, by their largeness, that the lungs also are large, and 
give vigour for the development of predaceous energy. 

In Scotland especially, as well as in the north of England, 
and Ulster in Ireland, in Prussia, in the State of Ohio in 
America, as well as among northerners generally, we find 
a love of physical labour and active performance of duty 
energetically. The ostensible signs of these tendencies and 
qualities are manifest in the prominent bones and well 
defined and developed muscles over the entire corporeal 
frame. When we find large hands without an abundance 
of adipose tissue, and a bony face with a muscular expres- 
sion, we may feel assured that labour is a pleasure to those 
who are so constituted. The slave owners of America had 
small hands and small or narrow cheek or malar bones 
and well-rounded faces, from the bones being small and 
well-rounded with fat. In their bodies, the muscles were 
not, as a general fact, so well developed and sinewy as those 
of the labouring, energetic, industrious men of the north. 
The climate, in connection with the system of slavery, 
superinduced among the masters in the south the love of 
ease, and predisposed them to repose. This indolence and 
listlessness became heightened by the manners and customs 
that gradually crept in among them, and developed their 
sensual propensities to an unhealthy extent, working their 
moral as well as their physical deterioration. 

Two of the most easily observed features of the human 
face that mark the industriously and laboriously inclined, 
*re a prominent protruding chin in connection with oro- 


minent cbeek-bones. Observe, also, that labour expands 
the shoulders and widens the palms of the hands, and thus 
evinces the practice of physical effort, and this naturally 
begets a propensity to take pleasure in laborious occupa- 
tions. Milnes essentially sympathized with this progressive 
nature when he wrote: 

" Let us go forth and resolutely dare 
With sweat of brow to toil our little day, 
And if a tear fall on the task of care 
In memory of those spring hours passed away, 
Brush it not by ! 

Our hearts to God ! to brother men, 
And labour, blessing, prayer, and then to these a sign!" 

Kingsley's advice beautifully expresses the sentiment of the 
earnest worker: 

" Do what thou dost as if the earth were heaven, 
And that thy last day were the judgment day." 

It is a general law in our nature that when any faculty 
has by cultivation enlarged to a strong degree, it invariably 
demands scope for exercise in a similar manner to that by 
which the development was produced. Having struck one 
blow, we can more readily strike another; and the more we 
become accustomed to striking, the more natural we feel it 
to exercise our feracious powers. Thus, in the course of 
time, it becomes a pleasure instead of a drudgery. What 
labouring people consider a pleasure, the idle and indolent 
call slavery. 

Physical labour enlarges and develops various portions 
of the body. Stooping labour widens the cheek-bones 
(mala ossia), lengthens the under jaw, shortens and enlarges 
the occipital process, protrudes the lower part of the fore- 
head, and widens the hands, feet, and shoulders. Hence, 
in accordance with the principles before mentioned, these 
enlargements are Nature's recorded evidences of the ability 


and inclination to physical exertion. Examples by thou- 
sands may be found among gymnasts, athletes, pugilists, 
oarsmen, and every class of physical labourers. Those who 
never labour, never desire to do so; and their narrow faces, 
thin hands and feet, and contracted shoulders are manifesta- 
tions of their leisure-loving natures. How the hands and 
feet will diminish may plainly be seen in all young men 
who are reared to hard work on a farm, but upon entering 
a shop, store, or lawyer's office to earn a livelihood, half 
a score of years will suffice to narrow their structure, and 
not only make them consider physical toil displeasing, but 
render their framework as sure a tell-tale of the deterioration 
as untongued Nature can become in revealing any of her 
great principles. 

Unfortunately for the future of the race, there is a grow- 
ing aversion to physical labour among the young of both 
sexes in the present age. This is plainly evinced by the 
shoulders being much narrower and the forms slimmer than 
were those of the young of the last century. Look for a 
moment at the fine physical development of the Germans. 
Every man of them must learn one of the industrial trades, 
no matter how high his rank. It is well known that the 
present Emperor of Germany regularly learned the trade 
of a carpenter. Then their physique is still further 
developed by the compulsory army drill that must be 
undergone by every young man of sound constitution. On 
the other hand, the girls engage in domestic and outdoor 
work until their forms take the national characteristic 
mould of broad shoulders and ample womanly chests. 

The lassitude and yawning listlessness incident to idle- 
ness can be dispelled by earnest and well-directed exertion 
in manual dexterity. Whenever you see a young woman 
faint in a church, one of two epithets may safely be app- 
lied to her lazy or diseased. Parents that are too 
tender do more to promote sickness and disease than aU 



the world besides. The fond, indulgent mother may be 
heard saying: "There now, daughter, you sit down and I 
will do the work." Thus the mother goes on, day after 
day, toiling and striving with the whole burden of domestic 
cares, while the idle and selfish daughter, were she properly 
trained, might relieve her of half her labour, and besides 
render her own life much more happy by the double plea- 
sure of helping her parent and preparing herself for her own 
future domestic duties. This is not all; for the daughter 
acting thus would feel life a pleasure, and ward off the 
inevitable consequences of sloth and listlessness, disease 
and a premature grave, over which the epitaph might be 
written: "Here lies the victim of idleness, who died of 
inanition." How wasted looking she became; how narrow 
and slim her form in every feature. 

Young man, accept and lay to heart the advice of experi- 
ence, and never let your affections settle upon any one until 
you can find and fane}' a good, strong, broad-bodied, well- 
developed maid, with a countenance full of buxom health 
and cheerfulness, who can heartily reciprocate your affec- 
tion. This form of person is by nature and cultivation 
more happy than a narrow, sharp-faced individual. The 
very law of industry leads us on to contentment, while its 
duties give the broad build to the young; and when that 
form is once attained, it becomes a real pleasure to exert 
oneself, because it is in true harmony with one's nature. 
Nothing is distasteful that is in true harmony with one's 
interior being. How much happier is the agriculturist and 
manufacturer than the man of leisure who lends money and 
is constantly fretting his hours away from fear of loss. The 
servant is more happy than his master, since he labours 
harder and has less care and anxiety. The laws of our 
being inexorably demand labour; and, when the normal 
requirements of nature are heeded, she is no niggard in her 
awards of happiness; but when they are ignored, pain and 


misery attend us. The servant can cheerfully toil while his 
master demurely and listlessly counts the tedious hours as 
his life of misery ebbs away. 

Then, since labour is a necessity to the well-being of 
every one, we easily see its importance, and learn that its 
signs are the effects of effort. Hence the process is easy 
of tracing up through the effects to the causes, and compre- 
hending why those signs portray the natural disposition. 
Whatever we have most of, we enjoy its use best. This is 
the same principle that causes the miser, whose wealth is 
extensive, to wish for more. La Rochefoucauld truthfully 
expresses the power of labour to promote happiness: 
" Bodily labour alleviates the pains of the inind; and hence 
arises the happiness of the poor." 

Now we glance at some of the ancient peoples who rose 
to power and eminence by their physical training as well 
as by their mental capacity, which mainly resulted from 
the former. 

The education of the ancient GREEKS was more of a 
physical than of a mental kind. The gymnasium was that 
of the athlete, not that of the didas'kaloa or preceptor. 
Young children were, until about their sixth year, trained 
at home under females, but were then sent to the schools 
under the charge of private tutors or pcedagogi. The duty 
of the pedagogue was rather to keep his wards from out- 
ward injury and bad companions, than to teach them the 
accomplishments of grammar, music, and gymnastics, the 
favourite studies in those days. The Greeks bestowed 
more time and attention on the gymnastic training of their 
youth than on all the other departments put together. 
There was no such thing as a Greek city of any size or 
importance which did not boast at least one gymnasium. 
Athens had three great public gymnasia the Academia, 
Lyceum, and Cynosarges, besides numerous private ones 
on a smaller scale. Solon considered these institutions o/ 


so much importance as to draw up a special code of law 
for their management. Their administration was entrusted 
to a gymnasiarch, whose duties were to watch and control 
the youth, place them under proper teachers, conduct the 
periodical games and festivals, and pay the athletes whom he 
trained for them. In Athens the number of gymnasiarchs 
appears to have been ten. Besides these, there were the 
officers called Aliptce, or anointers, whose duty it was to 
prepare the youth for the day's exercise, by anointing them 
with oil and then sprinkling them with dust. The exercises 
taught were pretty much the same over the whole of Greece, 
though they seem to have been carried out with somewhat 
different views. The Spartans looked upon them as a sort 
of initiation into the sterner realities of warfare; while the 
Athenians not only made them subserve this end, but also 
used them as a means for imparting grace to the action 
and movement to the limbs. The chief games of the 
gymnasium were foot-races, jumping, leaping, quoits, wrest- 
ling, boxing, dancing, &c., while the younger pupils practised 
also with balls, tops, and a variety of other games similar 
to those in vogue among the youth of modern times. 

It would occupy too much space to describe with any- 
thing like minuteness the Grecian games, which were among 
them from time immemorial; but we may just state the 
general facts, that they were very numerous, and are 
traceable by tradition back to the earliest periods of Grecian 
civilization. Indeed, much of the obscurity that rests on 
their origin is in consequence, and a sign of their high and 
even mythic antiquity. But we may just mention, that 
the most celebrated of them were the Olympic, the Pythian, 
the Nemean, and the Isthmian games, which were distin- 
guished by the appellation of sacred. 

The gymnastic exercises were prescribed in a well- 
planned systematic series, beginning with the easier, and 
proceeding to the more difficult. Some of these were spe- 


cially fitted to give strength, others agility ; some educated 
the hands, others the feet. Among the lighter exercises 
were reckoned running, leaping, quoiting, and hurling the 
javelin. When skill had been attained in these, and the 
consequent strength, then followed a severer course of 
discipline. The simple course was wrestling and boxing; 
the compound course consisted of (1,) The Pentathlon 
(or "five contests"), made up of the union of running, 
leaping, quoiting, wrestling, and hurling the spear; and, 
(2,) the Pankration (or "general trial of strength"), which 
consisted of wrestling and boxing. 

These games, taken in connection with the early and 
long training by which they were preceded, and of which 
they were both the natural result and reward, were a grand 
educational system, bearing primarily, indeed, in favour of 
the physical development, but also tending directly and 
powerfully to advance the intellectual and moral culture. 
The exercises through which the child, the youth, and the 
man were, stage by stage, conducted, each in succession 
becoming difficult and more complex, as the bodily powers 
came into play and acquired vigour, were admirably adapted 
to give that union of strength and beauty in which physical 
perfection consists, and in which the Greeks probably sur- 
passed every other known people. 

Solon's high estimate of the paramount importance of 
these games has been already alluded to; but here we would 
further state that this estimate is still more strongly per- 
ceived in the designation and functions of two other officers 
appointed under Solon's laws, in the conduct of the 
gymnasia. The first was the Kosmetes, whose name comes 
from a word (KOCA*C) signifying " order and beauty," and 
whose office consisted in the special superintendence of 
everything fitted to further these high qualities; the other 
officer was termed Sophronistes, and his business was still 
more intimately conducive to informing the mind, since, aa 


his designation (from o-w^pwv) proves, he was required to ' 
guide the pupils to awtypoavvn (sophrozyne), a term for 
which there is no English equivalent, but which may 
approximately be rendered by " sound-mindedness." The 
fullest and best information on this interesting and vitally 
important subject is to be found in Krause's Die Gymnastik 
und Agonistik der Hellenen; and in his Die Pythien, 
Nemeen, und Isthmien: Leipzig, 1841. 

Among the Romans, the amusements of the circus did 
not materially differ from the Greek agones or contests 
celebrated at Olympia, Delphi, and elsewhere, and were 
certainly of a nobler kind than the frightful gladiatorial 
fights of the amphitheatres. The Romans, however, became 
much more brutal in their tastes and public amusements 
than the Greeks, and at last became almost wholly addicted 
to gladiatorial and wild-beast combats. 

Let it be carefully and earnestly pondered, as one of the 
most important facts educed from a comparative history of 
all nations, ancient and modern, that all those peoples who 
have cultivated the active industrial arts, tending to 
develop their physical forms and faculties, have risen 
highest in the scale of civilization, and been freest from 
poverty, disease, and insanity. It is only a matter of yes- 
terday that Physical Education has been thought of among 
the English-speaking nations. Having bethought them- 
selves, they have been pondering the wholesome example 
and practices of some of the celebrated ancient nations, 
especially the Greeks, and in modern times the Germans. 
We need only point to the immense superiority of these 
nationalities over the rest of the world, in social and physi- 
cal development, to feel assured of carrying conviction to 
every candid mind as to the enormous advantages accruing 
from the training of the human frame to active and vigorous 
industrial habits. Hitherto, Physical Education has been 
left far too much to nature and chance; and we owe it 


mainly to the improved condition of medical science that 
public attention has been called to the deficiency. It in- 
cludes, first of all, the essential conditions of health, such 
as cleanliness, fresh air, exercise, diet, alternate periods ot 
labour and recreation; secondly, the strengthening and 
proper development of the bodily powers by means of 
drilling, marching, and gymnastic exercises; thirdly, the 
formation of certain useful habits, which, after a time, 
become almost instinctive. Hand-writing is a fine example 
of a habit of this kind, which can be impressed once and 
forever on the nervous system ; the power of rapid perform- 
ance on musical instruments is another faculty dependent 
on the same kind of physical training. Easy and graceful 
deportment, again, is a trained habit; so also is clear and 
correct verbal articulation. In fact, wherever physical 
action is required of such a nature that it may be trans- 
ferred by habit from a voluntary act to a reflex one, there 
the use of physical education becomes evident; for every 
good habit which is thus formed and fixed by early train- 
ing, whether it be a useful accomplishment, or a graceful 
deportment, or a facility of correct expression, or any kind 
of musical dexterity, is just so much power actually treas- 
ured up in the nervous system, which can be brought forth 
and applied at any moment, as if it were a kind of animated 
machinery, and that, too, without any trouble or any sense 
of fatigue to the possessor. Addison's observation is worth 
repeating here. He says: " Manufactures, trade, and agri- 
culture, naturally employ more than nineteen parts of the 
species in twenty; and as for those who are not obliged to 
labour, by the condition in which they are born, they are 
more miserable than the rest of mankind, unless they 
indulge themselves in that voluntary labour which goes by 
the name of exercise." 


UNASPIRING and nebulous faces are often met with in 
society, and more especially among the wealthy. Their 
expressionless smoothness has never been broken by torna- 
does of thought or intense application. Many of the young 
may be seen who are called beautiful, and those individuals 
present faces only of the smooth and undefined form, which 
is the image of their minds. Inaction and idleness of the 
physical and mental forces bring on roundness of features 
which are ever unmistakable signs of nonentity. They 
may be compared to a bombshell with burning fuse, round 
and pretty to behold, but not good company. 

It requires long hours, yea, years, of patient and earnest 
labour, to acquire facial marks expressive of gigantic think- 
ing power. Nearly all mankind are naturally fond of 
leisure and enjoyment, and as ease is most generally found 
amongst the wealthy, so expressionless faces are most 
commonly seen in that sphere of society. Labour chisels 
the features into clearness and cheerfulness of expression, 
whereas idleness will turn the most expressive and beauti- 
ful features into listless, sad and undefined, clam-like 
smoothness. Many boys, when grown, carry faces with 
expressions of emptiness and inertia of mind. They go 


abroad to earn a living for themselves, and after twenty, 
or even ten years, return to their friends with faces furrowed 
by the plough of experience. The deep wrinkles have been 
cut across the brow the nose has grown higher on the 
bridge the nostrils have opened largely the chin has 
become more broad and far-reach ing; the lips having learned 
to keep their own secrets, are firmly compressed ; lines like 
diverging rays of light surround the eyes; the round, full 
cheek of childhood nestles no longer there, and all is changed 
from boy to manhood. His face tells no falsehood, as it is 

Diogenes, a cynic philosopher, whose mental industry has rarely, 
if ever, been equalled. 

God's truth, and he, overflowing with strength and nature's 
nobility, walks forth the highest type of man, self-made. 
Others remain boys in mind until forty, or even through a 
life-time, undeveloped because they shunned the means of 
accomplishing their highest maturing. Children's faces are 
often seen on men and women of thirty and forty years of 


age Their lives have been as smooth as glass. The great 
trials of the world, which are immense furnaces to try the 
metal of men, have not purified and turned them to steel. 
The more lead is melted and cooled, the more free from 
dross it becomes; the more men have touched the antipodes 
of sorrowing sympathy, or repellant hatred, the less worth- 
less material they contain. Fleshy, round, smooth faces, are 
significant of ease-loving and inactive minds. An old adage 
among the ancients was, that a lean and wrinkled face 
evinced great wisdom. 
It is true to a great ex- 
tent, that all original 
men of great mental 
labour have carried faces 
rather spare and well 

To think gives an 
action, to storm with 
thought requires great 
action; the great emotion 
swings the facial muscles 
one against another, pro- 
ducing deep wrinkles; 
and years of wonderful 
application and mental j 
effort leave deep indent- 
ations and well-defined 
marks on the Physiog- 
nomy of man; as active 
waters of former years 
have left their deep gullies on the Physiognomy of earth. 
Physiognomists call these wrinkles on mankind beautiful, 
as they are recorded evidences of a life of industry and 

In looking over six hundred photographs of noted rogue 

Lucius Annseus Seneca, a celebrated Ro- 
man philosopher, with well-defined lines* 
indicative of years of consecutive mental 


in the "rogue's gallery" in San Francisco, I observed that 
they were nearly all wrinkleless, and of round, full, expres- 
sionless faces. This peculiarity of features would scientifi- 
cally testify to an utter, or nearly an entire absence of 
character. As it takes much character to make a man 
thoroughly honest, so they have too little to give lines 
of honesty. 

People who live industrious lives are usually most moral, 
and out of a knowledge of this fact sprang the truthful 
saying, that " idleness is Satan's workshop." 

When visiting the penitentiaries of various States, that 
fact has been made apparent by the records of those several 
places of punishment, that many of those criminals were 
formerly loafers, without even a trade by which to earn an 
honourable living. 

A Scotchman, of Edinburgh, a remarkable example of physical industry, 
industry may be compared to the running brook, which 


is ever pure, or purifying itself; whereas idleness is the 
stagnant pool retaining all filth, and ever ready to receive 

There are many men and women who are well-born and 
amply educated, but who, not being compelled to labour, 
settle down into characterless nothings, and become cess- 
pools to catch the vices of those who surround them. 
Earnest, ardent, and interesting labour will develop char- 
acter, and that character will produce wrinkles. Hence, 
those who would lead lives of honour and usefulness, shun- 
ning vice and crime, let your aim ever be to cast off the 
scum of idleness which only gathers on still water*, never 
shading the purity of the dashing stream. 

PATH, GTTSTAVE DORE, a French designer and engraver, whose face 
shows strength rather than delicacy ; a power and wealth of imagination 
more than impassionable sentimentality. 


FROM the Latin word durus, hard, we have formed the 
English terms durable, durability, endure, endurance, because 
it has been remarked with respect to all substances in 
nature animal, vegetable, and mineral that the more hard 
they are, that is, the more compactly put together their 
particles, the more wear and tear they are capable of 
sustaining. The hardest, and, therefore, most imperishable 
of all known substances is the diamond; and scientific men 
reckon nine lesser degrees of hardness among minerals 
down to talc, which is the softest. Any of these, however, 
are harder than vegetable substances; among which the oak, 
ash, elm, chestnut, walnut, beech, birch, &c., called hard 
woods, have been proved to bear much more wear and tear 
than those denominated soft woods. Among animals, we 
find those to be the most hardy that have the least soft 
material, and the most hard in their composition fat being 
the softest, the muscle much harder, and the bones hardest 
of all. Fat (adipose) is a reservoir of nourishment in case 
of long fasting or sickness, And is conspicuous in the hump 
of the camel ; but it gives no power of enduring labour and 
fatigue. Horses are not considered n't for the race-course if 
they are at all in an adipose condition ; and those of Sahara, 
never much troubled with this quality, are still further 
reduced before joining an ostrich hunt ; which is the 
severest ordeal to which they are subject. So it is the 


lean hound, and not the fat dog, that is chosen to pursue 
the game, not merely on the ground of his swiftness, but 
his power of continued exertion. In the human race, we find 
that very fat persons are naturally puffed and out of breath 
after the least unusual exertion ; also that they never 
attain to old age, and are very liable to apoplexy; whereas 
those that endure well the toils of an industrious life, and 
become examples of extreme longevity, are persons of what 
is called a moderate habit of body. 

Bones being the hardest of all the materials entering into 
the constitution of the human body, we naturally expect, 
and find it so in fact, that the larger these are, the greater 
the power of physical endurance. A man may nob be tall, 
yet have broad, heavy bones; or he may be tall, and have 
large bones in proportion to the size of muscle. Such a one 
will be capable of greater exertion and will endure more 
fatigue than one whose bones and muscles are mure 
equally developed; because the bones, being harder than 
the muscles, are the more enduring substance. People 
thus constituted may not live so long as those of the 
rounder, life-giving form; but they will more easily 
sustain a hard day's march, fatiguing labour, prolonged 
fasting, or mental grief, than those of any other build. 
Such men exhibit well-marked outlines in their features; 
the face somewhat hard and angular; the nose always 
prominent; the eye-bones sharp and jutting out like the 
over-hanging cliff's of a waterfall. 

The camel (C. Bactrianus) is capable of more endurance 
than any other of the quadrupeds employed by man. How 
his bones stand out! how large are his joints! What an 
uncouth looking animal altogether! He can traverse the 
burning sands of the desert day after day without tasting 
food or refreshing himself with drink ; and this with a 
burden of perhaps a thousand pounds weight; performing 
a journey of hundreds of miles at the rate of two and one- 
half miles an hour. 


Less unsightly than the camel, but more bony and homely- 
looking than the horse (E. Caballus}, is the ass (E. Asinw}, 
and much more patient of continued fatigue. 

So we find homely, bony faces in mankind to be evidences 
of great power of endurance, both as to body and mind 
Abraham Lincoln was a remarkable example of this con- 
figuration. He is said to have gone through the severest 
agricultural labour in early life, and to have gained the 
soubriquet of the railsplitter, by performing the feat of 
splitting 3000 rails in one day. In his after career, he was 
pre-eminently distinguished for fortitude in suffering, as 
well as activity and perseverance in doing whatever fell to 
his lot. 

The persistent exertion which Weston, the pedestrian, 
requires to use in order to walk a hundred and twelve miles 
in twenty-four hours, is rarely if ever equalled. His walk 
of four hundred miles in five days, which he accomplished, 
as he did the other of a hundred and twelve in twenty-tout 
hours, is sufficient proof of his powers of endurance. His 
face and figure is at once skin and bony. The slightnes? 
affords him activity, the osteogeny insures the power of 
continuance. Andrew Jackson was another man formed te 
endure hardship, as was evinced in the osteous structure of 
his frame. When but thirteen years of age he fought under 
Sumter, and continued in the army until the end of the 
war of independence. At a later period, when the Creek 
Indians broke out in hostilities, he raised a volunteer force 
of two or three thousand men to defeat them, and, when 
provisions failed, set his men an example of endurance by 
feeding on hickory nuts, whence the soubriquet of Old 
Hickory. His political life was marked by a steady and 
powerful resistance of all opposition, and his presidency 
by singular firmness in carrying out whatever his judgment 
approved. Wellington is known to have rode the little 
horse Copenhagen for seventeen consecutive hours on the 


field of Waterloo, and to have declared he was as spirited 
and fresh as the animal, which kicked up on his dismount- 
ing. This celebrated general was rather of small stature, 
but bony, well-muscled, and so hardy that he received the 
soubriquet of " the Iron Duke." 

He, therefore, that would live long, and be capable of 
doing much while he lives, should avoid all that self- 
indulgence which brings on the heavy, spft, adipose con- 
formation. He may not be able to render his bones large 
and prominent; but he may generally avoid overloading 
himself with fat, and losing his manly energies in habits of 
luxurious ease and self-indulgence. 

WILLIAM CULLEN BKYANT, one of the most celebrated of American 
poets, an exceedingly close observer of all the phenomena throughout 
nature, yet a vast current of philosophy ran through his verse and prose, 
which embody multitudes of details interwoven with epigrammatic felicity 
into the purest and most beautiful English. 


AT the forty-third annual meeting of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, held in Edinburgh during 
the month of August, 1871, the subject of Longevity 
*as touched upon, though very sparingly discussed. The 
speakers according to a not uncommon practice among 
our modern so-called scientific teachers confined them- 
selves chiefly to facts for the most part such as could be 
culled from the daily newspapers, avoiding, as if with 
intent, the trouble of ascertaining the principles or reasons 
on which the inducted facts were based. They were loud 
as to results, but the " why" of the results the only thing 
one would imagine with which men of science, as such, have 
to do does not seem to have occupied even a moiety of 
their attention. They made certain statements relative to 
effects which had come directly or indirectly under their 
own notice, but left the causes on which the effects de- 
pended for their existence nearly or completely untouched. 
It is as if they had gravely stated that a stone thrown 
up into the air was sure to come down again, without 
making reference to that law by which the earth attracts 
to its centre bodies within a certain radius which are lighter 
than itself; or as if they had solemnly averred that the 
hardy lichen was the only plant which could thrive at 



the height of 18,225 feet above the level of the ocean, 
without referring to those peculiarities in the lichen which 
account for its growth in a region where other plants 
^ould wither and die. It is not enough for scientific 
purposes, or for practical purposes, to tell us that certain 
men lived to an extremely old age; for such a statement, 
unsupported by the results of philosophical research, is 
only calculated to make those whose friends do not reach 
a long term of years, dissatisfied with their circum- 
stances and ungrateful to nature. What kind of build 
had these long-lived men? What was the nature of 
the food they took into their systems ? What were 
their general and particular habits? How were they 
treated when they were young? And may other men, by 
using the same food, and accustoming themselves to the 
same habits, avoid a middle age or early death and live 
to the same age? These, and other questions lying on 
the same plane of things, we would expect to have 
answered when the subject is broached by scientific pro- 
fessors, and not the bald statement, which must be as 
evident to any newspaper- reading schoolboy as to the 
most philosophic among philosophers, that certain men 
have reached an uncommonly great age before giving up 
the ghost. 

It was stated by Mr. , in a paper which he read 

before the above Association, that he had observed " a 
sort of silvery expression, with apparently great toughness 
of the skin, which he deemed an essential peculiarity in 
persons over ninety," and these marks were given as 
Physiognomical signs of Longevity. So far so good. But 
what is it that produces this "silvery expression," and 
wnat is the cause of the " toughness of skin " observed 
in people over ninety years of age? These are the pro- 
blems which Mr. ought to have solved, but which 

he coony ignored. It is true he mentioned that the 


old people referred to did not use tobacco; but did he attri- 
bute the Physiognomical signs of which he had spoken to 
this fact? Nay, he did not so much as think it worthy of 
being suggested that tobacco was injurious to the human 
system, and must, as a necessary consequence, do much 
in the way of shortening life. Nor did he make the 
slightest allusion to the nature of the food on which the 


individuals to whom he referred had subsisted, neither 
did he consider it within his province to refer to the 
tough-skinned people's general habits. Thus we see men 
rlimbing the wall of science, or at least pretending to do 
so, while they are living in t,he grossest ignorance of the 
material of which that wall is constructed, and the kind 
of foundation on which it is based. 

To sustain life to an old age requires in man or animal 
strong vital powers, in order that the system in all its 
parts may be furnished with a sufficient quantity of healthy 
blood; for without a sufficiency of healthy blood there can 
be no harmonious, healthy action of the faculties, and where 
this healthy action of the faculties does not take place, 
that physical strength which is necessary for long endur- 
ance cannot possibly exist. When a lamp goes out, it is 
because it lacks combustible substance, viz, oil; and 
so it is with the lamp of life. When a man dies a natural 
death, the proximate cause of his death is a want of healthy 
blood which constitutes the substratum of human life. So 
long as the body is supplied with good blood, so long does 
"the lamp hold on to burn;" but once this ceases, life 
dies out, "the lamp" has lost its combustible substance, 
and can "burn" no longer. Now, this being settled, the 
question naturally comes up, " Where do we get good 
blood, and of what is it made?" We answer, good blood 
is made of good food, such as nature has provided for 
us, heartily eaten, and properly digested. He who has a 
capacious stomach, healthy digestive organs, and a goo-j 


appetite, possesses most unquestionably the fundamental 
essentials of a long life. Experiments have often been 
made, both on men and animals, and in every instance 
it has been found that long-lived persons have large 
stomachs. But, then, this organ can be damaged. Indeed 
there are few diseases whose beginnings cannot be 
traced to a deranged stomach. Tobacco, strong tea, strong 
coffee, spirituous liquors, unwholesome confectionaries, and 
luxuries of almost every description, invariably derange 
the stomach and weaken digestion; and whatever does 
this must inevitably shorten life. Roundness of body 
and largeness of mouth are always signs of a roomy 
stomach, and are thus, according to the principles laid 
down, physiognomical signs of longevity. So is it in 
plant life. The small lichen which can grow and vegetate 
on a higher altitude than any other plant, is round in 
form and vigorous, having large absorbing as well as cir- 
culatory powers. It has strong life-producing organs, and 
on account of its inherent vitality, can endure the cold 
and sustain itself in places where plants not so round 
in form would wither and perish in a few hours. The 
same thing is true of animals. Elephants are of a round 
construction, with large mouths, large stomachs, and are 
noble eaters; and it is admitted by all naturalists who 
know anything of history, that these animals have been 
known to live as long as 240 years. The round carp, or 
gold-fish, according to the testimony of Buffon, lives to 
an enormous age. He mentions two which he himself 
had seen, one of which was 150 and the other 200 years 
of age, and pike have been known to live even longer 
than that; while the tortoise, remarkable for its round- 
ness, with excellent digestive organs, sometimes sustains 
life during four full centuries. Birds, too, are very round 
and able to digest well even pebbles, nails, and glass 
being no obstruction; and we are assured by naturalists 


that there have been instances of swans living over 300 

Now, when we loot at those animals which are slim 
or flat in form, we find the very opposite to be true. Their 
stomachs are not capacious, thus rendering digestion less 
enduring, so that, comparatively speaking, they die at an 
early age. The common rabbit is long, thin, and flat, and 
rarely lives beyond ten years. The giraffe is peculiarly 
tall and slim of build, and seldom reaches the age of 
twenty. The ox and the horse rarely manage to live 
thirty years, especially those which are domesticated. 
Their natural habits are changed, and by a forced manner 
of feeding, their digestive organs become extremely weak, 
so that they are not unfrequently considered old at twenty. 
Prolonged life is dependent upon natural law, and where 
natural law is violated, premature death cannot but ensue. 
We have met with several men who were over 100 years 
of age; these were in various parts of the world, and 
in every instance they were of medium height, had large 
mouths, were round in form, with good healthy digestive 
organs, attributable to plain living when they were young. 
The persons of whom we speak were also very temperate 
in their habits. They neither smoked nor chewed tobacco; 
they were thus saved from throwing off their saliva and 
weakening their stomachs. Only one of them used coffee, 
and he only once per day. They all partook of tea, but 
it was of the weakest kind. Confectionaries they avoided, 
and when they were younger had lived much in the open 
air. They wore comfortable, strong clothing, and in quan- 
tities sufficient to protect them from cold, while they took 
in enough of pure oxygen. They were not fleshy, though 
of round build, and their bones had been strengthened by 
industry, and the character of their food. In none of them 
was there the slightest appearance of that species of tumor 


containing pap or plaster -like matter. They were not 
atheromatous: such symptoms being found only where the 
digestive organs are not good, and in consequence the 
blood is much impaired. Their hearts were free from 
fat, their lungs strong and healthy, and their external 
senses were good, with the exception of two persons who 
were a little deaf, and all these ever-to-be-envied bodily 
conditions were the natural effects of a powerful nutritious 
system. One coloured man who lived in Ohio, and was 
113 years of age, had all the special senses in perfect 
order, and his well-balanced judgment we have scarcely 
seen equalled among men of forty. Nor was there one 
of all the centenarians, which it has been our good fortune 
to see, who manifested the slightest degree of dissatisfaction 
relative either to their age or circumstances. Indeed, a 
halo of commendable resignation seemed to surround every 
one of them, and to this resignation, or rather intelligent 
contentment, they were much indebted for their long life, 
as nothing is more conducive to healthy digestion, regu- 
larity of bodily secretions, and good blood, than this very 
rare mental quality. Owing to their temperate and in- 
dustrious habits, the nervous system was never deranged; 
and this being the case, the brain and nerve form was 
preserved intact the importance of which it is impossible 
to over-estimate. We may also add that they were all 
married, or had been, which contributed not a little to 
their "length of days;" for while matrimony improper 
leads to ill-health and premature death, matrimony, as 
nature would have it, ever tends to longevity. Thomas 
Parr, who died at the advanced age of 152 years, was 
examined by Harvey, to whom the world is indebted 
for at least one important Physiological discovery, and 
according to Harvey's account, Parr's bodily organs -were 
in such excellent order that, but for tho fact that he was 


taken to London to visit Charles I. and his Court, and 
was prevailed upon to indulge largely in cake, wine, and 
other luxuries, he might have lived fifty years longer. 
These things, however, being wholly unsuitable for his 
system, deranged so materially and rapidly his digestive 
organs, that he died before he had time to return home. 
Of this remarkable man Taylor wrote the following brief 
description : 

" His limbs their strength have left, 
His teeth all gone (but one) his sight bereft, 
His sinews shrunk, his blood most chill and cold 
Small solace ; imperfections manifold 
Yet still his sp'rits possess his mortal trunk; 
Nor are his senses in his ruins shrunk, 
But that his hearing's quick, his stomach good, 
He '11 feed well, sleep well, well digest his food. 
He will speak heartily, laugh, and be merry; 
Drink ale, and now and then a cup of cherry, 
Loves company, and understanding talk, 
And on both sides, held up, will sometimes walk; 
And though old age his face with wrinkles fill, 
He hath been handsome, and is comely still; 
Well-faced, and though his beard not oft corrected, 
Yet neat it grows, not like a beard neglected." 

The portrait of Parr which is given on page 180, and 
which we feel assured our readers will be interested 
to see, is from a likeness by Reubens. It was painted 
when Parr was 140 years of age, twelve years before he 

The conclusion to which we have come, then, not only 
from personal observation, but from the testimony of others 
who have made experiments, is, that roundness of form and 
largeness of stomach, indicated by a corresponding capacious- 
ness of mouth, are unmistakable Physiognomical signs of 
long life; because where these are we find as a natural 
consequence healthy digestion and strong assimilative 
powers, all of which keep the human system in good repair, 


and are absolutely necessary to longevity. And here we 
may give without comment a rule to determine longevity, 
which has been popular among German doctors for more 
than two hundred years. 

An imaginary or real line can be run from the lower 
portion of the superciliary ridge to the occipital point or 
protuberance; if this line runs high above the opening 
of the ear the life force is strong, if running near or 
over the opening of the ear the life force is weak or very 

It may be objected by half-informed religionists that a 
desire for long life is in direct opposition to that plain 
statement in the sacred Scriptures, which speaks of seventy 
years as the term of human life; but to this we have to 
reply that we have never been able to accept that statement 
as unconditional. The foolishness of man was no doubt 
apparent to the author of the statement, and, so far as we 
can judge, he merely meant to say that the habits of men, 
chiefly evil, stood in the way of long life, and that so long 
as these habits were unchanged, generally speaking, seventy 
years would end their sublunary days ; but let the habits 
of men be changed ; let their bodies be attended to 
from childhood upwards as they ought to be attended to ; 
let all narcotics, whether of a solid or liquid nature, be 
strenuously kept out of the system; thus let the digestive 
organs get, what we call in common parlance, "fair play," 
and what is there in the words of Israel's poet to hinder 
any man from living twice seventy years ? Men should fall 
into the arms of death as they fall into the arms of sleep; 
but the evil is that men die before they are ripe for it. 
They go down to the grave before their time. There are 
two ways of committing suicide suddenly and gradually 
and we have no hesitation in saying that thousands of our 
fellow-men, unconsciously and unintentionally, of course, 
practise the latter daily and thus, instead of hanging, so to 

speak, on the tree of life until such time as they are ripe, 
and could drop off decently, like luscious pears from their 
branches, they, by a horrible system of unintended self- 
murder, gradually kv iiuon themselves unholy bands, and 
die not decently, but* ;n very rrv?vm. 

HENRY BERGH, founder of the " American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals," whose long narrow face tells of his philanthropic 
mind ; the well lined and clearly denned features evidence thorough edu- 
cation, combined with noble and lofty aspirations. 


THE subject of one-sided people affords a wide field for 
thought and expression ; for comparison, conception, and 
reform ; and we hardly know how to preface a subject so 
prolific with the excesses of natural and forced deformity. 
But we can conceive of no enterprise so grand, no means 
so noble, no undertaking so philanthropic, as that which 
has for its end the elevation of common humanity. It is 
too true that the idiosyncracies of our natures sometimes 
seem to preclude the entire possibility of. our exercising 
the charity we should toward the shortcomings of our 
fellow-men. We forget we too are weak and dependent 
upon others for our own success and progress in the arts 
and sciences, and every scale of educational refinement ; and 
in reasoning by the analogies we would present, we find we 
are deficient in the ncble charities of thought and sentiment 
toward our one-sided neighbours, consequently we may not 
be judged by our own criticisms. 

We are much inclined to forget that we too are mortal. 
And as we raise our standard, which would make our fellow- 
men perfect men and women, we too often forget, that upoir 
our faces and upon our physical and physiological develop- 


ments and mental acquirements, are stamped the characters 
we represent, and we are as a walking monument; the 
whole man stands out as an open book, and he who runs 
may read. 

Could we know ourselves, and see ourselves as we are 
seen, methinks that a spirit of reform would be going on 
in every nature, and we would strive to cast the beam from 
our own eye, that we might the more easily discern the 
mote in our neighbour's eye. 

Nature has done much tc deform us, and we are suffering 

7 O 

from the sins of our fathers from the generations past; 
while neglect does not make us any better does not apply 
the healing art does not come with an imperative demand 
upon us that we exercise all our own moral agency, that 
we might make use of all within our powers, and be careful 
to avoid many of the excesses of life, that we might present 
ourselves less faulty before our fellow-men. 

Which of us shall say, I am without spot or blemish 
devoid of all deformities, assuming the title of nobility 
belonging only to the perfect man? While ignorant mothers 
And careless nurses dandle children in such excruciating 
attitudes, is it any wonder that they are deformed in person 
(scarce half made up), crooked in all the traits of manhood, 
one-sided in actions and dealings with fellow-men, and all 
the result of ignorant nursery treatment. 

We will notice some of the imperfections, their causes 
and tendencies. Not one person in a thousand is in perfect 
form, from some cause, direct or indirect, moulding us to 
honour or dishonour stamping the signet upon our mental, 
moral, and physical natures. Our cruel nurses commence 
to torment us by holding us too long on one arm, and keep 
us lying too much on one side; this has a tendency to 
deform us. Holding our heads too low, too much blood 
comes to the brain; the bones and skull are soft at this 
tender period, they are easily put out of shape. The brain 


settles on one side of the head, the form is twisted to one 
side, and the features are drawn out of shape. 

As the result of ill-treatment, we trace imperfections and 
deformities in our fellow-men. Some we see with one 
lung better developed than the other, one shoulder higher 
than the other, one corner of the mouth higher than the 
other and drawn aside, one eye-brow arched higher than the 
other; the eyes are nob horizontal and one is partly closed, 
the nose is not in a straight line with the face. We also 
notice the beard to grow heavier on one side of the face 
than the other, as the result of lying too much on one side 
while sleeping; it hinders the circulation of the blood, thus 
diminishing the activity and energy of that side, making 
many subjects for paralysis, heart disease, and very many 
ailments to which flesh is heir. This should not be prac- 
tised, everybody should change sides every night; we used 
to change our old-fashioned round-toed shoes every morning 
to make them wear longer ; so people will wear longer who 
change sides in sleeping. Those husbands who insist upon 
having their wives sleep on the back side of the bed, and 
are never willing to take it themselves and let their wives 
come to the front, are making both their wives and them- 
selves one-sided, when turn about each night would equalize 
the affair, and be a sure correction of the evil which too 
often prevails. 

A well-balanced body and brain are indispensably neces- 
sary to a well-balanced mind, and a violation of any law 
of nature criminates us; we stand as culprits at the 
great tribunal of our conscience, to answer for the mental, 
moral, and physical sufferings. It is well known that any 
violation of the laws of nature makes one-sided people, and 
one-sidedness tends to insanity, so the majority of persons 
with whom we mingle from day to day are partially insane. 

It is related of Dr. Wigham, who attended the grave of 
Queen Charlotte, that he said he had seen her buried before; 


he never had, for she was buried only once. One side of his 
brain was larger than the other, he took two impressions of 
the burial, the larger half of his organization taking the im- 
pression first, and the lesser instantly after, which is double 
consciousness. One form of insanity after another comes up 
before us, asking our forbearance, imploring our aid. 

These questions, like deep-seated tumours, require the 
delicate and artistic touch of a skilful surgery, or else their 
life is surely imperilled. There is no place for quackery 
here, "the diagnosis", is beyond the ken of pretentious 

We have to deal with mind and character; minds as 
varying as the changing colours of the chameleon, and 
characters which need the polish of true society, and all its 
educational refinements which their capacity will hold; yet 
in spite of our endeavours to educate and refine, the cloven 
foot will present itself. 

The dignity of man and his superior qualities, his nobi- 
lity, and his sovereignty, has been from time immemorial the 
orator's theme and the poet's song, and yet his overbearing 
nature and one-sided propensities have been touched upon 
very lightly. He loves money, and grinds the faces and pulls 
out the very heart-strings of the operative and employee. 

Oh! with what conscience can such a man enjoy the 
wealth wrung from the finger-ends of the seamstress, as in 
the gloomy attic, by the midnight candle, she wastes her 
life, strains her eyes and heartstrings to earn a miserable 
pittance that just suffices to keep the life-pulse beating; and 
yet these parvenues claim respectability. 

With peacock pride they spread their ostentatious plum- 
mage, flaunt their snobbery, and parade their ginger-bread 
aristocracy in the faces of honest men. Ah! and "with 
devout visage and pious act" pharisaically take the name 
of the Sav iour upon their lips. And what a miserably one- 
sided man is the miser! 


" Proud fame's a stranger to his blinded eyeo, 
He ne'er has seen her gilded dome arise ; 
Oh no ! poor man, loth to release his hold, 
Sees nothing, knows no God but gold. 

" While to his base desire he serves as slave ; 
Ambition's summit is to him to crave 
A glittering dust, and with outstretched hand 
Grasps in the shining particles of sand. 

* He weeps, he starts, he fancies footsteps near, 
And grasping with both hands his treasures dear; 
He hears them coming, hears them whisper low 1 
His fancies wild tell him ' They'll rob me now.' 

" One foot advanced one hand above his head. 
He invokes the pious blessings of the dead ; 
Calls on his God but surely knows not why- 
He knows no God but gold he fears to die. 

** Repulsive, cold, he'd friendship's rights disclaim. 
And Charity he spurns from him, ' poor dame; ' 
Refusing aught, whoe'er the stranger be, 
Lest Heaven should smile and bless his charity." 

How grand are the works of creation! what a vast field 
for thought and speculation to the thinking mind. The 
Great Mind has created all things for us, and given us 
minds to appreciate them, and souls to love them; it has 
adorned the heavens with stars, and carpeted the earth 
with flowers; it has strewn all along our pathway ten 
thousand blessings and evidences of our immortality. Who 
has not felt the force of the fable, that when man asked 
Jove to give him evidence of his immortality, Jove gave 
him " Music." And who can doubt? Who that delights in 
song, and has stood with wonder-stricken awe, in the 
spacious corridor of the Cathedral of St. Isaac at St. Peters- 
burg, St. Peter's at Rome, or St. Paul's in London, how 
have we listened to the organ's plaintive strains rising 
higher and higher, until music sweet filled each vaulted 
niche, then to the ear again; then higher, still higher rise 


the pealing tones of thunder, giving expression to the 
symphony, then bursting forth in all tne strains of har- 
mony, loud, long, exultingly. Our minds thus reach up to 
Jehovah, and we are touched by the breath of inspiration, 
\Vhoshall then deny our immortality, or limit our progres- 
sion in this world or the world to come? 

If our minds are not poisoned with " one-sided theology" 
we can admit that the laws of progress were not formed for 
this world alone, that the mind of a, Newton, and the mind 
of a child shall not remain the same for ever, but the end 
shall be as the beginning was God and progress. 

Say not that the soul perishes at the portal of the tomb, 
but reason with your one-sided minds until you say we 
shall with angel architects and artists arrange and re-arrange 
castle after castle, where science, skill, and mind, and 
art are required to draw the lines of beauty and make 
almost tangible all the fairy castles made in our faith for 
future occupancy. 

The. last, and the very meanest thint* in all the one-sided 
category, is the "Politician," the aspirant for fame; he is 
ushered into the political arena, they laud and fondle him 
at the nominating caucus; he has money (it does not matter 
how he got it), he responds nobly, (says, he can't make 
much of a speech), but here, "take these greenbacks, and 
do the best you can for me." Thank you. They are 

" Eloquent in song, and to nature true." 

He has more of the " dust which fools adore and call a God" 
than brains, so of course he is elected to the high and 
honourable position of legislator or senator. 

He boasts that his seat cost him over fifty thousand 
dollars, and he carries the votes of about four members in 
his pantaloons pocket. If he has talents, he can spread 
himself like a green bay tree for a season ; but he is likely 
to be nipped by the first frotst of the coming autumn; h* 


can boast if he chooses of the Honourable title he bears> 
that his aspirations are gratified, his presumption more 
than realized; but his fame is not lasting, it is not worth 
the price he paid for it; he was elected by his " one-sided" 
constituents, and they still continue to be one-sided towards 
him (on the side he carries his money), and he, to carry 
on the joke in retaliation, having succeeded in attaining 
his high position of honour, has no more use for his con- 
stituents, and of course takes the other side of the street, 
and they call him one-sided for trying to avoid the crowd. 

Men generally would rather aspire to honour, and make 
money, than cultivate their minds. Mammon is the one- 
sided god of this world, and the world will love its own. 
The rich man is to be pitied rather than envied, if he 
has nothing but his money. Homer, it is true, was a 
beggar, and Milton sold his Paradise Lost for five 'pounds 
sterling, and yet what Croesus has such immortal honours 
as they? 

Let us cultivate our minds, try and get the warp all 
out of them. Let us learn to think for ourselves, act and 
reason for ourselves. Let us feed the inner life with 
heavenly manna, and bask in the sunlight of our wt-Ll- 
cultured intelligence. " Knowledge is power," and is never 
lost; every idea we gain here, every talent we improve, 
will set us ahead in the spiritual life, where angels will 
be our teachers. It is an indispensable doctrine of the 
Scriptures, that the allotment of the ransomed shall be in 
proportion to their attainments here. 

We are candidates for a prize, wrestlers for a diadem. 
Life is a compound of the material and spiritual, by virtue 
of necessity. To most men it is largely material, but little 
spiritual. The spiritual is not sufficiently cultivated. 
The life to come will be a spiritual life, and if we culti- 
vate the mind, the spiritual here, and in proportion as 
we cultivate it, we shall be prepared for the great here- 


after. Let us avoid being one-sided at all times; let u 
learn to be philosophers, and 

" Do good, let those who will be clever 
Do noble things, not dream them all day long, 
And make life, death, and the vast for ever 
One grand sweet song." 

M Grey friar's Bobby." A remarkable dog, that guarded his master'* 
grave with unswerving fidelitj for upwards of thirteen 
in Edinburgh, Scotland. 


ANIMALS which produce young of precisely the same form 
and colour as the parents, will be found to continue or 
the same plane of life as their progenitors; while animal? 
which produce young differing in colour from the parents, 
are capable, by the laws of nature, of improving in body 
and intelligence. Those animals which had their origin 
in Circassia are progressive, and their varied colour in the 
same species is evidence that they can change; and pro- 
gression requires, as it implies change. 

The common apple has ever been found where the white 
race live, and each flourishes equally in temperate climates, 
having had their origin in the same atmosphere where the 
soil, and heat, and cold have the same influence ; so, having 
sprung from the same causes, their effects cannot vary. 
Hence what effects one favourably, must of necessity 
generously improve the other. 

Of all fruits none is so commonly cultivated by the 
white race as the apple. It has amongst fruits the earliest, 
widest, and most interesting history. According to all 
accounts, either sacred or profane, this hardy fruit appeared 
about the same time as the white or varied race, and has 
been carried with them in their migrations to the remotest 
latitudes of the globe. Theophrastus classed it amongst 
the more civilized fruits (urbaniores) ; Tacitus described 
it as the favourite fruit of the ancient Germans. A 


shrivelled apple was obtained from one of the lake 
dwellings of Switzerland. Ulysses and Solomon praise its 
juices; Tantalus grasps anxiously for it in Hades; Iduna 
keeps in a box apples which the gods, when they feel old 
age approaching, have only to taste to become young again. 
The legends of all ages, since the white race began, have 
recorded evidence of the existing apple. The mythology 
of the temperate climates often refer to this fruit. Thus, 
from what can be gathered from history, we may conclude 
that this fruit has been transplanted to, and flourished in, 
all the localities and climates where the white race has 
made a pleasant home. This fruit rarely produces from 
the seeds the same colour, taste, flavour, and shape as 
the parent stock. In this principle the apple is precisely 
like the ox, horse, dog, goat, cat and other domestic animals, 
all of which originated in the same climate, and about 
the same time where and when man's origin is dated. 

The dog has been largely improved under the intelligent 
management of man. The horse never could shew more 
fine points of make, or trot a mile in less time than during 
the past year. The high rate of speed attained by this 
animal is attributed by horsemen to the improving effects of 
breeding. The ox has risen to a high state of domestic 
usefulness under the influences of man's observation and 
guidance. So we could say of all the animals living with 
the Caucasian race in a domestic state. But the signs of 
improvement are what we are seeking. These can be based 
on the great principle inherent in the white race of man- 
kind Wherever the children or offspring follow undevia- 
tingly the colour of their parentage, we may rest assured 
that nature has made only one channel or groove in which 
that species is to run ; and what nature designed to be, no 
man can long thwart. Nature has fixed her moults on all 
her wonderful works, and they can properly bt understood 
only by the student of nature. 


Where nature has allowed a departure, and even provided 
for a variety in colour, which is only the significant banner 
of the inherent laws which govern and regulate animal 
life; there man can, by studying the governing principles, 
so apply them that more variety and an improved condition 
cm be produced, which will be vastly superior to the fore- 
gone generations of that species. 

This law applies with equal force to apples, peaches, 
pears, and all fruits where the seedling varies in colour, 
flavour, and size from the parent stock; for any law in 
nature is just as true to her banner or outward signs in the 
vegetables in the animal kingdom. 

JOHN HENRY B. IHVING, an English actor of great celebrity, whose 
face shows remarkable self-control, critical interest in the engrossing 
topics of the day, a vice-like memory which never relaxes its grip on 
whatever it seizes. 


As nature never made a face for physiognomical purposes 
alone, so also she has not formed a body of special shape 
to indicate simply its peculiar adaptations. The primary 
intention of nature would seem to be necessity. None 
would be so stupid as to claim that it was necessary 
an animal should be of long, slim form, simply that man 
might be able to tell what its capacities were. Necessity is 
a higher law in the designs of nature than pleasure. It 
is true it might afford to many a pleasure to be able to 
discern all the peculiarities of an animal by its outward 
form. But nature, in her great beneficence, is true to her 
own needs first, and thus begins with charity at home. 

If we were to make an engine roll over a railroad track 
at the speed of sixty miles per hour, we would construct it 
on the light, slim principle. The driving wheels should be 
large in circumference, piston-rods having a long stroke, 
and light and slim rather than thick. If we wished an 
engine to run twenty miles per hour, and pull a long freight 
train of immense weight, we would form it on an entirely 
different plan from the swift-running but weaker engine. 
The plan for strength is breadth and heft. The wheels 
should be low. The piston-stroke short, and thickness and 
heft should enter into its design very largely, 


Now, nature acts with, more wisdom than man never 
less ; therefore, when she wishes an animal for great action 
and less strength, she builds the legs long and slim, the 
body is long and narrow, the tail, alike with the bead, is 
long and thin also, and when all parts are thus formed, the 
muscles, having great length of body in which to contract, 
give quick pulling upon the tendons, they acting quickly 
upon the slim, light bones, move them rapidly, and agility 
is the result. Thus can we discover that the great law oi 
proportion in animals is true as in mechanics; that propor- 
tionately as motion is increased action is diminished. 
Hence, by no difficult process of reasoning, we arrive at the 
conclusion, that animals constructed on the broad plan, like 
the lion, tiger, gorilla, crocodile, and elephant are strong; 
while we as effectually learn that animals of the long, 
narrow build, are agile. Man, being subject to these same 
natural laws as animals are, when constructed on the same 
plan, will possess the identical qualities and powers; there- 
fore WQ at once and for all decide that a man of tall, slim, 
or short, slim build, is naturally brisk and sprightly of 
motion. We just as soundly decide that a man who is five 
feet high, and weighs two hundred and fifty pounds will 
generally move slowly. As an example, take Weston, the 
rapid walker of America, who walked one hundred and 
twelve miles in less than twenty-four consecutive hours, 
and four hundred miles in five succeeding days. He is 
a slim, tall man. 

General Washington was built on the tall, slim plan, and 
history records it as a fact that he was an excellent runner, 
and could jump twenty-two feet at a single bound. 

General Sherman is tall and slim, and no more indus- 
trious and quick-motioned man entered the American army 
during the late rebellion. 

The proofs of this truth in Physiognomy are in nearly 
every household in America. Take that lubberly, round, 


stout, and short boy, and see his slow movements, and how 
he loves his ease, while that tiny, light, slim, little girl is 
all vivacity and sprightliness. 

The most active animal of the domestic circle is the grey- 
hound, and how slim his legs, long his tail, gaunt his body, 
outstretched his neck, and pointed and far-reaching his 

The best Physiognomical sign of quickness is a long and 
pointed nose. Animals and men with long, thin-pointed 
noses are formed on the active, slim plan in every depart- 
ment of their natures and bodily build. 

There is less action in animals that 'hybernate than is 
found among most others. The black bear is a hybernating 
animal, and is characterized for strength and the destructive 
qualities attending the broad build more than for nimble- 
ness. The marmot (Arctomys Marmotta} enters into the 
lethargic hybernating state about the middle of September, 
and does not emerge from it until sometime about the 
beginning of April. The marmot is of thick and clumsy 
form, very strong and not very active. 

The urson has a short nose and moves slowly. 

The kaolo, or Australian bear (Phascolarctos cinereus), 
uses great deliberation in climbing a tree. The toes and 
feet of the animal are well adapted for the slow, but sure 
mode in which he progresses among the branches of a tree, 
and are less useful when making his slow terrestrial pro- 
gress. His nose is exceedingly short. 

The animal most known among African hunters, as 
possessed of marvellous speed, is the gazelle (Gazella 
Dorcas') and the Gazella Ariel. Their whole make-up is 
remarkably slim, thin, and in a manner adapted to rapid 
change of position. 

In contrast to the last-mentioned animal, we would call 
attention to the sloth (Bradypus tridaetylus), a tardigrade 
edentate mammal of the genus Bradypus. The name 


indicates the peculiar characterizing trait of the animal, 
as sluggishness and laziness are its natural birthright, for 
no living animal is equally inert and torpid. The whole 
form is short, broad, strong, and consequently of a lumpish 
and exanimate disposition. The existing species of sloth 
is arboreal; but many of the extinct kinds were huge 
terrestrial animals. 

The wombat (Phascolomya ursinus) has a very heavy 
body and short legs, and in its gait has a rolling waddle 
much resembling the lurching of a sailing vessel when in a 
storm. The muzzle is quite broad and thick. It is an 
apathetic animal. ' 

The coati, or Coati Alondi (Narua Ruia}, has a nose and 
head much resembling that of the Persian greyhound, and 
no animal can ascend or descend a tree in less than twice 
the time it requires to do so. It being a nocturnal animal, 
its agility and rapidity of movement is only seen as the 
shades of evening descend or at the dawn of morning. 

The chaeropus (Ghaeropus constanotis) has also a very 
long and pointed nose, and is remarkably active. 

The weasel (Nustela vulgaris) is rarely equalled by any 
animal in nimbleness, and the sparkling eye and slim form 
bespeak the active faculty. 

The long, active stoat, or ermine (Mustela erminea), with 
its agile limbs and sharp teeth, can kill a hare with ease, 
and is a terror to rats and mice; and chickens and ducks 
suffer considerably from its inroads. Its size is not much 
more than that of a common rat; but its superiority is in 
its pertinacious skill in pursuing all its game, its eagerness, 
and agility. 

We should think those proofs from the animal world 
must be sufficient to satisfy observing and reasoning minds 
that form not only evinces character, but as truthfully 
manifests the strength or action with which the man or 
animal is endowed. 


The importance of action, and rightly directed alacrity, 
cannot be too strongly impressed upon the minds of the 
youth of every clime. 

" Act well your part ; there all the honour lies." POPE. 
A German poet has nobly sung 

" Act! for in action are wisdom and glory; 
Fame, immortality these are its crown; 
Would'st thou illumine the tablets of story? 
Build on achievements thy doom of renown." 

And Hannah More inculcates the same precept when 
she says: 

"The keen spirit 

Seizes the prompt occasion ; makes the thoughts 
Start into instant action, and at once 
I'laiis and performs, resolves and executes ! " 

Innumerable instances of the same grand lesson have 
been sounded in the ears of lethargic humanity by all the 
philosophers and sages, as well as by those "gentlest, 
sweetest teachers of mankind," the poets. Would that 
all might take the teaching to heart, and emulate in their 
lives and conduct what none have more forcibly urged 
than Longfellow, in his well-known Psalm of Life: 

" Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime, 
And, departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time. 

Let us, then, be up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Leari. to labour and to wait I* 


THE laws of magnitude, that is to say, the length and 
breadth, height and width of all growing bodies, are not 
so generally comprehended by mankind as they should be; 
and, indeed, notwithstanding that length is one indicator, 
and width another, of certain qualities in both animal and 
vegetable productions, the masses seem utterly to ignore 
the fact that they imply one thing more than another. 
That they are, however, is quite evident; for as the form or 
proportion of a thing is, so will be its character. There- 
fore do we assert that to obtain that knowledge upon 
which is based the fundamental principles of the creation, 
both height and width require to be observed in their 
relative proportions. The length of animals that are full 
and round in the abdominal region, is not observed to be 
the same in proportion to their width, such as the ox, 
hog, elephant, and grizzly bear. These have a well-de- 
veloped roundness throughout their entire structure, and 
a peculiarity of nature far different from the elongated 
giraffe, or the slim grey-hound, or the active and nervous 
weasel. What a vast difference in disposition and appear- 
ance have these two diverse sets of animals, as unlike in 
natural inclinations and instincts as in body. Indeed, 
everything in nature corresponds in the same ratio with 


another. For instance, if the features be round, every 
peculiarity of the whole structure will be in accordance 
with it; if, on the other hand, the features are long, the 
whole animal will correspond in length and spareness of 
form. So also will its disposition be marked with either 
more or less of a certain sharpness or intuitive keenness 
unknown, or seldom perceived, in the more roundly-built 
animals. And also do those Physiognomical signs apply 
with equal force to mankind ; because man, on scientific 
principles, is an animal like the rest, and only distinguished 
from the brute creation by a higher order of formation, 
and the balancing powers of a superior reason. 

When we find persons blending the relative proportions 
of width and length together in an equivalent degree, we 
perceive that beauty of form and symmetry are their 
combinative results. The extremes being blended, correct 
each other, softening all the harsh outlines which would 
attend either one solitarily; and the result of this is that 
harmony is produced, and consequently beauty. 

Great height in any animal is a certain index of poor 
digestion, weakness, and shortness of life. Animals, on the 
other hand, of comparatively good width and massiveness 
are of excellent digestion, and live to attain a great age. 
Thus is the elephant a long-lived animal, while the grey- 
hound reaches the terminus of his life in, at most, a few 
years. The same law is equally applicable to the members 
of the vegetable kingdom ; hence the oak, and the more 
ponderous trees of California, attain an incalculable age, 
while the poplar, fir, and other attenuated trees are of 
delicate constitution, and decay in comparatively brief 

Whilst travelling through Oregon, we observed that 
thousands of fir trees were broken away above or below 
their middles, indicating that brittleness in their slimness 
of form, which eventually shattered and sapped the founda- 


tions of their existence. Also does the law of averaged 
width and equable length hold good in mankind; for the 
well-proportioned man, equally removed from obesity and 
slim ness, is invariably healthy, vigorous, and enduring 
Napoleon remarked during one of his wonderful 
campaigns that it was not the tallest soldier who could 
endure the most hardship, but the one whose build was 
equally removed from all extremes. Men having equable 
length and breadth possess, moreover, good digestive powers, 
and the prognosis is that they will live longest. Tall and 
slim animals, on the contrary, die at an early age, for being 
of delicate organizations, they are subject to malarious, 
miasmatic, and other deleterious influences which most 
inevitably surround them. Besides this, they are also 
coarser in texture than the more equally proportioned, 
and hence liable to be affected by climatic influences, such 
as strong winds and oppressive heat or excessive cold. 
It is notable that the tall poplar sways with every blast 
that whistles through its trembling branches, while the 
oak, in its vast and massive proportions, faces the hurricane 
with defiant air, and withstands the blasts of centuries. 

This law of length and breadth, therefore, is universal, 
and governs everything in nature: whether it be in man- 
kind, animals, or vegetables, it is equally applicable. 

Again, the lion is modelled on the round principle, 
and consequently possesses that extraordinary texture of 
physique and force of vitality which makes him so fine 
and compact in his organization. On the other hand, the 
tall giraffe or camel-leopard is formed on the slim structure, 
and so weak, indeed, is he, that the lion can kill him. with 
a single stroke of his powerful paw; being also oil the 
long and slim build, his life is of much shorter duration 
than that of his nobler and more magnanimous enemy. 

Notwithstanding, however, the foregoing instances of 
strength and weakness to which we have thus far alluded, 


there are cases into which we must penetrate more closely 
to obtain a true diagnosis of facts relative to slimness in 
the human form. For instance, some very short people are 
slim by reason of being stunted in early age through divers 
causes, but if their height is fully proportionate to their 
width, they may to a certain extent enjoy the same powers 
of longevity. All animals built on this plan possess the 
same qualities and characteristics as mentioned heretofore 
in this article. 

Animals on the slim and elongated principle are best 
known, as the giraffe, the race-horse, the deer, and certain 
varieties of dogs and birds. Corresponding specimens can 
also be found among men. Characteristics of great action, 
with less endurance and strength, are invariably found in 
the taller specimens of both the higher and lower grades of 
the animal creation. Indeed, the same principle is recog- 
nized in all motive power, whether animal or mechanical. 
For instance, the tall, large-wheeled passenger locomotive 
bounds the track with lightning-like velocity, yet it would 
be unable to draw the train which is trundled slowly along 
by the low, diminutive wheels of the freight engine. The 
lion or grizzly bear can carry an ox for hours through 
forest or jungle, and, indeed, over the rockiest prominences 
of their native wilds, with the same ease that a cat could 
bear a mouse; yet, in a fair race, the greyhound could 
outrun and leave them miles behind him in a few hours. 
Who has not read of the little, active, and slim David, 
slaying, with a pebble from his sling, the huge and rounded 
giant, Goliath; and yet could Goliath, with his Herculean 
strength, have reduced a company of Davids into instant 
annihilation. Then again, Sampson, with his massive arms 
and immense shoulders, exerted a strength, in the tearing 
down of the Philistines' temple, that immolated himself and 
thousands of his enemies, and yet any school-boy could, 
doubtlesp, outrun him. As an example of tremendous 


physical strength, Dr. Windship of Boston can lift 2,600 Ibs 
with straps over his shoulders. Now, let us note the 
manner of his build : he is short and broad, with muscles 
on his shoulders as hard and prominent as those of a draft- 
horse; while, on the other hand, the famous American 
pedestrian, Weston, is of spare build, and could probably 
walk more in one day than the formidable Windship could 
in two or three. Strength, as an invariable rule, is found 
in broad bodies, while its opposite action may be traced 
to men of little or no ponderosity. 

Hence, Windship, with his wonderful development of 
physique, has a compact, fine, hard, and strong muscular 
organization; while Weston, with his almost incredible 
powers of activity, is less hard than springy, lighter, more 
porous, and consequently flabbier in general construction. 

The blending of these adverse conditions is commor 
enough, but the manner of their amalgamation with its full 
comprehension is where the difficulty lies, and which to 
attain by accurate solution requires study, observation, and 
extensive research. As a general rule, the mouth and chin 
are excellent indicators of the slim or even round varieties 
of the animal species. Indeed, where we find a wide 
mouth and wide chin, the other surrounding features are 
likewise large; hence the massiveness of the Physiognomy 
invariably indicates the massiveness of the body, and governs 
the whole texture, be it in man or animal, with equal 
solicitude. The abdominal form of such an individual also 
predominates. However, if you should discover that the 
mouth is diminutive and the chin narrow, then the long 
and slim order is in the ascendant. 


THIS faculty shews an extraordinary development in some 
people, and so keen and discriminative are those who pos- 
sess it in an inordinate degree, that they are enabled to 
peer into our very souls, and to penetrate with equal 
facility every passion and energy of the human mind. Now, 
the word penetrate is, as every intelligent reader knows, 
a transitive verb, signifying, to enter; and in the present 
instance, we might define it with equal accuracy by iterat- 
ing, as it relates so directly to passing thought, that it is 
an expression used to divine the inmost workings of one's 
mind, or to enter with intuitive power into the occult 
capacities and passions of the understanding. 

When in nature or mechanism we wish to discover pene- 
trative qualities, we select objects of decided sharpness; 
for dull implements, like dull people, are over-thick in their 
bluntness, and not at all adapted to the nice distinctions of 
penetration or perception of character. Hence, having the 
objects of this brief article partly explained, we reiterate 
,that persons possessing the qualities of great insight, acute- 
ness, and sagacity of character are discovered invariably 
to have sharp features. The features and the mind, there- 
fore, in this respect, have synonymous significations. The 
one creates the other, and the etfeot must of necessity bear 


a similarity to the cause which is plainly evidenced both 
in nature and philosophy. As the mind becomes sharp, 
penetrating, and discerning, so will the features assume a 
like sharpness. Therefore we assert that animals with 
sharp features are always keen, discerning, acute, sagacious, 
and Argus-eyed ; illustrations of which can be found in 
the fox, eagle, crow, and greyhound, all noted for a cast 
of features of sharpened prominence. Note how keen they 
are in every action, and how readily they comprehend and 
avoid danger. The hunter will tell you of the difficulty 
and nice perception which attend a fox-hunt before they 
can trap the animal. His insight into men and things is 
of a penetrative character, hence the difficult task of cap- 
turing him. Also is the eagle a keen, sagacious bird, and 
when his liberty, or perhaps life, is jeopardized by the 
sportsman, he makes good his safety by flight. The crow, 
diminutive, black, and grim-looking, is ever on the alert 
for danger, and penetrates the designs of man so well, that 
a trap is rendered nearly useless to catch it. Then comes 
the greyhound, an animal very agile of body, and no less 
quick of mind, whose discernment of the motives and likes 
of man seems strangely intuitive, from his remarkable 
rapidity of understanding them. We must therefore 
acknowledge, from the foregoing chain of natural sequences, 
that sharp noses, sharp eye-bones, sharp chins, and the 
whole expression denoting sharpness of form, indicates 
shrewdness, discernment, aptness, also astuteness, acumen, 
archness, and subtlety. 


ONE of the saddest subjects of history not even the ravages 
of war excepted is that of disease. When the world was 
young, and each individual in it had sufficient space in 
which to breathe with freedom the pure air of heaven, 
disease may be said to have been a comparative stranger. 
But when men began to multiply upon the earth, and live 
in closer proximity to each other, gaunt sickness made its 
appearance, and, irrespective of age, wealth, or rank, laid 
its withering hand upon the springs of human life, and 
gradually shut up its thousands in premature graves. What 
is true of the world as a whole is equally true, in a parti- 
cular sense, with respect to individual nations. When a 
country is young, and bears on its soil the tread of a limited 
number of settlers, the physician's office is, in a large 
measure, but a sinecure. But as years roll on, and tha 
population increases, both from within and from without, 
the causes of disease seem to multiply, until grave-digging 
and funeral-undertaking become not only regular, but 
lucrative trades. War, like Saul the son of Kish, has slain 
its thousands; but of disease it may be said, as was sung of 
Israel's greatest king, that it has slain its tens of thousands. 
Nor could the world last long were it otherwise. Nature 
does not seem to be able to provide for an unbroken stream 
of population, and, therefore, all over the earth she sends 
disease, to this city and to that, to this village and to that, 
to this hamlet and to that, removing with a merciful hand 



the few for the sake of the many. We say with a merciful 
band, for what could be more unmerciful than to allow the 
population of the world to outgrow the material provisions 
of nature? Thus civilization, under the guidance of a kind 
Providence, both builds up and pulls down. The vessel 
which carries within her the seeds of intelligence and 
culture to be scattered over some benighted transoceanic 
country, bears with her also the elements of disease of 
which the new country knows nothing; but for which its 
heart is grateful in after years, when able to look at things 
with a common sense, philosophic eye. That which is 
superfluous, nature tries to get rid of, not only in things 
inanimate, but among men as well, so that during a 
campaign, as if dissatisfied with the number shot on the 
field, she scatters disease among the unwounded, until the 
slain in battle are as nothing compa-red to those who 
gradually succumb to consumption, fever, &c. Thus do we 
see working around us a beautiful balancing machinery, 
which, while lopping off individuals, makes arrangements 
for the prosperity and happiness of the whole. Nor is 
there anything arbitrary in this. It all happens according 
to natural law. There is no stern, inexorable being over 
us, pushing disease into our bodies. If we put our fingers 
into a fire, our fingers will be burned ; so by the same law, 
when certain conditions are fulfilled among men, and they 
are surrounded with certain circumstances, disease springs 
up naturally, and they are seized and die. And if men will 
violate the laws of nature, as they seem to be determined 
to do to the end of the chapter, it is in harmony at once 
with justice and mercy that they should suffer the conse- 
quences. Suffering, however, is not an end ; it is but the 
means to an end. And so we see the Great Parent or us 
all, taking advantage of human folly and human violations 
of law, in order to work out the world's happiness. 

Having made these preliminary remarks, we shall now 


turn our attention to the subject-proper of this essay viz., 
Pathognomonic signs or diseases, and how to discern liabi- 
lities or tendencies to them in the human system. 

Persons with large heads and small delicately-constructed 
bodies, will be found very liable to have consumption or 
dyspepsia; because the head, taking to itself an unpro- 
portionate amount of nourishment required for thought- 
producing purposes, deprives the lungs and stomach of that 
which is necessary to their strength and full development, 
and these organs, gradually becoming weak, are, as a natural 
consequence, laid open to disease. The primary cause of 
consumption, it is said, is a lack of fresh air. In a body 
not sufficiently oxygenized, there is produced a cheesy kind 
of matter called tubercle, which moves about in the blood, 
and lodges itself in the first deranged organ. When cold is 
caught the lungs get deranged, and losing the power of 
passing on unnecessary blood, they receive the tubercle, and 
immediately consumption begins. Now, a \\ r eak body 
made weaker by the suction of a disproportionate head, 
cannot very easily inhale a sufficient quantity of oxygen, 
for not only are the lungs weak, but there is a correspond- 
ing weakness in the skin, the pores of which have been 
called the surface lungs : of such, therefore, a -predisposi- 
tion to consumption may safely be predicted. Indivi- 
duals, again, whose lungs are large in comparison to 
other parts of the body, are very liable to scrofulous 
diseases; while it may be affirmed, without the slightest 
hesitation, of corpulent people, that they have a predis- 
position to inflammatory rheumatism, apoplexy, gout, fevers, 
and diseases lying on the same line of causes. People 
with a bony frame-work, indicating a dry, juiceless con- 
stitution, not at all favourable to bodily secretions, 
have sure signs of a tendency to liver disease and chronic 
rheumatism. People with such a constitution will also be 
found to hr ve a dry, inactive skin. Whcu the face is of a 


waxy or tallowy complexion, with a hollow on each side 
over the inferior maxillary bone, an inch and a-half from 
the point of the chin, we may safely conclude that the 
individual is subject to weakness or disease in the kidneys; 
and when the inner corners of the eyes are hollow, and of 
a bluish tinge, there can be no doubt that pharyngeal 
catarrh is making sad havoc in the head. Again, hollow 
cheeks indicate a weak stomach; and narrow nostrils, 
accompanied with a hectic flush on each cheek, back from 
the junction of the nose with the face, give evidence of 
weak lungs, and a liability to pulmonary disease. When 
the skin across the forehead and in front of the ears is of 
a yellow or sallow hue, tinted with brown spots, this 
indicates weakness and general inaction of the liver. In 
severe cases of sickness, brought on by disappointment in 
love, the clear lustre of the eyes, directed toward the lost 
and precious object, retires, the eyelids droop, and a vivid 
florid colour settles upon the lips, while, in cases of extreme 
passional desire, the eyes seem to roll up, the lids to close 
more nearly, the mouth to open slightly, the tongue to 
be laid carelessly on the edge of the teeth, and the lips to 
take on an increase of colour. It was in this manner that 
Hogarth, of the world's most original artists, painted 
Danae a victim of passional love. Here we give, from 
memory, an instance in which the great physician Erasis- 
tratus discovered this love passion lurking in a patient 
and sapping his very life. Antiochus, the Crown Prince 
and son of King Seleucus, fell passionately in love with 
the young Queen Stratonice, his stepmother, who had 
given birth to a son by Seleucus, his father. The prince, 
being overpowered by his passion, fell sick and refused 
all manner of nourishment, being determined to put an 
end to his miserable life. Erasistratus, with his keen anl 
practised eyes, observing the change of his countenance, 
and also of his pulse, whenever the queen entered the 


room, was very soon convinced that the prince was dying 
for his mother-in-law; and knowing something of the old 
king's tenderness for his son, he, one morning when the 
king enquired about his health, told him that the sickness of 
the prince was caused by love, and that it being impossible 
for him to possess the object loved, his disease was incur- 
able. "On what ground," demanded the king, "is the 
passion of my son incurable ?" " Because/' answered Eras- 
istratus, " he is in love with the person to whom I am 
married." Thereupon the king begged him by all his 
past favours to save his son and successor. " Sire," said 
Erasistratus, "would your majesty but imagine yourself 
in my place you would see the unreasonableness of your 
wish." " Heaven is my witness," said Seleucus, " that I 
could resign even my Stratonice to save my Antiochus!" 
At this point the tears ran down the king's cheeks, which 
Erasistratus observing, he took him by the hand and said, 
"Sire, if these are your real sentiments, the prinoe's life 
is safe; it is Stratonice for whom he pines." On hearing 
this, Seleucus immediately gave orders to solemnize the 
marriage of his son to the queen, which was attended to, 
Stratonice generously exchanging the father for the son. 

Passionate, silent, unrequited love is the worm which 
eats the heart until not only the blossom and the leaves, 
but the whole green, once hopeful life entirely disappears. 
Study well the indications given above, and you will have 
no difficulty in detecting it. 

A lank or sunken cheek opposite the molar or double 
teeth invariably indicates a weak stomach; and hollow 
temples are indications of a weak liver. 

Private diseases affect more or less the generative organs, 

and consequently the eyes, because they are connected, as 

explained on page 299. Be watchful, and you will find that 

men who are slaves to that horrible practice by which 

the systems of young people are so often drained cannot 


look you steadily in the face. Their eyelids droop, all manly 
stamina is gone, they are subjects of remorse, and are easily 
detected. Leucorrhea, when settled, is indicated by what 
may be called a " livid hue" about the mouth, and discolora- 
tion round the under eyelids, and in cases of gonorrhea, the 
eye becomes dull and watery, while in constitutional 
syphilis the iris of the eye will often change to a green 
hue. An unusual redness of the entire face too often 
signifies moral sickness, while blotches settling surely, 
though slowly on the countenance, proclaim the open or 
secret inebriate. Well may we say, in the language of 
Shakespeare, " O thou invisible spirit of wine ; if thou 
hast no name to be known by, let us call thee Devil." We 
have thus given a synopsis of Pathognomonic signs, with- 
out going into the causes of disease. These, no doubt, are 
many and varied, some having their origin around us, 
others springing up within us; but is it not a fact that 
medicine vendors help, if not to originate disease, at least 
to .prolong it? However this may be, the Scotch sexton, 
who was rebuked by the parish doctor for an insignifi- 
cant mistake he had made connected with the ringing 
of the church bell, spoke more truth than medical men in 
general, and village doctou in particular, would perhaps 
be prepared to admit, when he gently replied, " I think, 
Dr., you might look over a small mistake like that, for it's 
well known that I have covered up many of your faults." 
We have just hinted that medical men are slow in taking 
blame to themselves when patients succumb under their 
treatment, and this happens, as the following illustration 
will shew, even when it incurs loss to themselves. A 
gentleman, whose wife was sick, being strong in the busi- 
ness faculty and apt at a bargain, said to the doctor when 
that functionary called, " Before you go to work, doctor, I 
wish to make a bargain with you, and this will save all 
ill -feeling when your account is sent in. Whether you kil] 


my wife or cure her, I promise to give you twenty pounds. 
Does this satisfy you ?" " Quite," replied the doctor, and 
went to his work. The wife having died in his hands, ho 
called shortly after the funeral and presented his bill. " Did 
you cure my wife?" asked the widower. "No," answered 
the doctor. "Did you kill her?" continued the widower. 
"I certainly did not," replied the doctor. "Then," added 
the widower, " I have nothing for you ; the bargain being, 
as you must remember, twenty pounds whether you killed 
or cured her." The astonished doctor seeing his mistake, 
but not feeling free to confess whatever might be his 
private opinion that he had, by negligence or ignorance, 
helped to send the deceased to her grave, was obliged in 
consequence, to leave the house without his much-desired 
fee. There are, however, instances of honesty, even among 
the disciples of Esculapius. A witness being examined in 
a court was asked the following questions to which he gave 
these memorable answers "Did you ever tell a falsehood? 1 ' 
" Sir, I am not a lawyer." " Did you ever poison anybody ?" 
" Sir, I am not a druggist." " Come now tell me honestly 
did you ever assist anybody into the other world?" " I 
must confess (very solemnly) that I am a doctor." 

We may laugh at the above exhibitions, and no doubt 
we do; at the same time we cannot shut our eyes to the 
fact that, with the increase of doctors, comes an increase of 
disease. Of course this statement might be reversed, and 
perhaps with plausibility, but while we readily admit that 
a goodly number of the Faculty practise self-denial, and 
live day and night for the good of society, it cannot be 
successfully denied that the medical profession can boast 
of more ignorant, stupid, selfish, money-seeking members 
(the clergy excepted) than any other profession in the 
world. As an illustration of what we mean, take the fol- 
lowing. An aged doctor had a very wealthy patient whose 
hand was injured, and the case being an interesting one, 


the doctor made his visits as frequent as possible. Several 
prescriptions were recommended, but instead of improving, 
the hand daily grew worse. One day the old doctor, not 
being able to attend the patient himself, sent his son, who 
had just begun to practice, and who was not very deeply 
skilled in the secrets of the profession. When the son 
returned home, the father asked how the old gentleman's 
hand was to-day?" "All right," was the young man's 
reply, "I found a thorn in it and extracted it, and now 
all's well" "You are a born fool," replied the father, 
"why, you have gone and spoiled the job." Now, what 
can be said of such men as this old doctor, but that they 
are heartless, and could look on and see their patients 
suffering the most excruciating pain, and even increase it, 
if ouly by that means they could make themselves rich. 
We confess that we have a great admiration for the manner 
in which Old Nicholas of Russia treated his medical 
advisers. Once, when in the company of a German prince, 
who was often prostrated by sickness, he asked him 
how he dealt with his doctors. "I suppose I do just as 
other people do," replied the prince, " I pay them for 
attending me when I am ill." " Why, then," replied 
Nicholas, " you have but to adopt my system, and as 
sure as you are a prince, your good health will return." 
"And what is your system?" asked the prince. "It is 
this," answered the Czar, " I pay my doctors so much per 
day when I am well, but the moment they allow me to 
become sick their pay is stopped, and that I believe 
accounts for my good health." The prince being stmck 
with this plan, adopted it, and it is said that he was so 
very seldom ill afterwards, that he never ceased to be 
grateful to his imperial counsellor. Let the wealthy 
reader go and do likewise. 



IT is unquestionable that of all the objects which we 
usually call works of nature, none is so beautiful as a 
perfect human form. Fine specimens are found in the 
region between the Mediterranean, the Black, and the 
Caspian Seas that region in which, according to history, 
the Caucasian race first came forth as the highest type 
of mankind. In proportion to his removal from the place 
of his origin, and intermixture by marriage, or otherwise 
with other races of people, he is found superior in intellec- 
tual capacity to the unmixed races who inhabit the three 
southern continents, where the most deformed, as well as 
degenerate races are located. It is not given to us to trace 
out the steps of this degeneration either in nature or history. 
But we are to direct attention to some of the capricious 
methods by which men have artificially disfigured them- 
selves in obedience to some law of fashion that has acquired 
ascendancy over good taste and common sense, and coun- 
teracted the efforts of nature to produce beautiful forms of 
human kind. 

Almost every nation, during every age, has had some 
peculiar fashion of this sort. Some races have compressed 
the head into unnatural shapes, others the feet, and others^ 
again, the waist; some have added unnatural colours to 
the body, others have removed part of the hair that was 


given for its covering; and so on in endless variety. It 
is impossible to assign a cause, or trace the origin of each 
of these fashions. But one need only open his eyes 
in any church, hall, or other place of public resort, even 
in these Christian lands, to assure himself that fashion has 
prescribed many things both inconvenient and deleterious 
and has found willing and obedient subjects ready to 
sacrifice themselves to her pleasure. Houses are desolated, 
hearts are broken, properties are squandered, thousands 
are thrust into untimely graves, and the regions of the 
lost in the unseen world are filled, as the result of this 
slavish obedience. Aches, pains, misery, and even death 
itself are willingly endured by the votaries of fashion. It 
breeds discontentment, vice, and crime; woman is robbed 
of her virtue, and man of his honour, in order to satisfy 
her unconscionable demands. 

The love of praise may safely be considered as the sup- 
porter and feeder, if not the instigator of fashion; but it is 
difficult to discover how men came to praise what is ugly 
or injurious, so as to induce its cultivation. Perhaps a key 
might be found in the circumstance of some distinguished 
personage having been the subject of a natural or accidental 
deformity. It is matter of history that in the reign of 
Henry VIII., gentlemen about the English court used to 
stuff their waistcoats in order to produce an imitation of 
the king's corpulence. More recently, English ladies 
affected what was called the Alexandra limp, pretending 
to be partially lame, because the beloved princess was so. 
Whatever the reason in other cases, the fact is, that no part 
of the human body has been exempt from tampering 
influences and artificial changes, produced by some nation 
or other as matter of mere fashion. 

Beginning with the ancients, we find Hippocrates record- 
ing that the human head had been tampered with and 
artificially moulded even before his day. Senertus also 


thought of this as among the causes of ill formed heads, 
that the tender skulls of infants were bandaged by mid- 
wives and nurses, and moulded with the hand, according to 
their irregular and varying fancies. 

The earliest people whose practices in this way are 
particularly recorded were the Macrones of Pontus, who 
compressed the head into a tall shape, whence the name, 
Macrocephalic, or great heads, as in fig. 1. 

Those having the highest heads were deemed the most 
perfect gentlemen. As soon as the child was born, the 
head was carefully compressed to secure the desired height; 
nor were the efforts relaxed until the skull had become 
sufficiently hard to secure the continuance of the form 
throughout life. 

Hippocrates informs us that the Scythians, who inhabited 
Phasis, chose a head formed 
like a sugar-loaf, as a token of 
nobility, to distinguish the 
high-born from the vulgar. In 
process of time, all the children 
v~re born with conical heads, 
and the arts of the midwife 
were dispensed with; where- 
upon nature, left to her liberty, 
turned by little and little to 
recover her natural configura- 
tion. The Silesian, Atticke, 
Argive, and Phoxi were noted 
in ancient times as having 
turbinated heads. Also the 
people in Peru, two hundred 
years ago, had wonderful 
coronal accuminations. Strabo mentions Indians who had 
piked and wedge-shaped heads. And to this day, there are 
American Indians along the banks of the Columbia River, 

Fig. 1. A Macrone. 


and on the island of Victoria, whose heads are wedge- 
shaped and conical. The following cut of a Quatsino 
Indian is a fair representation of the sugar-loaf head as 
found among the Indians on the north-western portion of 
Vancouver Island. 

Fig. 2. A Quatsino Indian Girl. 

Fig. 3. A Cumana Woman. 

These heads often measure from fifteen to twenty inches 
between the eyes and the top of the head, exclusive of hair, 
and are formed by binding the heads when soft with strips 
of bark. 

We are told of a pine-apple form of head as characteristic 
of the Genuensiants in former times; and Licosthenes says 
that in Ploa, a town of Voitland, tall headed infants were 
occasionally born as late as the year 1545, these being relics 
of the effects once produced by artificial means. Scaliger 
records that children are born with compressed temples as 
a result of the efforts of former generations. The women of 
Cumana cultivate the long face and high head by compres- 
sion, as in fig. 3. Perhaps it is from some hereditary 
tradition in favour of high heads, that, until very recent 


times, the women of Wales wore tall, conical hats. I have 
seen them attending markets, fairs, and places of public 
^amusement, as in fig. 4. 

Fi. 4. A Welsh Woman. 

Fig. 5. An Egyptian Man. 

On the other hand, the people of Sigiunus, a city of 
Egypt, take pains to secure a low and flat form of head, as 
in fig. 5. The low Dutch, the French, and the Portuguese 
incline to low and elongated heads, more or less flat on the 
top. This las f , peculiarity is observable in the people of 
Brazil also. 

Broad heads are the fashion with the Muscovites, as in 
fig. 6. 

Their heads and faces are flattened artificially during 
childhood, to secure what is considered a genteel form. 
The Apichiquit Pichunsti, Sava, and some other Indian 
tribes, cultivate the broad head by laying a board or stone 
on the infant forehead, and another on the neck, and bind- 
ing these together until the form is fully established by 
age, and the bones so hardened that they retain their 
unnatural shape throughout life. A flat-headed Indian of 
North-Western America is here introduced, to shew how 


they fashionably deform what the Creator has so beautifully 
designed (see fig. 7). 

Fig. 6. A Muscovite Man. 

Fia;. 7. A Flat-head Indian. 

Two hundred years ago, there were men in Old Port, in 
the West Indies, who cultivated a square form of head by 
artificial means. When the child was young, they used 

Fig. 8. A West Indiaman. ' Fig. 9. A Greek Man. 

boards on the sides, and even wooden boxes to inclose the 
skull, until nature not only retained the shape in the 


individual so treated, but transmitted it to future genera- 
tions by the production of children born with these square 

The Ancient Greeks were otherwise minded. They were 
celebrated for admiring a globular shape of head. (Fig. 9.) 
Pericles the Athenian, who, as Plutarch informs us, had a 
long head, in shape like a mallet, became an object of 
ridicule to the comedians of his day on this account; and 
the Attic poets nicknamed him Cynocephalum that is, 
dog's head. 

Albertus Magnus commended round heads, adding, that 
this form was promoted by the cares of the nurses in mould- 
ing the infant skull. 

To this day the Grecians and Turks rejoice in the posses- 
sion of heads bearing considerable resemblance to globes; 
and the peculiarity is said to be still cultivated by com- 
pression in childhood. 

Megasthenes, Pliny, and 
Gellius, whose tastes were 
doubtless formed on the 
globular type, proclaimed 
that in Scythia there were 
people with dogs' beads, as 
in fig. 10. 

Other able and truthful 
authors assure us that the 
dog-face is common in 
Tartary. Marcus Paulus, 
a Venetian, mentions an 
island called Daganian, of 

which the inhabitants "have heads like unto dogs;" and 
Pausanias records that Euphemus, by descent a Carian, saw 
such people in the islands of the ocean, when he was driven 
on their shores by adverse winds, as he was sailing towards 

Fig. 10. A Scythian Man. 


Several ancient writers have spoken of Acephali, or men 
without heads. Hela says that the Belinii are headless, 
and have all the usual features of the face in their breasts, 
as in fig. 11. Solinus gives the same account; so does 

Gellius. Pliny affirms the 
same strange fact; and St. 
Augustine expresses himself 
thus: "I was Bishop of 
Hipo, and, with certain ser- 
vants of Christ, I travelled 
to Ethiopia to preach the 
Gospel of Christ unto them; 
and we saw there many men 
and women having no heads, 
but large eyes fixed in their 
breasts, their other members 
like unto ours." Fulgosu.s 
repeats in substance the tes- 
timony of Augustine. Sir 
Walter Raleigh says that the 

Ewaipanomi are a strange, headless race, and mentions a 
people on the River Caora whose heads appear not above 
their shoulders. This is probably the true explanation of 
the Acephali wherever found. The head has been thrust 
down, and the shoulders raised, until no throat was visible, 
and the facial features appeared to be in the breast. 

Another set of fashions operates on the noses of human 
beings. The islanders of Zanzibar used to have their noses 
turned upwards; and the size of nostril in the females, 
which to a stranger must have appeared a great deformity, 
was reckoned the height of fashion. (Fig. 1 2.) 

On the other hand, the Huns used to flatten down the 
noses of their boys, that these protuberances should not 
hinder them iii donning their helmets one of the few 
vagaries that even pretend to have a reason for their exist- 

Pig. 11. -A Belinii Man. 


eiice. In Caffraria, Lower Ethiopia, and Mozambique, flat 
noses are iii request: it is preferred that they should be so 
by nature, otherwise artificial methods are employed. The 
inhabitants of Tartary used to cut and pare down the 
nose, especially the upper part between the eyes, covering 

Fig. 12. A Woman of Zanzibar. 

Fig. 13. A Woman of Scatia. 

it with black ointment. Friar William, Dr. Bubraquis, a 
Frenchman, reports that when he visited the court of 

Fig. 14. A Peruvian 'Jan. 

Fig. 15. A Persian Man. 


Scatia, he observed that the queen had her nose quite 
pared down on the upper part, so that the space between 
the eyes was flat. It requires little stretch of imagination 
to fancy what would be the effect on a nation of such a 
fashion set by the queen (see fig. 13). 

In Peruviana, hundreds of years ago, a large nose was 
considered desirable, as in fig. 14 The people took great 
pains accordingly to pull the nose out of its natural dimen- 
sions. The Persians of old held high noses in admiration, 
Cyrus having had such a one; and they would allow none 
but aquiline-nosed persons to rule over them. 

The women of East India bore the wings of the nostril, 
and wear in it rings and other ornaments, as in fig. 16. 

Fig. 16. A Kyast Banian Woman, of 
Surat, in Western India. 

Fig. 17. A Flat-head Indian. 

Some of the North American Indian tribes bore their 
noses through the septum, and insert sticks, quills, or 
pieces of ivory, holding thia style to be a mark of beauty. 
For, However horrid a fash if >n mav be, or destructive of 


real beauty, it will be adopted throughout any nation, if 
only it be used by the nobility or other leaders of society. 

The black people of Cornori formerly had horribly large 
ears, from which hung numerous rings set with stones; 
and, as a general rule, the nobler the woman's lineage, the 
larger were her ears (see fig. 18). 

In the city of Cochi the women used to put large pieces 
of lead in the lobules of the ears, and draw them down to 
an enormous length, as in fig. 19. 

Fig. 18. A (Jornori Woman. 

Vis:. 19. A Ccchi Woman. 

The men of Cochi also became enamoured of this, to us, 
repulsive fashion, and extended their ears in the samo 
manner as the women. The ladies of our own country 
are fond of hanging jewels by hcles bored in the ears, 
but it is merely for ornament, not for distorting or enlarg- 
ing the organ ; small ears never lose their claim to admir- 
ation among us; but earrings, which wetit quite out of 
fashion about forty years ago, and were under ban for at 
least twenty, are now all the rage again. 

In Turkey, those women who had the largest mouths 


were at one time accounted the most beautiful; and as 
art is always called in to metamorphose nature in obedience 
to the demands of fashion, however absurd and tyrannical, 
Turkish women succeeded in displaying mouths to remind 
us of an annual lease, which is from (y) ear to (y) ear (see 
fig. 20). 

There is an account given of a people in Ethiopia who 
made a practice of drawing down the under lip, until many 
times it was found to measure eighteen inches in length. 
Salt was used to prevent the putrefaction to which the 
soft inner skin would have been liable from such exposure 
to the action of the sua and air. 

Fig. 20. A Woman of Turkey. Fig. 21. An Ethiopian. 

Those cannibals called Paries formerly had a custom of 
boring three large 'holes in their faces, one in the under 
and two in the upper lip, as in fig. 22. Into these holes 
they inserted green stones. 

Some of the tribes about Sierra Leone have been observed 
with teeth filed to points, so as to resemble saw-teeth ; and 
to this day the practice is continued among many of the 
tribes in Ethiopia and Mozambique. Fig. 23 exhibits the 


fashion of sharply-filed teeth that once prevailed among 
the Macus. 

Fig. 22. A Pane Man. 

Fig. 23. A Macu Man. 

In the island of Tanibali there once lived a set of 
people with artificially-cloven 
tongues (fig. 24). 

It is said they used divers 
kinds of language, and imi- 
tated not only different voices 
of men, but the singing of 
several birds. The slit which 
formed the division was in 
the middle of the tongue, 
and parallel with its greatest 
measurement; the organ was, 
therefore, in no wise seriously 
injured, or its ordinary func- 

Fig. 24. A Tanihalian. 

tions interfered with. Galen, 

the celebrated physician of 

Greece, demonstrated to the ancients that the tongue was 

by nature double, each side being supplied with a separate 

set of vessels, nerves, &c., so that each side was supported 


independently of the other, and could perform its functions 
alone. Modern anatomical dissection has confirmed this 
view, and demonstrated the duality of the tongue and 
brain, as well as of the eyes, ears, heart, lungs, kidneys, 
and other bodily organs which are more )bviously double. 

Small hands and feet in the female sex are, among 
European nations, generally esteemed as indicative of 
genteel birth and refinement. The ladies of Portugal, 
especially those among the nobility, used to cultivate this 
elegance by artificial means in the olden time. The hands 
of female children were bound with cloth to retard their 

Fig. 25. A Portuguese Woman. 

Fk'. 26. A Chinese Man. 

growth, and promote a soft and delicate appearance. Of 
course, this must have been practised with moderation 
and care, or the shape of the hand would have been greatly 
disfigured (fig. 25). 

Marchus informs us that the people living along the 
banks of the river Thomeras used to have hard, sharp, 
and very long nails, with which they killed fish, 
and cut soft wood, as they had not learned the use 


of iron. Even now there are people in China who 
wear their nails so long that they can use them instead 
of forks, or rather chopsticks. It is said that the nail ii 
sometimes as long as the finger on which it grows. There 
must, of course, be unusual strength in such nails, 01 they 
would break off with use long before they attained such 
a size (fig. 26). 

We have heard of coloured ladies in Demerara who 
cultivated long tapering nails, to shew that, through the 
indulgence of their temporary husbands, they were utterly 
exempt from every kind of work. There is reason, such 
as it is, in this fashion, which is more than can be said 
for most of those we are describing. 

To come nearer home. Our own countrywomen yes, 
and some of the men have in various ages believed that 

Fig. "1. Miss Tight-laced. Yonng Fig. 28. Natuial waist. Her 
man, there is a life-time of misery reside health, joy, and love, 

tied up in this waspish form. 


a wasp-like smallness of waist was a great beauty. Any 
one above two score years of age can recollect that before 
he was in his teens, and for some time after, the ladies 
generally, and those among the men who were called 
dandies, used, especially on high occasions, to strive with 
might and main to lace their too tight stays as close as 
possible; the effect of which was not only an appearance 
obviously artificial, and very ridiculous (see fig. 27), but 
a condition of present pain and future danger. Thousands 
were sent to an early grave by this pernicious custom ; 
the vital parts not having sufficient room to play, and 
becoming diseased. The fashion went out, however, per- 
haps because so many fearful examples of its fatal con- 
sequences had appeared ; and after it, disappeared the 
custom of displaying the waist out of doors. Of late 
years, however, the shrouding of the figure has been cast 
off; none but grandmothers remember the miseries that 
obliged tight-lacing to disappear, and it is shewing itself 
again among our vain, silly, and characterless females. 

Tight-lacing finds a counterpart, with far less injurious 
results, in the Chinese custom of bandaging the limbs and 
confining the feet. Moreover, only the nobility can afford 
to be thus crippled for life; and the practice, though cruel 
and to us repulsive, is quite circumscribed. Here is a repre- 
sentation of a Chinese woman with artificially compressed 
feet. Sometimes the part touching the ground is not more 
than two inches long (fig. 29). 

It is difficult to believe that the subjects of the Celestial 
Empire really consider these malformations beautiful; more 
probably it is matter of pride, the disabled feet being 
indicative of the fact, that the lady was born in a rank of 
life to exempt her from using her nether limbs, and entitle 
her to be carried whithersoever she may please optate. 

As the reverse of this, there is a people in India that 
rejoice in feet which measure eighteen inches; and they 


labour as assiduously to elongate these members as the 
Chinese do to shorten theirs (fig. 30). It must be admitted 
that the long feet are much more serviceable than those 
which are too short to admit of walking. In India beyond 
the Ganges, there once lived, as we are told, a race called 

Fig. 29. A Chinese Woman. 

Fig. 30. A Sciopede Man. 

Sciopedes, with feet of monstrous size; and at the present 
day, the inhabitants of Guinea are distinguished for long 
legs, broad feet, and enormously long toes. There are, 
however, no records by which we can trace the origin of 
these peculiarities to capricious artifices. 

In America and England, the people have not always 
been wholly guiltless of tampering with their feet in obedi- 
ence to the laws of fashion. To say nothing of the custom 
of wearing boots or shoes which are much too tight, for the 
sake of appearing to have a small foot, it is to be noted that 
during several centuries our own fashionables wore such 


long, narrow, pointed shoes, as must have been most incon- 
venient. We read of them so early as the reign of Henry I., 
when they drew forth the severe rebukes of the clergy. 
They were named pigacice, and are represented as having 
had points like a scorpion's tail. Sometimes they were 
stuffed so that they might be twisted like a ram's horn. 
It was said that these peaked shoes were invented by a 
gentleman who had a deformed foot ; certain it was, though 
remarkable, that the ladies never patronized such extrava- 
gance of shape as the men did. In a work called Eulogium 
of Richard II.'s time, it is said: "Their shoes and pattens 
are snouted and piked, more than a finger long, crooking 
upwards, resembling devils' claws, and fastened to the knees 
with chains of gold and silver." In the reign of Henry VI., 
the points were no longer turned up, but they shot out to a 
most amazing length, ending with a point like a needle; 
and how the gallants contrived to walk in them is admitted 
to be one of the mysteries of history. What troubled the 
clergy more, perhaps, was the difficulty their people had in 
kneeling, " For," says one in Charles I.'.s reign, " one's boots 
and shoes are so long-snouted that we can hardly kneel in 
God's house." 

Another fashion, at once inconvenient and dangerous, 
prevailed in England during the first half of the present 
century The Prince Regent, afterwards George IV, had 
unsightly scars about the glands of his throat, and adopted a 
mode of dress fitted to conceal them. Stiff black stocks from 
four to six inches deep were worn by the fashionable men* 
while stiff shirt collars came out above them, reaching half- 
way up the cheeks, and often scrubbing the ears severely. 
Beau Brummel's dress was a fair specimen. See cut of 
Beau Brummel on page 144 in this book. 

Perhaps no part of the human body has been so generally 
dealt with in an arbitrary manner as the hair, which haa 
been given for its protection. In the Indies, there foimerly 


was a tribe cf Cumanans, who plucked off all the hair of 
their eyebrows, and took the greatest pride in this unnatural 
depillation. In like manner, the Brazilian females used to 
eradicate their eyebrows, and could give no other reason 
than that it was a long-established custom ; and who ever 
knew any practice so absurd or injurious that the majority 
of women, with many rare and noble exceptions, would not 
conform to it if it had become fashionable? The most obvious 
use of the eyebrow hair is to arrest the perspiration, which 
otherwise might flow down into the eyes and injure them. 
Possibly, therefore, the practice of eradicating this hair 
might originally have been the desire of shewing that the 
lady was above such labour as would produce perspiration. 
The practice of plucking out the beard and whiskers pre- 
vails among the various tribes of Indians I have visited in 
America. The white man shaves his face, the Chinaman 
his head (fig. 31). Both practices are contrary to nature, 
and are rebuked by the 
consequences which ensue. 
The tri-facial, or fifth 
pair of nerves, with their 
three branches, are distri- 
buted about the face aad 
eyes; the branch whict. 
runs to the upper lip, and 
that which goes to the eye, 
being connected at the 
csesarian ganglion, and 
then by the body of the 
fifth nerve with the brain. 
Hence whatever irritates 
or exposes the upper lip, 
as shaving of necessity does, must irritate and weaken the 
eyes, if not impair the harmonious condition of the entire 
nervous system, as all are closely connected; whereas wear 

Fig. 31. A Chinaman, with his 
head shaven. 


ing all the hair that nature has provided for the face 
strengthens the eyes, as well as protects the throat from 
cold, better than any artificial muffling. Fig. 32 is the 
likeness of a man who has constantly abjured shaving, and 
never had a day's sickness in his life. He resides in San 
Francisco, California his name, Captain Staddon. Mark 
the healthy expression of every feature. 

Fi^. 32. Captain Staddon, of San Francisco, California, who 
was never sick. 

As a contrast, Henry Ward Beecher is an example of a 
shaved and popular man an example as conspicuous 
and popular as could be mentioned (fig. 33). He professes 
to be a follower of Christ, but fails to follow Him in this 
respect; for the Saviour never shaved, if we may judge from 
history, and traditional pictures. Nor does Beecher follow 
the Bible in this matter, for it reads thus: "They shall not 
make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shavi 
off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in theii 


flesh," Leviticus xxi. 5. Also "Ye shall not round the 
corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of 
thy beard," Leviticus xix. 27 ; and no man can shave with- 
out marring his beard, and, at least, part of its corners. 

Beecher may be more properly characterized as a follower 
of fashion than of Christ 
or the Scriptures, as he 
professes to be. Yet he 
is no more so than thou- 
sands of other professors 
of the Christian faith. "A. 
close shaven priest" has 
long been proverbial. But 
if, as we have shewn, the 
nervous system is injured 
by shaving, and if, as 
every one knows, the true 
balance of the mind de- 
pends more or less on the, 
state of the nerves, the 
mind is likely to suffer by Fig. 33. Rev. Henry W. Beecher. 
this artifice of fashion ; and as the mind is closely related 
to the soul, this, of course, suffers also, and who can tell 
whether according to theology the interests of the soul may 
not be sacrificed to fashion through shaving; and Beecher, 
by his example, may be damning souls instead of saving 
them? We shall forbear to pass judgment, and, in this 
respect at least, be out of fashion. But let us urge upon 
Beecher to set .an example of living in accordance with 
God's great natural laws, by wearing his beard; also to 
follow the example of Christ, and no longer thwart the 
benevolent designs of his Creator. Doubtless, God never 
made anything no, not a single hair in vain, or as a use- 
less appendage and it is presumption in any person to say 
the beard is useless, or worse than useless, and who will 


utterly remove it as such ? Beecher, " take warning," as 
the Methodists would say, " lest it be everlastingly too late 
to repent and be saved;" for are you not "a sinner by 
nature, and far more by practice?" 

Our English cousins' fashions with respect to the hair, 
whether of the head or face, have been extremely change- 
able, but, on the whole, the shaved face and long hair has 
been most in the ascendant. So early as the reign of 
Henry I., we read of the long hair and flowing robes that 
gave the men a ridiculously effeminate appearance. It is said, 
that when the king was in Normandy, a bishop preached 
so eloquently against the sin and wickedness of wearing 
long hair, that the monarch and his attendants actually 
wept; and the prelate, resolved to follow up his advantage, 
took from the folds of his sleeve a large pair of shears, and 
cropped the whole congregation. Strutt tells us that, in 
the reign of Henry VII., the hair was parted back from 
the forehead, and fell in long flowing ringlets on the 
shoulders; which made the warriors of that day look very 
effeminate, particularly as the face was divested of beard, 
whiskers, and moustaches. The despotic Henry VIII. 
condemned the hair of gentlemen to be cut short, we are 
told, " to the no small disgust of the gallants of that day, 
who, however, were a little consoled by the gracious 
permission of their sovereign to wear a fierce beard and 
long curling moustaches. This style flourished in the reign 
of Queen Bess and James I. But Charles set the fashion of 
wearing a love-lock, which was a curl on the left side, 
considerably longer than the rest. It became quite the 
rage, though nothing in the annals of hair, wigs, or periwigs 
ever caused such commotion among quiet people, and a 
quarto volume was written against it, in which it is related 
that a nobleman had his cut off on his death-bed, as a 
" cord of vanity, by which he had given the devil a hold 
to lead him at his pleasure." In the reign of the second 


Charles, the high curled peruke, or the hair parted in front, 
and falling upon the shoulders and back in heavy masses 
of corkscrew curls, marks the climax of this fashion in 

Up to the end of last century, gentlemen who did not 
keep valets, were dressed every morning by the barber. 
The face was shaved very clean, and the hair of the head 
loaded with powder and pomatum, before being arranged 
according to the mode, and tied in a pigtail behind. When 
the hair came to be worn short and unpowdered, gentlemen 
learned to shave themselves, and dispense with the barber. 
For many years past, the unshaved face has been more and 
more prevalent, though at first that is about thirty years 
ago it was, like the short unpowdered hair at the com- 
mencement of the century, regarded as indicative of 
political principles subversive of the existing order. 

As for the estimation of the beard in other lands, we are 
told that many of the religious ceremonies among the 
Tartars consist in its proper management; and the Chinese 
devote much attention to the few straggling hairs they can 
coax to grow on their chins. The Russians used to wear 
enormous beards; the Czar Peter ordered shaving, bub 
could obtain no obedience, until he appointed officers to 
cut off the beards of his refractory subjects by force. 
Perhaps his motive was the same with that of Alexander 
the Great, who ordered his Macedonians to be shaved, lest 
their beards should afford a handle to their enemies. The 
Romans grew their beards to mark any great sorrow; the 
Greeks, on the contrary, shaved theirs in times of affliction 
only, until the time of Alexander. Since the introduction 
of Christianity to Europe, the Greek and Romish Churches 
have waged bitter war on this point; the former enforcing 
the long beard, the latter enjoining close shaving. Among 
the Mahommedans it is considered a sin to cut off the 
beard, when once it has been allowed to grow, as they say. 


" the angels dwell in them." The young men of Persia, Mr 
Morier says, sigh for a beard, and grease their chins to 
hasten its growth, because, until they have a respectable 
covering there, they are supposed unfit for any place of 

The general sense of mankind has been that, if a woman 
have long hair, it is a glory to her, the abundance of this 
ornament tending much to soften the features. But here 
again fashion is arbitrary and tyrannical. Until about the 
commencement of the present century, ladies wore their 
hair powdered, and dressed high on the crown with cushions. 
The powder imparted considerable softness to the counten- 
ance. Next, the mode de rigueur was a profusion of curls 
hanging round the face doubtless a most becoming fashion. 
But when Queen Victoria ascended the throne whether it 

was owing to her good sense and 
worthy taste or whether it was 
simply to economize time she 
introduced the fashion of braid- 
ing plainly in front, and gather- 
ing into small compass behind 
T the head, shewing, in fact, as 


) little hair as possible, and that 

dressed in the simplest manner. 
But the Empress Eugene had a 
face of such contour as to require 
no braids ; she drew her hair 
Fig. 34. Fashionable head-dress back to display it ; and ever 

of America in 1860. i_ i_ j i i 

since we have had a bare-faced 

age of women; the hair which, hanging over the temples, 
would have softened the features, and concealed any irre- 
gularity of contour, is gathered to the back, and with the 
addition of much that is artificial, and a great deal of 
trumpery besides, it is formed. into as large a mass as it 
is Dossible to produce (fig. 34). 


Among savage nations, little skilled in the arts of dress, 
there prevails more or less the custom of tattooing or 
painting the body, either in part or over the whole 

Herodian describes the Picts of North Britain as people 
who painted their entire bodies, and from this circumstance 
obtained their appellation from their more civilized neigh- 
bours. The North American Indians are accustomed to 
paint their bodies 
after all manner of 
devices. Here is a 
likeness of one mark- 
ed with white stripes 
round the body and 
across .the face, as I 
had his photograph 
taken in California 
when he was in full 
trim on the occasion 
of his annual war- 
dance (fig. 35). 

Here is an example 
of a North American 
Indian, as his body 
is painted for the 
chase; shewing how 
fashion may lead a tribe or people to low animal imitation 
(fig. 36). 

We are told that the ancient Samians were accustomed 
to burn letters into their foreheads, whence Aristophanes 
calls them populum literatum (fig. 37). 

A curiously deforming custom prevails among the Digger 
Indians of California. A widow covers half of her face 
with the ashes of her deceased husband's body, mixed with 
pitch, and continues to carry this disfigurement until 

Fig. 36. A Digger Indian attired for an 
annual war-dance. 

through time it naturally wears of The appearance ia 

Fig. 36. An Indian of Arizona. 

Fig. 37. A Saraian Man. 

well indicated in fig. 38 of a female Indian of California. 
Doubtless the idea whence this fashion originated was, that 
a widow ought not to form a new connexion until the 
lapse of a decent length of time; and this was best secured 
by rendering her unattractive, at the same time indicating 
pretty distinctly how soon advances might be made. The 
widow's caps, which are now made in a becoming Queen 
Mary shape, and may be doffed at any time, are . nothing 
to the pitch and ashes composition for keeping men at 
un marriageable distance. 

Patching the face over with small pieces of black silk, of 
various shape, came into fashion in England about the 
middle of the seventeenth ceatury, imported, it is tho jght, 
from Arabia. 


Fig. 38. A Digger Indian 
of California. 

The maiden of sixteen and the gray-haired 
covered their faces with these patches, shaped lio sius, 
moons, stars, hearts, crosses, 
and lozenges. A writer in 
Queen Anne's reign says, he 
observed one set of ladies 
having their faces spotted on 
the right side, while those in 
the opposite boxes had their 
patches on the left; and in 
the middle boxes were ladies 
patched on both sides. On 
inquiry, he learned that the 
first set were Whigs, the 
second Tories, and the third 
were neutral in politics. It 
is said that the influence of Addison's writings chiefly were 
successful in banishing patches from England. 

Enough has been said to shew that every portion of the 
human frame has been deformed by the caprices of fashion 
at some time and by some people. We might remark on 
some arts which are used, not to mar the natural beauty, 
but to supply it where deficient. A fine white skin, with 
roses blooming on the cheeks, is undeniably beautiful; and 
consequently, in most of the large cities of Europe, there 
are females whose occupation it is to prepare ladies for 
appearing in full dress by enamelling and rouging the 
skin of the face, neck, and arms. But such appliances are 
very deleterious, corroding the tissues, and preventing 
the natural flow of perspiration through the pores. Tho 
same may be said, though in a mitigated degree, of the 
u.-e of what is called face powder, by the manufacture of 
which a perfumer in London has made a large fortune. 
Freckles are so derogatory' to female beauty, that a lady 
may be forgiven for seeking their removal ; and we 


append a recipe that will take them away if they are remov* 

R. Oxalic acid, x. grs. 

Essence roses, x. minima. 
Aqua pura, xii. 5. 

Mix and moisten the freckled parts of the skin twice a 
day with a sponge or cloth saturated with the mixture. 
If the freckles are not removed in four weeks, cease to 
use the wash. 

Pimples on the face are likewise ugly, and even more 
displeasing to the eye. The practice of washing the face 
more frequently than the rest of the surface will produce 
them, by drawing the blood to .that part, to leave its 
impurities there. Some years ago, a young minister 
descended from the pulpit extremely warm, and in his 
impatience splashed his face abundantly with cold water; 
the result was a crop of pimples, which were not easily 
removed. Whoever, therefore, is subject to this disfigura- 
tion should freely wash all the rest of his skin, and the 
face more sparingly. 

Let us now note some 01 
those fashionable customs 
that operate indirectly on the 
human frame to its injury. 
Such are the use of alcoholic 
liquors, of tobacco in its 
various forms, of opium, and 
even tea and coffee, all which, 
by their operation on the 
nervous system, tend to de- 
bilitate the individual, and 
mar the beauty of the race. 
Indulgence in strong drink 
causes the under eyelids to 
Fig. 39. Hon. Daniel Webster, puff out, and eventually to 


fall outwards and downwards away from the eyeballs, as 
the result of nervous and muscular exhaustion. See cut (fig. 
39) of Daniel Webster, who drank to excess. This engrav- 
ing was made from an ambrotype taken from life. The 
weak and congested under surfaces are thus exposed an 
unsightly appearance which ought to act as a warning 
to those who may yet be saved from exhibiting it in their 
own persons. 

Fig. 40. An Irish Peasant. 

Tobacco is another nerve stimulus, used in this country 
chiefly in the way of smoking and snuffing, but in America, 
largely by chewing and dipping also. Some readers may 
not even know what is meant by dipping. Some ladies 
of tlie Southern portion of the United States carry a box 
of snuff with a stick terminating in a kind of brush. This 
they moisten and dip into the snuff, then rub on their 
teeth, and suck into the mouth. It is simply a lady's 
approach to chewing "the fragrant weed." This tobacco 


chewing, besides being a filthy practice, which none o( 
the lower animals debase themselves with, is highly in- 
jurious to health. It excites the salivary glands, which 
are situated in and around the mouth, and are six in 
number two parotid, two sub-maxillary, and two sub- 
lingual. These when excited, as by dipping, chewing, or 
smoking tobacco, will pour their saliva into the mouth. 
This saliva, being largely mixed with tobacco, is unfit to 
be swallowed, and is therefore ejected in spurts upon the 
carpet, into the fire, or anywhere that happens. But 
nature requires this saliva to turn that which is starchy 
food in the mouth into grape sugar, and fit the edibles 
for the gastric juice of the stomach. The waste of it by 
spitting, therefore, causes the alimentary canal to do its 
work feebly and poorly; thus the blood comes to be in- 
sufficiently replenished, which leaves every part of the 
organization in an enfeebled condition, and more susceptible 
of disease and death. If this does not mar the beauty of 
the individual who indulges in it, it causes the offspring 
to be smaller and weaker than would otherwise be the 

American and European girls chew a sort of gum, com- 
pounded of several substances, no way pleasant to the 
taste. The custom can be accounted for only on the sup- 
position that, through the tobacco-chewing habits of their 
fathers, these girls have inherited a tendency to keep their 
jaws working. But gum-chewing has in a lower degree 
the same baneful effects as tobacco, through the undue 
excitement and waste of saliva. 

Snuffing excites the olfactory nerve, which is distributed 
to the nose, and gives rise to the special sense of smell; 
and this excitement being reflected over the entire nervous 
system, becomes an occasion of weakness to the mental 
faculties; for the mind bears the same relation to the 
bodily organs, that a river sustains to its tributaries: its 


size and force are just in proportion to the strength of ita 
feeders. Tobacco has always thus enfeebled the mental 
and physical powers of those who used it, and is going 
on to weaken the generations that are to follow; and 
that must enter those great battles of life in which feeble- 
ness is left behind, and strength wins the jewel of success. 

American ladies complain, not without reason, of the 
filth bestrewed in their rooms through tobacco chewinor. 

O O 

Scarcely less dirty is their own practice of trailing long 
dresses in the streets, and carrying to their homes what- 
ever they wipe up. This prevailed in England several 
years ago ; and I know a gentleman who, in the hurry 
of business, trod on such a skirt and tore it from the 
corsage; but quickly appeased the rising of the fair one's 
wrath, by acknowledging that he knew he had broken 
the law by stepping on a train in motion. Long trains, 
though still fashionable in the drawing-room, are quite 
exploded for out-of-door walking in civilized Europe; 
insomuch that in my extensive travelling through England, 
Scotland, Ireland, Wales, France, Prussia, &c., I have seen 
but one lady wearing a trailing dress, and she, I was 
informed, was probably a questionable character. 

Tea-drinking is another means of producing nervous 
excitement, and has been so largely indulged in \>y parents, 
that their children have been born with a hereditary tend- 
ency to desire some nerve stimulus; and thus are thousands 
marked as drunkards, or smokers, or chewers, through 
practices which their parents little dreamed would have 
such an effect. Tea contains a poison called theine, which 
gradually collects on the nerves and brain, and tends to 
render the whole sensory system unfit for its proper func- 
tions. Hence God is thwarted in His designs by a cup of 
tea. But those who use it shelter themselves, like- the 
dram-drinker, with the plea that " it makes me feel better." 
Coffee contains a large quantity of caffeine, which is a 


poison, and acts in the way of thickening the blood, thereby 
retarding mental action, and causing general stupor, with a 
tendency to apoplexy. Coffee proves most injurious to 
fleshy people, and tea to those who are thin and have large 

Whatever is untrue to nature, and injurious to any part 
or function of the body, rest assured that the Creator never 
intended it for your use, and that it will mar the work of 
His hands in yourself and in your offspring. Fashionable 
it may be ; but at the beginning of a fashionable life is sin., 
in the middle of it a weak mind, and at the end the grave* 

MADAME DE STAEL, a French authoress with brilliant genius, the 
only woman of whom Napoleon L was afraid. Her facial lineaments 
prognosticate the vast flexibility of intellect, grand comprehension, varied 
attainments, and philosophical acumen displayed in all her writings. 


THE surfaces of everything we see possessed of growing 
powers, bear great and unquestionable marks of the intel- 
lectual. Trees, rocks, grasses, fish, reptiles, birds, vegetation, 
and, indeed, all things animate or inanimate, are stamped 
with the indelible proofs of intellectuality. Nor can such 
evidences very well bo passed over by the observer, more 
especially if his perceptions be keen, or his love of natural 
phenomena sufficiently ample to warrant an investigation 
of this assertion. For instance, different degrees of intelli- 
gence exist in various forms. Hence, in some departments 
of life, we perceive great powers of sagacity, while in others, 
of the more cold-blooded species, we observe doltishness, and, 
might we not add, with a plainer if not more terse mean- 
ing, utter stupidity. 

Now, the faculty of discerning at a glance what animals 
and men are intelligent, or, on the other hand, to select 
from the masses those that are weak-minded, is a know- 
ledge of the utmost importance to every enlightened reader 
and, indeed, a subject well worthy the consideration of the 
philosopher, the study of the oracle, and, add to this, if you 
will, the wisdom of a Solomon. 

The main features by which we may distinguish the 
intellectual powers of men or animals, we here definitely 
describe, and illustrate according to the following rules: 

Prominent and well-arched eye-bones, with quite a deep 


indentation beneath the brow, that is, across the top of 
the nose and eyes, slight depression crossing the forehead 
(three-fourths or a full inch above the eyebrows), also a 
perpendicular depression commencing at the top of the nose, 
and extending to the centre, or nearly so, of the forehead. 

Such characteristic signs, for the guidance of the observer, 
are never seen upon men, unless they be to distinguish 
them as possessing the most intelligent and comprehensive 
intellectual qualities, which in inferior animals are not 
exhibited so largely. Yet, there are some of the latter that 
may bear a worthier and more direct comparison. Foi 
instance, take a very intelligent pointer, or even poodle- 
dog, and you will observe the markings as foregoingly 
described, strikingly distinct and strangely analogous to the 
more intellectual man. 

Then, again, another proof of the correctness of our theory 
between the intellectual and the unintellectual, is the bear. 
This latter animal, though endowed with great strength, 
and, indeed, we may sa}^, almost unexampled ferocity, 
is the reverse of intelligent or even tractable. For the most 
accurate index to his physiognomy, observe his eye, which 
is on a level parallel with his forehead. You perceive no 
deviating marks there, no protuberances that we find in 
the more intelligent order of animals ; but the contrary a 
perfect plane of forehead and nose, as they form, or nearly 
so, a straight and undeviating line from one feature to the 
other. Take the eye again, in contrast with the most 
intelligent of the lower animals, and it has the appearance, 
if we might use the expression, of being set in a plane 

The hog, opossum, rhinoceros, and snake also shew a 
level between the eye and the forehead, which shew them 
the most unintellectual, ferocious, and stupid of the animal 

The ox, on the contrary, is an animal with greater capa- 


city, and, of course, more nobility and docility than any of 
those we have last mentioned. Mark the physiognomical 
difference of this animal. Jt displays a depression across the 
head, just above the eyes, and exhibits rather prominent 
eyebones. These marks, so emblematic of the intelligence 
of the ox, are invariably to be found in the more intellectual 
of mankind, which, once placed and established there, can 
never be wholly eradicated. Hence, we draw a line of 
demarcation betwixt the lower and higher grade of the 
animal creation, by the assistance of watch the intelligent 
reader may easily draw correct inferences for himself, and, 
indeed, solve mighty problems which were before to him 
buried in darkness and oblivion. 

Another word ere we close the subject of the present 
article. When you observe in either man or woman the 
eyes jutting out, or otherwise marked very prominently 
in their sockets, the nose forming a complete bridge in 
alignment with the lower part of the forehead, with no 
deviation or protuberance between the two, rest assured 
of perceiving in that person a preponderance of strong 
animal passions, with feeble susceptibilities of improve- 
ment. Such people may for the time be weaned from 
their grosser animalism by the more vigorous intellect, 
and propelled into courses ol' research and study; but 
they will eventually revert to 'the baser gratifications of 
their truer instincts, which, alas! are too sternly depicted 
in them, ever to warrant a permanency of reform. 

Intellectual excellence is not to be cultivated in a week 
or a month: it requires years of unswerving stimulus, 
during the growing period of childhood, to form the true 
intellectualist. Neither can the work of a few courses at 
seminary, academy, or college unfold and form the riper 
judgment of vigorous manhood. It is ofily by continuous 
application that we attain solidity, and gain a more en- 
larged compass of thought for ourselves. 


As in a great mountain chain a few lofty summits arrest 
the eye, towering far above the average height of the 
range, so here and there in the generations of men we 
mark those whose superior genius has placed them on 
high, and made them predominant among their fellows. 
It is the lot of a few, and only a few, to be the first 
producers of thoughts calculated to give them extensive 
influence over the many who have no originating power, 
and can only receive and follow the ideas of others. Why 
are the names of Galileo, Descartes, and Newton so con- 
spicuous in the annals of science? Because they were the 
first that dared to discard the commonly received theories, 
and seeking to deduce principles from facts, made such 
discoveries of the great laws of nature as no one had 
thought of before. Why are the plays of Shakespeare, 
though now near 300 years old, still regarded as master- 
pieces throughout Europe? Because, departing from the 
beaten track of dramatic composition, he became so true 
and subtle an interpreter of the human soul as has never 
written before or since, originating hosts of characters and 
pictures of life from his own inexhaustible imagination. 
We might as well ask why all the cattle in a herd fellow 
on*, or why hundreds of wild geese follow a single leader, 
as enquire why some men think for the milJion, tnd the 


million adopt their thinkings. It is a law of nature that 
the strong lead the weak, and the weak follow the strong. 
To be the orginator of a thought is the exception, to receive 
the thoughts of others is the rule. If one large tree among 
smaller ones in a forest goes crashing to the ground, it is 
likely to overthrow many of the weaker ones in its fall. 
When a massive boulder goes thundering down the 
mountain side, many lesser rocks and stones go rattling 
after it; but it is the larger, heavier, and more powerful 
mass that leads the way, and by its superior force detaches 
and brings jingling down the quiet rocklets that other- 
wise would have kept their places. Whole communities 
of men will remain stationary and unprogressive, pursuing 
the even jog-trot course that their fathers and grandfathers 
did for ages, until some thundering voice rings out a 
terribly new and daring plan of action. When Leonidas 
led on his brave band of warriors, it was from the strong 
and fearless leader that they caught the first inspirations 
of battle and aspirations to victory. Napoleon the first 
would never have made himself master of Europe but for 
his personal influence over his soldiers, inspiring them 
with confidence in his leadership and enthusiasm in hia 

Let us consider what are the outward marks and tokens 
whereby this strength of character, this capacity for in- 
fluencing others, may be discovered. In all great discoverers 
in science, all inventors in art, all leaders in politics and 
war, we observe large features; and hence draw the con- 
clusion that such features are true indications of strength 
of character and originality of thought. In no picture 
of Shakespeare handed down to us is there a single feature 
small or feeble looking. The rugged features of Dr. John 
Hunter, one of the most independent thinkers of any age, 
would convey without fail to a Physiognomist that he 
was born to influence, and not to be influenced. Professor 


Morse, the inventor of the Electric Telegraph, possessed 
very large features; his mouth was capacious; his nose 
towering, and remarkably prominent; the more deliberately 
one studies his face, the more one disco vers strength in 
every feature of it. Few artists have excelled in originality 
of composition the rugged-looking Michael Angelo, whose 
cartoons became models for all Europe, and created a new 
era in art. A similar example is presented in Christopher 
Columbus, whose discovery of the western world has led 
so many thousands of Europeans to make it their home. 
Peter Cooper has an enormous nose; other features strong; 
and manners so peculiar, that no one would take him for 
anything but a singular genius. He laid the foundation 
of one of the most originally planned schools in America, 
and was the prime mover in getting it established. 

On the other hand, small features generally bespeak small 
minds, and characterize those dependent beings whose voca- 
tion it is to follow not to lead. Children usually have 
small features. Almost all their acts are imitative; and 
their thoughts and feelings are for the most part easily 
moulded by those elder persons among whom their lot is 

Among animals, apes and monkeys are recognized as the 
most imitative; that is, they do, of set purpose, mimic the 
actions that they witness; but for an example of servile 
following, with apparently no independence or power of 
self-direction, there is perhaps no animal like the sheep. 
And here we have a face small in proportion to the body, 
moveover, with very little distinctness or prominence in its 
various parts. We are told that a shepherd knows each 
individual sheep among hundreds or thousands. If so, it is 
only the shepherd. No one else can easily learn to dis- 
tinguish one sheep from another. There is no such close 
resemblance among horses, cuws, deer, dogs, cats, even pigs, 
or any other animals that man lias domesticated; and there 


is no animal that follows its leader so implicitly, and with 
such appearance of stupidity, as though the creature durst 
not think for itself. The leader is usually one of the 
coarsest and most vigorous of the flock; if he breaks over a 
fence or parapet that separates the road from a precipice or 
the bridge from a river, the whole flock will follow to their 
utter destruction. We are told, too, that if a sheep gets 
astray, it has no sense to find its own way back to the fold; 
but goes on in one direction until found and turned by the 
intelligent shepherd or dog. 

Thus is society influenced in all its departments by minds 
capable of governing and controlling the majority of man- 
kind, like sheep following their leaders, without question or 
scruple. Yet there are many gradations in this servility. 
Students of science embrace the leading principles of the 
schools to which they belong, but many of them investigate 
for themselves, and seek to add new truths to the store 
already accumulated. Mechanicians are ready to worship 
the great inventors to whom they are indebted for the 
primary movement in a particular direction, but countless 
are the improvements and varieties of application originated 
by men of no great mark. It is in matters of religion and 
politics chiefly in which many take more or less interest, 
but to which few devote themselves wholly that this 
servile imitation is most conspicuous. Millions are following 
the ideas taught by Confucius when he walked the earth 
2,400 years ago. The Presbyterians dread any deviation 
from the views of Knox and Calvin ; the Methodists follow 
and quote Wesley as an indisputable authority; and the 
Quakers stick to the principles of Fox and Penn in the 
same imitative manner that Phrenologists follow in the 
wake of Gall and Spurzheim; and Homoaopathists in that 
of Hahnemann. But every spiritual pastor has his flock; 
people that accept everything he says, try to do everything 
he prescribes, and never dream of thinking for themselves 



in matters either of faith or duty. Too truly lid Pollock 

44 Vanity to be 

Renowned for creed eccentrical, devoured 
Its thousands ; but a lazy, corpulent, 
And over-credulous faith, that leaned on all 
It met, nor asked if 'twas a reed or oak ; 
Stepped on, but never earnestly inquired 
Whether to heaven or hell the journey led, 
Devoured its tens of thousands." 

So in politics. We wonder not that the Americans appre- 
ciate the genius of Franklin and Washington; but thousands 
of fairly intelligent citizens cast in their annual or quadren- 
nial votes for those who are to govern them, without a 
thought as to their respective merits, simply following 
where the way is pointed by the New York Tribune. 
Multitudes of voters more are moulded for each election by 
the New York Herald, and have not a political opinion but 
what is derived from it ; while the Democrats in the United 
States stick to Jackson, and, it is said, that in eastern Ten- 
nessee, some people vote for him still. So do the millions 
follow, not examining whether the road is right or wrong; 
and so, like sheep, they may be led either into green 
pastures, or to the slaughter-house. 

Having been a public lecturer for several years, I have 
had a fine opportunity of observing this disposition to lead 
and be led, even in the matter of whether the lecture shall 
be patronized or not. Many a man have I seen come to the 
door of the hall, and inquire " if any one is in yet." When 
he sees a dozen come in with an eager rush, the poor sheepy 
rushes too, and looks as eager and in earnest to hear as any 
of them. 

I have seen among the hills of California a team of 
fourteen mules drawing one waggon. Perceiving the front 
mule wearing a bell, I asked the teamster what was the use 
of it, and he said it made them start at one moment and 


continue pulling together; otherwise they could not in- 
stantly know when to stop or when to go on. So do the 
majority of mankind walk as tne leading bell tinkles. 

All civilized nations abjure despotic governments, and the 
more enlightened any people become, the more independent 
in thought and indisposed to servile following. The people 
of America have adopted Independence as their watchword, 
and an instance of the free and independent spirit was 
displayed by the youths of Boston in the times of the 
revolution. Some English soldiers had knocked down the 
snow houses that the boys had carefully erected, and had 
broken the ice in their skating ponds. The boys com- 
plained to the captain , but he only laughed at them. The 
undaunted little fellows, however, knew the difference 
between fair fighting and capricious tyranny; they went 
to the commander and related their grievances with such 
boldness and manly freedom, that the general, far from 
resenting the audacity of the appeal, was heard to say that 
freedom was in the very air of the country, breathed even 
by its boys. Would that the minds of all the English, 
Scotch, Irish, and American people of the present day were 
freed from the bigotry and superstition that makes mere 
imitative sheep of so many. What advancement and 
glorious happiness might all enjoy ! 


" Deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat, and public care." MILTON. 

ALL totally uncivilized nations are characterized by a deep- 
seated aversion to arduous and persevering labour, whether 
mental or physical. A savage people displays scarcely more 
inclination for the steady pursuit of agriculture, or of the 
simple manufactures of which it is capable, than for inven- 
tion and study ; but, as the national mind develops, a taste 
for the physical, and subsequently for the intellectual 
industries begins to display itself, and a dawning civilization 
glimmers upon the race. The further progress of this 
civilization is marked by a growing distaste for purely 
manual toil, which expresses itself in the invention of 
labour-saving machines, by means of which one man does 
the work of ten, or a hundred unaided hands. 

It is the fashion for a certain class of philanthropists to 
decry machinery as prejudicial to the working man; yet 
it is obvious that if, with its assistance, a people, considered 
as a whole, can produce as much by working one hour per 
diem, as they formerly did by working ten, the machinery 
has given them nine leisure hours a-day; and if these 
leisure hours are still employed in other equally productive 
industries, the total produce of the nation will be increased 
tenfold; in other words, there will be just ten times as 
much for it to eat, and drink, and waste, as there was 
before the machinery was introduced. It may be said, 


however that, in point of fact, the labourer is not ten times 
as well supplied as before, the increased national production 
being consumed by the capitalist in luxurious living and pro- 
digal waste. This assertion is not entirely without founda- 
tion. Capitalists, it is not to be denied, do sometimes make 
excessive profits upon the money they have invested in the 
support of labour; yet it is equally true, first, that the 
worst-conditioned labourers are comfortably housed, and 
clothed, and fed, compared with machineless, i.e., savage 
people; and, second, that the principal misfortunes of the 
labouring class arise from their fixed indisposition to that 
mental labour, by means of which it is that capitalists have 
chiefly contrived to accumulate wealth, and thus to better 
their condition. Even in a country where labour is as ill 
paid as in Britain, it is in the power of workmen who 
exercise thrift and foresight, to save enough in ten years 
from their earnings, to engage in some co-operative industry 
These co-operative industries are evidently the salvatior 
of the working man, since, by means of them, he can not 
only enjoy the ordinary profits of the capitalist, but can 
increase those profits by that enthusiasm in production 
which he never experiences except when he is working 
for himself. These and similar considerations have been 
frequently presented to the working class, but they prefer 
to pay enormous dues to the internationals, and to spend 
their lives in hardships and in inflammatory complaints 
against their so-called oppressors, to that mental labour, 
and forbearance in the use of accumulated savings which 
is a necessity with the capitalist. 

It is a very common error with manual labourers tc 
stigmatize those who live by their minds as idlers, unpro- 
ductive consumers, &c.; the fact is, however, that without 
somebody to think, no one would know how to act. Every 
thought, moreover, is the result of some physical force 
expended in its production, and an act of recollection or 


conception is often attended by a greater physical waste, 
than the swinging of a scythe or the raising of a mallet. 
The close dependence of the mind upon the physical health 
shews us the necessity of guarding the latter, if we would 
enjoy intellectual power. Many children, at the very time 
that they are accounted slow and stupid, are developing a 
strength of physical constitution, by the support of which 
they may afterwards attain to eminence. They are like 
those large green apples which, in the early fall, are hard, 
sour, and uninviting, but which, after they have been fully 
mellowed by time, are the most sought and appreciated. 
Natures like these develop slowly by a law of their being, 
which no amount of corporeal punishment or artificial 
stimulations can safely reverse. Like the budding flower, 

*/ O 

they may be bruised and mutilated by improper treatment, 
but they will not unfold their perfect proportions until 
the voice of nature calls from without, and responds from 
within. In spite of this fact, children are constantly urged 
to an unnatural exercise of their nascent powers, which is 
a positive and sometimes fatal injuiy to both mind and 
body. Every one is ready to admit that a calf cannot be 
made an ox by feeding or goading, but must wait the slow, 
maturation of time ; yet the principle which underlies this 
fact is constantly overlooked in the education of children. 

When the precious gold is first brought from the mine, 
it is often less sparkling than mere iron pyrites; but after 
it has been duly refined, polished, and shaped, it will make 
a valuable coin or a magnificent ornament. Education is 
to the young mind a similar polishing process, but much 
of it is to be gained outside the schoolhouse in the 
play-ground, and the broad fields, and in the close obser- 
vation of nature. The greatest and most successful geniuses 
in natural science have been those who were the irost 
diligent observers of natural phenomena. 

The constrained positions which scholars are forced to 


take, and the impure air which they generally breathe, 
often convert the school-houses into veritable slaughter- 


pens, where countless innocents are murdered every year. 
As a rule, country life is most favourable to the mental 
as well as physical well-being of children; for a certain 
amount of solitude and communion witli nature seems to 
be as healthful to the mind as are fresh air and food to 
the body. The life of the crowded town may, by its 
innumerable stimulations, sharpen the mind in certain 
directions, but it also militates against its breadth and 
originality by the accumulated weight of public opinion 
and example. On the other hand, the broad prairies, 
flowing rivers, and majestic or beautiful scenes of the 
country expand the "holy germ," and prepare it for a 
long, noble, and healthful life. 

The white race, being the most advanced in civilization, 
is peculiarly marked by a taste for mental labour. In 
Europe or America, the most ordinary house with its 
furniture is replete with indications of taste and invention, 
as well as of mental toil. The pyramids, on the contrary, 
though their massive structure has preserved them for 
ages, exhibit, in their almost total lack of convenience 
and ornament, a strong preponderance of the physical over 
the intellectual energies in the people who reared them. 

It is a mooted question, which has attracted peculiar 
interest, whether the finest type of physical organization 
may not be the result of uniting the more intellectual 
and nervous races with those comparatively deficient in 
mental power, but with rich physical endowments. Agassiz 
fails to perceive any injurious effects from such a com- 
bination, but certainly the Caucasian and African mis- 
cegenation, which has been practised in America, has not 
resulted in the production of an ideal race. The Mulatto 
is acknowledged to have less physical endurance and 
genei-ative power than either the Negro or the Caucasian, 


and although more clever than the black, is less intel- 
ligent than the white man. 

The signs of an inclination for mental labour are a high 
brain, particularly when joined with small bones and 
feeble muscles; a glistening and animated eye; great 
length of the head in front of the ears; and well-defined 
nasal bones. No man with a low African nose is naturally 
inclined to mental effort. 

The habit of intellectual exertion readily develops an 
inclination for this kind of labour, especially when the 
mind is exercised upon congenial subjects. Aristotle's 
rule, that physics should be studied first, and metaphysics 
afterwards, is a correct guide to the student, because it 
follows the natural development of the taste. Common 
schools are undoubtedly the glory of any land; and yet, 
like all great institutions, however beneficent, they cannot 
be operated with perfect adaptation to every individual. 
That feature of the public education which forces all the 
children to acquire exactly the same amount of science, 
history, and philosophy, while it develops in many minds 
an inclination for study, discourages a taste for it in others, 
by keeping them chiefly employed on uncongenial tasks. 

We are told by the poet that 

" Self-love is not so vile a sin 
As self- neglecting. " 

Let us, then, give to these minds of ours a thorough and 
judicious training, knowing that 

"A soul without reflection, like a pile 
Without inhabitant, to ruin runs." 


" My mind to me a kingdom is, 
Full of rich thoughts." 

ACH of our faculties has its own peculiar enjoyment; thus 
curiosity, which, though sometimes pragmatic and trifling, 
is often useful and sagacious, delights to search out some 
new thing; deductiveness finds happiness in the exercises 
of logic and the excitements of debate; physiovalorosity 
hastens to combat and exults in victoiy; factimemoriative- 
ness is pleased by retaining the knowledge of past ideas 
and events; appetitiveness is pleased with rich and savory 
viands ; amicitiveness is gratified by acts of personal kind- 
ness and the society of those whom the heart holds dear; 
festheticalness is enraptured with impressions of beauty; 
ordinimentality finds its Eden in the systematic arrange- 
ment of thoughts; huntativeness takes delight in the chase; 
and demolitiousness enjoys an Elysium in acts of subver- 
sion, demolition, and slaughter. 

The pleasure which we take in those of our powers 
which are distinguished as mental, in opposition to the 
emotional or physical propensities, is not merely a pleasure, 
it is of inestimable use in stimulating intellectual exertion, 
and it is also the most trustworthy guide in the choice of a 
profession. There are very few cases in which it is not the 


wisest course to follow those occupations which afford us 
the greatest enjoyment, for a mental taste is almost invari- 
ably accompanied by a corresponding talent. 

It is often said that physical enjoyments bring speedy 
satiety, while the pleasures of the mind are " free from 
cloying." The fact is, however, that a kind nature ha& 
affixed enduring satisfactions to the moderate use of the 
physical, as well as the mental powers, and that in the one 
case, as in the other, abnormal and intemperate gratifica- 
tion will occasion impotence and disgust. 

" Much study," said that wise old king, who had 
exhausted the learning of his day, " much study is a 
weariness of the flesh . . . and he who increaseth know- 
ledge, increaseth sorrow." Solomon, like the ennuied 
philosopher who is the hero of Gcethe's most thrilling 
drama, had pushed his investigations to that point that 
his wearied mind grew disgusted with further searching. 
But disgust is not all; softening of the brain, insanity, 
failures of special faculties, like attentiveness and facti- 
memoriativeness, and a great variety of nervous affections, 
are often the result of an undue indulgence in mental 
pleasures. The abuse of any power, physical, emotional, 
or intellectual, is a sin, and, as such, brings its own punish- 
ment. Those who take good care to keep out of that hell 
in this world, which is the retribution of all kinds of 
intemperance, need have no fear of a future perdition. 

But while the excessive use of our mental faculties is a 
frightful evil, their legitimate exercise is the source of some 
of our most elevated enjoyments. The "ample page of 
knowledge, rich with the stores of time," affords exhaustless 
satisfactions to the temperate, yet devoted student. Neither 
love nor ambition ever won a more enthusiastic and heart- 
felt tribute than that which the poet pays to the pleasures 
of Uie mind 

" My inheritance how wide and fair 
Time is my estate to time I 'in heir." 


As the spirit transcends the body, so are the ineffable 
transports of the intellect superior to mere physical plea- 
sures. Imagination lends enchantment to the solitude of 
the ocean strand, and memory crowds the most tranquil 
scenes and the most idle hours with busy recollections of 
the past. 

It is worthy of consideration that intellectual enjoyments 
are cheap, as well as elevated. " The gods sell all things at 
a fair price" nay, there are many things which they offer 
us gratuitously. All that is needed is the mental activity 
to appropriate the food for reflection which they present to 
us on every side. 

That pyriform contour of the face which is given to it by 
its being large at the top and small at the bottom, indicates 
in the possessor a love of intellectual pleasures. When the 
face is about equally broad above and below, the person 
may, by a careful system of education, develop a consider- 
able degree of enjoyment in mental exercises. The man 
who is self- cultivated may be known by his keen and 
sparkling eye, his clear forehead, his closed and rather com- 
pressed lips, and his regular and graceful carriage. 

"Mental pleasures," said Colton, "never cloy; unlike 
those of the body, they are increased by repetition, approved 
of by reflection, and strengthened by enjoyment." Those 
who participate in these supreme satisfactions have the rare 
appetite " which grows with what it feeds on," and theirs 
is the supersensuous music of those " sweet airs which give 
delight and hurt not." 


" He doth bestride the narrow world 
Like a Colossus, and we petty men 
Walk under his huge legs." SHAKESPEARB. 

IN the practical concerns of life, success is oftener the result 
of force of character than of great learning, polished man- 
ners, or moral purity. " I have not learned," said Themis- 
tocles, "to tune the harp or handle the lyre, but I know 
how to make a small and inglorious city both powerful 
and illustrious." There are some men who are the natural 
masters of their race, who, by reason of their quick insight, 
rapid decision, fixed purpose, and energetic will 

"Get the start of the majestic world, 
And hear the palm alone." 

Since such as these are born to govern, it is well foi the 
happiness of mankind that the much larger class, who are 
born to be governed, usually take pleasure in their subor- 
dination. Those who are not gifted with force of character 
find the occupations and responsibilities of the ruler an 
insupportable burden, while service and discipleship give 
them a pleasurable field of activity. The inequalities in 
worldly distinction, which are so often complained of as 
the mere freaks of fortune, are really the result of inequali- 
ties in those characteristics which secure distinction. As 
Cassius has it, 

" The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings. " 


And yet, since the noblest qualities of mind and heart aro 
not always those which achieve success, it may well be 
questioned whether what is called prosperity is not some- 
times purchased at too dear a price. It were better to 
enjoy the respect and esteem of a very small circle, than 
to be the corrupt and corrupting master of half the world. 
Yet, although force of character may be so perverted in 
its using, as to be the agent of dishonour and crime, it is, 
when properly directed, a superior excellence. 

Those persons wno have tine aim symmetrical features, 
though they may possess good sense and amiable feelings, 
are never the foremost men of their time. They may be 
clever, industrious, and friendly, but they are not as the 
foremost men always are formidable opponents; they do 
not make those whom they displease fear to shew their 

Those persons who have large chins, prominent noses, 
and capacious foreheads, together with sound health, and a 
good brain and nerve form, are the truly forceful characters 
who always succeed in cutting their way to fortune. The 
large chin denotes a strong constitution; a prominent nose 
svinces energy; while the expansive brow indicates great 
sensational and cognizant capacities, which can so direct 
the energy as to make it commanding. Those who have 
stirred the world by their burning eloquence, or filled the 
page of history with the recital of their daring deeds, or 
noble acts of humanity, have possessed the chin, nose, and 
forehead above described. Napoleon and Wellington both 
distinguished as the leaders of great armies were strongly 
characterized by these features, and none have occupied 
a larger or more distinguished place in modern history. 
Such men are impressive, and act with a confidence of 
power which gives a mastering fascination to all that they 
say or do. The physiognomical signs of force of character 
do not vary, whether it is displayed in political leadership, 


in commerce, by the successful management of vast estab- 
lishments and the acquisition of enormous wealth, in 
public speaking, literature, or, in short, in any department 
of human life, where individual power can make itself felt. 

The want of impressive force has robbed many an orator 
of the meed of praise, when his discourse was not without 
reason, imagination, and learning. On the other hand, the 
possession of this force gave charm and weight to every 
word which fell from the lips of Chalmers, Brougham, and 
Webster. The writings of Samuel Johnson and John 
Locke are peculiarly distinguished by their vigorous diction; 
and both these men possessed the three signs of force of 
character, which have been given in this chapter. 

JOHN HOWARD PAYNE, the American dramatist, poet, and author of 
that heart-thrilling song entitled " Home Sweet Home." 


HE who has mastered the make-up, or construction }*' t& 
human system, in its adaptations, proportions, and the 
laws by which its various faculties are governed, is pos- 
sessed of the means by which unerring conclusions may 
be formed with reference to the character of any man he 
may chance to meet in the varied walks of life. He knows 
how very intimately body and mind are related, and how 
much the healthy action of the latter depends upon the 
form, construction and development of the former; and 
as the meteorologist discerns the face of the sky, and by 
an induction of observed facts predicts storms, &c. so he 
having mastered human Physiognomy, will rarely fail in 
his conclusions as to the moral idiosyncrasies of the 
members of the human family with whom he comes into 
contact. That this power of character-reading would be 
of immense moment to society, who can doubt? Its 
necessity is illustrated every day in the columns of our 
newspapers. Young men gain the confidence of employers, 
are put into situations of trust, keep their eyes about them, 
and the first opportunity they have of lining their pockets 
with money they have never wrought for, they yield to 
their peculiar desire, possess themselves of the money and 
abscond; and all that the astonished master can say is. 
that he has been deceived. ISow, had ihat master studied 


Physiognomy, had he beeu able to read the signs of the 
human system, he would in that case have been careful 
to see that, so far as lay in his power, no temptation to 
dishonesty came in the young man's way. We do not 
mean to say that young men with tendencies to clepto- 
mania should not be employed, but certainly, not only 
for the benefit of their employers, but for their own good, 
they should be employed in such a way as that their 
besetting temptation shall have no outlet. Indeed, con- 
sidering the increasing number of cases of theft committed 
on the premises of masters by those under them, we make 
bold to say that much good would be gained to society if 
large employers, unacquainted with the signs by which 
human character is known, would pay a Physiognomist 
to examine every new servant employed, and report as to 
the peculiarities of the said servant's character. 

In this essay we have to deal with that important 
element in character called "decision," and the Physiog- 
nomic signs by which it makes itself known. From the 
want of this trait of character springs a great deal of 
human misery. Without it, not very much of a lasting 
character can be accomplished. A wavering man is not 
to be depended upon. Stirred by mere impulse he may 
act well for a time, but discouragement and disappoint- 
ment master him. Wavering is weakness; decision is 
strength. A man bereft of this element of character can 
scarcely look a strong decisive man in the face. Rousseau 
was a genius, and did much by flashes; but though he 
had rare intellectual abilities, when he came into the 
presence of the Scotch philosopher, David Hume, and that 
strong healthy boned searcher for truth calmly and steadily 
looked him in the face, the Frenchman trembled. It was 
the meeting of strength and weakness, a coming togethei 
of decision of character and moral hesitation; and Rousseau, 
who tells the story himself, says that he was so much 


impressed by the immovable Scotchman, and felt so acutely 
the unsteady nature of his own character, that he burst 
out and wept. 

Any man who has travelled much in Great Britain 
must have noticed, so far as decision of character is con- 
cerned, the great disparity between the Scotch and the 
English. The former are cool and ' calculating, strong of 
will and full of purpose; the latter are politic, emotional 
and can be consistently denominated sagacious. Had an 
undecided man been at the head of the British Govern- 
ment in the latter part of 1872, his impulsive nature could 
not have out-lasted the stormy outside agitation for a 
republican form of government, which was causing so 
much disturbance in Britain; but the Scotch Gladstone, 
with the blood of the enduring mountain warrior in his 
veins, able to look through and through the agitation, 
calmly held the reigns of rule, unaffected by the desperate 
cavillings of prejudiced and selfish men. His mind was 
made up. He had purposed to carry the country through 
this agitation, as the wise and steady mariner guides his 
vessel through the storm ; and those who are acquainted 
with his moral courage and decision of character, know 
that it is nearly or quite impossible for him to fail. An 
undecisive person says, "perhaps I may," and fails; the 
decided individual says, "I will," and succeeds. Some 
years ago a young man, belonging to the Scotch border, 
being out of employment, found his way to London. For 
some time after reaching the city he served a coal agent 
for half-a-crown a-day. During that time he was in the 
habit of going out at night and talking with the policemen 
on the streets. "How long have you been on the force?" 
he used to say to them, "Eight, ten, or twelve 3'ears," 
they would reply, just as the case might be. "And are 
you never to be promoted?" he would ask. "Perhaps we 
may and perhaps we may'nt," was the invariable reply 


The young man was struck with this oft recurring answer, 
and walking home to his lodgings one night, he made up 
his mind to join the police force, "and," said he, "once 
that is done, if I am not something more than a common 
police officer at the end of twelve months, I shall be dis- 
appointed." Accordingly he joined the force. Gradually 
his strong, staid, steady, decisive character became known, 
and he was promoted from one office to another, until 
now he stands at the head of his profession, has a princely 
salary, and travels often with the Queen. Ask him how 
he, a mere rustic, managed to push himself up, and he 
will tell you that it was by avoiding the " perhaps," and 
sticking firmly by the " I will" of decision. 

Decision of character has three great principles under- 
lying it. There is first an end to be accomplished ; secondly, 
the obligation to accomplish it; and thirdly, will force to 
carry it out. Demosthenes, having noticed the influence of 
eloquence over his fellow-citizens, determined to be an 
orator, and that determination was developed into action. 
He was a stammerer, and resolved to master this defect, and 
did it. He went to a running brook, and placing a small 
pebble in his mouth, he delivered speeches to the uncon- 
scious banks, modulating his voice to the cadence of the 
rushing stream, and became the first orator of his time. 
Had he endeavoured to do those things without first having 
placed before himself an end, which he felt obligated to 
reach, and which he was conscious he had force enough in 
his will to reach, he would most certainly have failed, as 
many had done before him, and as many have done since 
his day. Csesar determined to become the ruler of the 
Roman Empire, because of a conviction firmly rooted in his 
mind to the effect that there was no other Roman citizen so 
well fitted for it, and he succeeded. He first regaled the 
ears of the Romans with well thought out, cleverly arranged 
speeches, by means of which he became a state-officer; then, 


adapting himself to surrounding circumstances, he rose step 
by step until, from being commander of the Roman army, he 
grasped the Roman crown. Could a man of a wavering 
disposition have done this? Nay. Not only had Caesar an 
end in view, but, considering the tyrannical rule of those in 
authority, he felt in his heart under obligation to pursue 
that end, conscious that there was will force within him 
before which obstacles must give way, and which would 
ultimately place him where it did. Napoleon I. was an 
ambitious man, and strong in his passions, but he had little 
steadiness or decision of character. Here he was weak; and 
not only was this apparent to others, he was conscious of it 
himself ;-and consequently, though elevated by his successes, 
when circumstances of an untoward nature pressed heavily 
upon him, he abdicated his throne and died in exile. 

In the absence of the element of steady, overcoming 
decision, nations totter and fall, society becomes inconstant, 
families are unnecessarily oppressed, and individuals become 
footballs to their fellows. Without it no man can be 
trusted. To it Benjamin Franklin owed his greatness. By 
it, backed by his generals and private soldiers, old Abraham 
Lincoln, of precious memory, gave freedom to the slaves of 
the South. It was this element that conquered at Waterloo 
and made the Duke of Wellington immortal. The king 
who has it not becomes a tool to those beneath him, as 
witness the Georges of England; the subject who has it 
not may be called a swatheling or a proteus, for he is 
mastered by circumstances, and never sails but with the 
current. Analyze the French nation and ask why it was that 
they so signally failed in the late war against Prussia, and 
the only true answer you can get is, that from the throne 
downwards the people were living in their basilar natures, 
were weak of purpose, and had no decision of character 
Difficulties frightened them, disappointment brought dis- 
couragement, and the iron-willed Germans, with well- 



balanced minds, full of moral force and strong decision, 
shook them as a Newfoundland dog might be expected to 
shake a noisy little terrier. 

We have spoken in a general manner of physiognomic 
signs of human character; now, let us ask particularly, 
what is that sign in the human body indicating the capacity 
of strong mental decision within? And here we may 
remark, that to judge the inner man by the outer, is a very 
natural process. There is nothing arbitrary in it. It is 
wholty reasonable. Indeed, there is no other way in which 
we can get to the mind save through the body. Phreno- 
logists have seen this; but many of them blunder in their 
conclusions, because they confine their observations mainly 
to one part of man's organism, viz., the head, assuming, very 
erroneously, that the mind dwells there, and there alone. 
Now, we may as well sit down beside an Alpine mountain 
and expect to gather a perfect knowledge of the God of 
nature from its rocks, avalanches, and ice-covered peaks, as 
expect to read human character through the head alone. 
As the mind is diffused throughout the whole body, just as 
God lives in universal nature, so we must judge of the 
character of the mind, not by one particular part of the 
body only, but by all. As in nature, so in man, there is 
what may be called the law of correspondence. A flabby 
mind will have a flabby body, and, conversely, a flabby 
body will have a flabby mind. A well-constructed, firmly 
built, strong, enduring body may be expected to lodge a 
well-constructed, firmly built, strong, enduring mind. The 
inner acts upon the outer, and the outer upon the inner; 
and though we cannot tell how it is that mind acts 
upon body and body upon mind, nevertheless it is certain 
that just as one substance makes an impression upon 
another, so the mind acting through the body impresses 
the body, leaving marks, so to speak, by which an observant 
mind may not only recognize the fact of its acting, but 


coine to conclusions regarding the character of its acts. 
Starting, then, with this principle, we ask, what is it in the 
body, known to us, which indicates decision of character 
within? And at this point we may notice more particularly 
titan we have done, that decision of character is not simply 
determination, but that power by which determination is 
developed into action, carried out. In other words, decision 
is moral endurance. Now, there cannot be the slightest 
doubt that the capacity of endurance in a body depends 
upon the strength and compactness of its bones; not of one 
bone only, but of all. This need not be argued. So ap- 
parent is it to all, that we have merely to state the fact to 
have it admitted. Find us a man strong and vigorous of 
bone, and we shall shew you a man capable of endurance. 
During the time that the English railways were being made, 
it was remarked by all the contractors that the Scotch 
navvies were so much superior to the English, that two of 
the former could do as much work in the same time as any 
three of the latter, and generally they received higher wages. 
Now, why was this? The reason is not far to seek. The 
English workman who, by food peculiar to himself, makes 
more flesh than bone, has nothing like the enduring power 
of his northern brother, who lives in a land of cakes, and is 
more particular about making bone than flesh. The Eng- 
lishman believes in bulk, but Sandy believes in compact- 
ness. Now, according to the law of correspondence to 
which we have referred, capacity of endurance in the body 
is a sign of capacity of endurance in the mind or soul ; and 
as the body's capacity of endurance is dependent upon the 
strength, vigour, and compactness of its bones, so we are 
bound to come to the conclusion that well-formed, enduring 
bones in a man are signs to us that he has the capacity, 
not only of determination to act in a particular cause, but 
also that he carries within him the power of carrying out 
his determinations that is to say, he possesses decision of 


character. (Foi farther explanation in regard to the Signs 
of Decisiveness, the reader is referred to pige 141 m my 
New Physiognomical Chart of Character.} A man of stable 
bone is generally a man of stable character. He who makes 
bone early, lays the foundation of an honest, manly life. 
He who neglects this, will, generally speaking, become 
vacillating, and perchance may, in a snailish or imper- 
ceptible manner, merge into a harlequin. This is no mere 
theory without foundation in fact. He has read history 
backward who is not convinced of it, and cannot be called 
an observant man. Wellington, of whom we have already 
spoken, was not so large as many men, but his bones were 
of a large and more firm and enduring character, in propor- 
tion to his general bulk, than were those of Napoleon I., 
and, in consequence of this, he was more stable and reliable 
in his character than the ambitious, versatile Frenchman. 
Strong-boned people, though they may sometimes move 
slowly, always move surely, decide quickly, but are tardy 
in revealing their decisions, and even when " perhaps" slips 
from their tongues, the mind is saying, "I will," or "I won't." 
General Andrew Jackson had, perhaps, one of the most 
angular faces in America, and no man was ever firmer or 
more decided than he was. His solid parts preponderated 
over the softer; hence that solid, reliable, decided, and 
honest character for which he was so widely known and 
noted. Of course, there are exceptions to every rule, but 
generally you will find that the bones of a thief are of a 
very unenduring character. He excels in softness of con- 
struction; hence, when tempted, he is easily led astray. 
We once had an opportunity of studying the character of 
a thief. In the heart of this man there were desires for 
reformation, but as often as he resolved to be honest, so 
often did he violate his resolutions and fall. He seemed to 
have lost all power over himself, if ever he had any, so that 
theft had become his master. The smallness of his bones 


in proportion to the general size of his body, was as plainly 
marked as it possibly could be ; and well do we remember 
feeling that, if that young man had been taught in his 
earlier years to look after solidity of body and brain form, 
instead of robbing society, he might, \>y a staid, solid mind, 
resolute, honest purpose, and searching, intellectual power, 
have made society his debtor, instead of being a weak, 
unstable, wavering wave of the great human sea, tossed 
about by every wind that blew around him. Wherever, 
then, you find men of weak, undeveloped, uncompacted 
bones, do not be astonished if they are inconsistent in affec- 
tion, fickle in business transactions, changeable in their 
purposes, without moral stamina, and freakish and unwise 
in their judgments. The foundation they have laid, or which 
has been laid for them.does not possess endurance and capacity 
for holding out. What, then, must the structure be ? What 
is it that gives stability and physical purpose and endur- 
ance to the mountain, but the hard, solid rock within; and 
from what, in man, may we infer decision of character, and 
power to hold out in honesty, straightforwardness, and 
manliness of life, if not from a preponderance of hard, solid, 
earthy, osseous matter in his organization. 

It must not be inferred from what we have said that 
big men are necessarily honest, and small men necessarily 
thieves. Men of large bulk are often very small boned, and 
small men are often the reverse. But what we assert is 
this, that, generally speaking, so general, indeed, as almost 
to amount to a law, it will be found that men, whatever be 
their general bulk, who have in their systems a preponder- 
ance of good, solid, osseous matter, are men who are large 
in the capacity of moral endurance, men to be trusted; 
men who, if other qualifications are present, are fitted for 
high, responsible situations ; while, on the other hand, men 
who are wanting in osseous matter, in whose systems soft, 
flabby substance preponderates, are men without moral 


stamina, quite unstable, and altogether deficient in decision 
of character. That which would tempt the latter, and cause 
a fire in their lower nature, has little or no effect upon the 
former. It does not always thunder when it lightens; nor 
does it always rain when dark portentous clouds fill the 
sky. It is the soft elements in nature that deceive ; and so 
is it among men. The hard, bony hand of the well matured 
mechanic rarely pilfers. Like others of a softer make, he 
may be tempted, but before him is a high aim in life, to 
pursue which he feels under obligation, and for the accom- 
plishment of which he is conscious of possessing sufficient 
will-power; and bringing that power to bear upon the 
temptation, he decides against it at once, his whole moral 
nature thundering " No." And in every victory he 
gains fresh strength. It is the soft, small boned street- 
loafer out of which cut-pursers, foot-pads, pickpockets, 
housebreakers, shoplifters, and all the rest of the light- 
fingered gentry are made. Healthy work they have never 
enjoyed and idleness is the mother of vice. The man who 
does not work, especially when young, cannot be expected 
to be very strong-boned, and in consequence cannot be 
expected to be very particular in his morals. He may have 
a certain amount of polish in him, but like the soft-faced, 
sleek, polite Dr. Pritchard, of Glasgow, he would deprive a 
very near relation of life, if money sould be made out of 
such sacrifice of a friend. 

What a lesson we have here for parents! How often 
they neglect the bodies of their children, setting them to 
mental work before their minds have room to act. " Make 
body, my son, make body " was the advice given by Dr. 
Lyman Beechcr, to his son, Henry Ward. The son took the 
father's advice. He spent much of the time during his early 
years in gardening, &c., and where will you find a stronger 
boned, more plucky, determined man in the wide, wide 
world, than the minister of Plymouth Church? Industry 


is the father of honesty, honour, and incorruptibility of 
character, because it develops and matures that part of 
the human system which is intended for hard, enduring 
action, firm, solid, well-compacted bone. 

John Locke once said, that to have a sound mind in a 
sound body was the highest state of happiness conceivable. 
The old philosopher was right. But how is the sound mind 
to be got without the sound body? We do not mean to 
say that a man with a weak, unhealthy body is necessarily 
a bad man; but so far as we know, very few people would 
care about electing such to high offices, whether of 
Church or State. As a general rule, they have no con- 
fidence in themselves, and dare not take upon them heavy 
responsibilities. They are lacking in enduring bone, and 
consequently are lacking in moral decision and purpose, 
Demosthenes being asked what was the chief part of an 
orator, replied, "Action;" and what next? "Action;" and 
next? " Action." If you ask us how to make bone in your 
body, we give the Athenian's reply, " Action, action, action;" 
and if you ask how to secure decision of character, we have 
the same answer to give, Work, work, work; and in doing 
so you are laying for yourself the groundwork of a noble 
character. Whereas if you are idle, you are losing in bone- 
power and firm endurance, which, transmitted inwards to 
the mind, results in indecision, moral delinquency, incon- 
stancy of form, and an utter unfitness for any of those 
callings which require men with noble enduring purpose 
of soul. In the language of Shakespeare 

" Do not for one repulse forego the purpose 
That you resolved to effect; 
Be stirring as the time; be fire with fire; 
Threaten the threatener, and outface the brow 
Of bragging horror; so shall inferior eyes 
That b'row their behaviours from the great 
Grow great by your example, and put on 
The dauntless spirit of resolution." 


" Yoi have that in your countenance -which I would fain call master." 


HUMILITY may be exercised toward God and toward man. 
In the former case it is a wise recognition of the true 
relations between the Creator and his creatures; but in 
the latter, it indicates a want of that true dignity which 
is based upon the brotherhood of the race. On this world's 
stage, where " all the men and women are merely players," 
acting in that character to which they have been appointed 
by the Great Manager of all, social humility is as out of 
place as social pride. Every true actor on the stage of 
life, like every genuine artist on the dramatic boards, 
plays well his role, whether it be that of a king or peasant, 
knowing this, that the peasant may be as necessary to the 
plot as the king, and that it is the acting which elevates 
or degrades the part. 

It would appear at first sight that humility involving, 
as it does, meekness, submission, and self-abasement would 
be a state of mind from which all men would recoil, and 
to which they would only be reduced by the force of the 
most depr